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					Name:                                                                        Honors Kinesiology

Period:

Unit 1/Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (p. 1-73)

OBJECTIVES

1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example
   of a human structure with its corresponding function.

2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the
   relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level.

Write an introductory sentence that lists the levels from least to most complex.
Starting with the least complex level, complete the following:
    name the level
    define the term
    provide an example
    discuss how the next level is achieved.

3. Name and define the ten life processes that distinguish living from non-living things.

4. Specify the five environmental needs required for life.

5. Define the term homeostasis, and name the manner in which homeostatic mechanisms are
   regulated. Then provide an example of a homeostatic mechanism in humans, and explain it
   fully, by providing a diagram followed by a complete essay explanation.

6. Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human
   diagram.

7. Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle.

8. Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes, and differentiate between
   pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal varieties.

9. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and
   give a general function for each system.

10. Demonstrate what is meant by "anatomical position".

11. Define various directional terms (i.e. superior, inferior, etc.), and compare different body
    parts using these terms (i.e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist).



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12. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i.e. orbital, inguinal, etc.).

13. Name the three major body sections (planes, cuts), and describe how each would be
    accomplished.

14. Describe the nine regions of the abdominal area and the four quadrants of the abdominal
    area and list the major organs found within each.

15. Explain and differentiate between the medical and applied science fields.



1. Understanding Words (p. 1): define, give an example and explain the following terms:

   1.1. append-

   1.2. cardi-

   1.3. cerebr-

   1.4. cran-

   1.5. dors-

   1.6. homeo-

   1.7. -logy -

   1.8. meta-

   1.9. nas-

   1.10.          orb-

   1.11.          pariet-

   1.12.          pelv-

   1.13.          peri-

   1.14.          pleur-

   1.15.          -stasis -

   1.16.          super-

   1.17.          -tomy -




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2. Explain anatomy vs. physiology (p. 4):


3. How does structure relate to function? (p. 4)


4. Levels of Organization (p. 4-5, Fig 1.3 = graphic). List and describe of the 10 levels:

   4.1.

   4.2.

   4.3.

   4.4.

   4.5.

   4.6.

   4.7.

   4.8.

   4.9.

   4.10.


*Table 1.2 (p. 8) = organ systems table (familiarize yourself with this table)


5. Characteristics of Life (p. 6-7, Table 1.3 on p. 8) List and give examples for each of the 10
   characteristics of life:

   5.1.

   5.2.

   5.3.

   5.4.

   5.5.

   5.6.

   5.7.



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   5.8.

   5.9.

   5.10.

6. Maintenance of Life (p. 7-12)
   6.1. Requirements of Organisms (p. 8-9, Table 1.4 on p. 9)
       6.1.1. List the 5 factors and summarize their uses:
           6.1.1.1.


            6.1.1.2.


            6.1.1.3.


            6.1.1.4.


           6.1.1.5.
   6.2. Homeostasis (p. 9-12)
       6.2.1. humans consist of roughly 70 trillion cells
       6.2.2. internal vs. external environment: Sketch-out Fig 1.5 on p. 10:




       6.2.3. extracellular fluid (outside of cells)
       6.2.4. three main components (Fig 1.6 = homeostatic mechanism loop). Explain each:
           6.2.4.1.  receptors –


            6.2.4.2.   control center –


            6.2.4.3.   effectors –


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      6.2.5. negative feedback: Sketch Fig 1.7 (home thermostat)




      6.2.6. negative feedback: Sketch Fig 1.8 (body temperature)




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      6.2.7. Explain each example:
          6.2.7.1.  furnace/air conditioner (p. 10)




            6.2.7.2.   body temperature (p. 10)




            6.2.7.3.   BP maintenance (p. 11)




            6.2.7.4.   blood glucose (p. 12)




      6.2.8. positive feedback (p. 12). Explain each:

            6.2.8.1.   blood clotting



            6.2.8.2.   uterine contractions




      6.2.9. normal range (p. 12). Explain:




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7. Organization of Human Body (p. 12-21)
   7.1. Body cavities (p. 12):
       7.1.1. Sketch Fig 1.9a (lateral view):




       7.1.2. Sketch Fig 1.9b (anterior view)




       7.1.3.   Describe the following cavities/terms:

            7.1.3.1.   axial

            7.1.3.2.   Appendicular

            7.1.3.3.   cranial cavity

            7.1.3.4.   oral cavity

            7.1.3.5.   nasal cavity

            7.1.3.6.   orbital cavity

            7.1.3.7.   middle ear cavity

            7.1.3.8.   vertebral/spinal canal

            7.1.3.9.   thoracic cavity

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            7.1.3.10.   abdominal cavity

            7.1.3.11.   pelvic cavity

            7.1.3.12.   abdominopelvic cavity

            7.1.3.13.   viscera (organs)

            7.1.3.14.   diaphragm

            7.1.3.15.   mediastinum

            7.1.3.16.   (R)ight and (L)eft pleural cavities


   7.2. Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes (p. 14, Fig 1.11 = transverse thorax and
        1.12 = transverse abdomen). Describe each structure/term

      7.2.1. serous membranes

      7.2.2. pleural membranes

      7.2.3. parietal pleura

      7.2.4. visceral pleura

      7.2.5. pleural cavity

      7.2.6. pericardial membranes

      7.2.7. visceral pericardium

      7.2.8. parietal pericardium

      7.2.9. pericardial cavity

      7.2.10. peritoneal membranes

      7.2.11. visceral peritoneum

      7.2.12. parietal peritoneum

      7.2.13. peritoneal cavity



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   7.3. Organ Systems (p. 15-20, Fig 1.19 on p. 20). List the 11 organ systems, name the
        major organs in each system and give a general function for each system:

       7.3.1.


       7.3.2.


       7.3.3.


       7.3.4.


       7.3.5.


       7.3.6.


       7.3.7.


       7.3.8.


       7.3.9.


       7.3.10.


       7.3.11.


8. Anatomical Terminology (p. 21-25)
   8.1. Relative position (p. 21). Describe/define each term and give an example of how
        each would be used in a sentence:
       8.1.1. superior -

       8.1.2. inferior -

       8.1.3. anterior –

       8.1.4. posterior –

       8.1.5. medial –

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      8.1.6. lateral –

      8.1.7. ipsilateral –

      8.1.8. contralateral –

      8.1.9. proximal –

      8.1.10. distal –

      8.1.11. superficial –

      8.1.12. peripheral –

      8.1.13. deep –

   8.2. Body Sections (p. 21-22, Fig 1.21 = 3 planes). Describe each of the 3 planes:

      8.2.1. sagittal –


      8.2.2. transverse –


      8.2.3. coronal –


   8.3. cylindrical organs: Sketch and label Fig 1.22 on p. 23 (cross section, oblique and
        longitudinal)




   8.4. Body Regions (p. 23-25)
       8.4.1. abdominal tic tac toe: Sketch Fig 1.23a on p. 23:




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      8.4.2. Explain the following terms/regions:
               8.4.2.1.1. epigastric –

                8.4.2.1.2.   hypochondriac (right and left) –

                8.4.2.1.3.   umbilical -

                8.4.2.1.4.   lumbar (right and left) –

                8.4.2.1.5.   hypogastric –

                8.4.2.1.6.   iliac/inguinal (right and left) –

      8.4.3. Familiarize yourselves with the abdominal quadrants (Fig 1.23b). This is simply
           another method of dividing-up the abdominal cavity :
                8.4.3.1.1. right upper quadrant (RUQ)
                8.4.3.1.2. right lower quadrant (RLQ)
                8.4.3.1.3. left upper quadrant (LUQ)
                8.4.3.1.4. right lower quadrant (LLQ)



      8.4.4. full body regions: Sketch Fig. 1.24a,b on p. 24:




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   8.5. Define the following body regions:

      8.5.1. abdominal

      8.5.2. acromial

      8.5.3. antebrachial

      8.5.4. antecubital

      8.5.5. axillary

      8.5.6. brachial

      8.5.7. buccal

      8.5.8. carpal

      8.5.9. celiac

      8.5.10. cephalic

      8.5.11. cervical

      8.5.12. costal

      8.5.13. coxal

      8.5.14. crural

      8.5.15. cubital

      8.5.16. digital

      8.5.17. dorsum

      8.5.18. femoral

      8.5.19. frontal

      8.5.20. genital

      8.5.21. gluteal

      8.5.22. inguinal

      8.5.23. lumbar

      8.5.24. mammary

      8.5.25. mental

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       8.5.26. nasal

       8.5.27. occipital

       8.5.28. oral

       8.5.29. orbital

       8.5.30. otic

       8.5.31. palmar

       8.5.32. patellar

       8.5.33. pectoral

       8.5.34. pedal

       8.5.35. pelvic

       8.5.36. perineal

       8.5.37. plantar

       8.5.38. popliteal

       8.5.39. sacral

       8.5.40. sternal

       8.5.41. sural

       8.5.42. tarsal

       8.5.43. umbilical

       8.5.44. vertebral

9. Medical and Applied Sciences (p. 25). Explain each of the following fields:
   9.1. cardiology

   9.2. dermatology

   9.3. endocrinology

   9.4. epidemiology

   9.5. gastroenterology


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   9.6. geriatrics

   9.7. gerontology

   9.8. gynecology

   9.9. hematology

   9.10.       histology

   9.11.       immunology

   9.12.       neonatology

   9.13.       nephrology

   9.14.       neurology

   9.15.       obstetrics

   9.16.       oncology

   9.17.       ophthalomology

   9.18.       orthopedics

   9.19.       otolaryngology

   9.20.       pathology

   9.21.       pediatrics

   9.22.       pharmacology

   9.23.       podiatry

   9.24.       psychiatry

   9.25.       radiology

   9.26.       toxicology

   9.27.       urology



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