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Sports and the Media (PowerPoint)

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					   Sports and the Media


                          Adapted from:

Coakley, J. (2004). Sports in society: Issues and controversies (8th
 ed.). McGraw Hill: New York. (Chapter 12: Sports and the media:
              Could they survive without each other?)

 Eitzen, D. S., & Sage, G. H. (2003). Sociology of North American
sport (7th ed.). McGraw Hill: New York. (Chapter 11: Sport and the
                           mass media)
        Characteristics and Roles
              of the Media
• Mass media: “all technically organized
  means of communication that reach large
  numbers of diverse people quickly and
  efficiently”
        • Eitzen & Sage, 2003, p. 237
• Types of mass media:
    – Print
    – Electronic

Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
        Characteristics and Roles
              of the Media
• Roles of the mass media:
    – Explicit roles
        • Communication
        • Entertainment
    – Subtle roles
        • Social integration
        • Social change




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Sports depend on the media
    – Commercial aspect of sport
        • Popularity of revenue generating sports
        • Relationships between owners and media

        • Special influence of television




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
  Linkages between Sport and the
           Mass Media
         Annual Media Rights of Professional Sports

Sport                 1986        1996   2005   % of Top

NFL                   400         1100   2200     ---
MLB                   183          420    558     25
NBA                    30          275    787     36
NHL                    22           77    120       5
NASCAR                  3          N/A    412     19
Figures in millions of dollars.
Data not inflation-adjusted.



Coakley, 2004
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
      US Broadcast Rights for Summer Olympics
                                                   894
       900
                                            705
       700

       500

       300
                   0.4                 87
       100
                  1960            1980      2000   2008

          *** In millions of dollars


Coakley, 2004
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Sports depend on the media
    – Have commercial sports sold out to the
      media?
        • Reliance on television for revenues
        • Changes to the sports as a result of the media:
            –   Schedules and starting times
            –   Length of halftime periods
            –   Television timeouts
            –   Expansion and formation of leagues



Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Sports depend on the media
    – Have commercial sports sold out to the
      media?
        • Intercollegiate sports
        • High school sports




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Sports depend on the media
    – Have the media corrupted sports? Two things
      to remember:
        • Sports have not been shaped by the media in
          general or television in particular
        • The media, including television, do not operate in a
          political and economic vacuum.




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Media depend on sports
    – There is much more to the mass media than
      just sports, but there is some dependence
        •   Movies
        •   Magazines
        •   Books
        •   Radio




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Media depend on sports
    – The media most dependent upon sports
      include newspapers and television
        • Newspapers
            – Prominence of sports pages for:
                » Selling the paper
                » Advertisements
            – Does the internet cut into this?




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
• Media depend on sports
    – The media most dependent upon sports
      include newspapers and television
        • Television
            –   Importance and prominence of sports programming
            –   Creation of sports specifically for television
            –   Creation of television networks devoted to sports
            –   Importance of sponsors




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
 Linkages between Sport and the
          Mass Media
     Top 10 Network telecasts between 1961-2002
Program                  Date       Ave. US Audience

1. M*A*S*H (special)    2/28/83           50.2
2. Winter Olympics      2/23/94           45.7
3. Super Bowl XXX       1/28/96           44.2
4. Super Bowl XXXII     1/25/98           43.6
5. Super Bowl XXXIV     1/30/00           43.6
6. Super Bowl XXVIII    1/30/94           42.9
7. Super Bowl XXXVI     2/03/02           42.6
8. Cheers               1/20/93           42.4
9. Super Bowl XXXI      1/26/97           42.0
10. Super Bowl XXVII    1/31/93           42.0


Coakley, 2004
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Is what we see actually what takes place?
        •   Sport as an entertainment spectacle
        •   Sportscasters’ interventions
        •   “Reality” of sport is socially constructed
        •   Examples
             – Football telecasts
             – 1996 Olympics




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Differences in the presentation of sports
      between newspapers/magazines and
      radio/television
        •   Emphasis
        •   Present versus past events
        •   Bases of success
        •   Highlights
        •   Disposition toward sports and sport personalities

Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Themes underlying media images and
      narratives
        • Success themes
            – Emphasis on assertiveness, authority and so forth
            – Over-emphasis on rivalries and competition




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Themes underlying media images and
      narratives
        • Masculinity and femininity themes
            –   Differences in the coverage of men’s and women’s sport
            –   Gender images and representation of women
            –   Erasing homosexuality
            –   Gendered media organizations




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Themes underlying media images and
      narratives
        • Race and ethnicity themes
            – “poor boy makes good”
            – Images of “angry, violent” Black men
            – Ethnicity and nationality




Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
         Images and Narratives in
              Media Sports
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Themes underlying media images and
      narratives
        • Other ideological themes in media sports
            –   Nationalism
            –   Individualism
            –   Teamwork
            –   Aggression
            –   Consumerism



Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003
                          Summary
• Importance of the media in everyday life
• Relationship between sport and the media
    – Sports’ reliance on the media
    – The media’s reliance on sport
• Sport as a mediated event
    – Social construction
    – Prominent themes


Coakley, 2004; Eitzen & Sage, 2003

				
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