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					INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN KERALA




     Dr S IRUDAYA RAJAN
        Chair Professor
          CDS, Kerala
• Total Population of Kerala: 31 million
• Until 1956 (Kerala came into existence
  from 1st November 1956), Kerala was
  an in-migrating state
• From 1961, Kerala is an out-migrating
  state, even today
• Kerala is ahead of India in terms of
  fertility, infant mortality and literacy
• As Keralites were ahead of literacy than other
  parts of the country, most of the literates
  migrated to other parts of India where there is a
  demand of educated (teachers, nurses,
  accountants and other services)
• As long as, they were accustomed to mobility
  within India, when the oil boom begun in Gulf,
  they were the first to emigrate to Gulf.
• In India, we have good statistics on inter-state
  migration based on census and the data on
  international migration is only a guesstimate.
• To study the Impact on International
  migration on Kerala’s economy and
  society, we have undertaken three major
  surveys in Kerala
• Kerala Migration Survey, 1998 (10000
  households)
• Kerala Migration Survey, 2003 (10000)
• Kerala Migration Survey, 2007 (Progress)
• Kerala Migration Survey, 2008 (Proposed)
 Kerala Migration Survey 2003
• Number of emigrants (EMI)
• 1999 13.6 lakhs
• 2004 18.4 lakhs
Number of return emigrants (REM)
• 1999 7.4 Lakhs
• 2004 8.9 lakhs
• No of NRK: 27.3 lakhs
                      Migration Trend, 1982-2003

3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
 500000
      0
     82

           84

                 86

                       88

                             90

                                   92

                                         94

                                               96

                                                     98

                                                           00

                                                                 02
    19

          19

                19

                      19

                            19

                                  19

                                        19

                                              19

                                                    19

                                                          20

                                                                20
                      EMI          REM              NRK
 Kerala Migration Survey, 2003
• % of households with/without migrants
             With          Without
         Emigrants         Emigrants

• EMI        17.6          82.4
• REM        11.2          88.8
• NRK        25.8          74.2
    Kerala Migration Survey, 2003
    % of female emigrants: 17
•   Malappuram                271,787
•   Kannur                    202,414
•   Thrissur                  178,867
•   Palakkad                  177,876
•   Thiruvananthapuram        168,046
•   Kozhikode                 167,436
                              Migrants Per 100 Households by Community


          Muslim

              CSI

       Marthoma

Jacobite/Orthodox

   Latin Catholics
                                                                                         NRK/hh
 Roman Catholics                                                                         Rem/hh
                                                                                         Emi/HH
    Other Hindus

        Brahamin

         Ezhawa

             Nair

           SCST


                 0.0   20.0        40.0         60.0         80.0        100.0   120.0
             Population of Kerala and Emigration by Religion 2004



                                                                Muslims
               100
Percentage




                80

                60                                              Christians

                40

                20                                              Hindus

                 0
                       Population        Emigrants
                           Migrants per 100 Households
             90
             80
             70
                                                                   Emi
Percentage




             60
             50                                                    Rem
             40
             30                                                    Nrk

             20
             10
             0
                  Hindus             Christians          Muslims
                                                 P e rc e n t In c re as e in M ig ra tion , 1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 4


                             7 0.0


                             6 0.0


                             5 0.0
P e r ce n t In c re a s e




                             4 0.0                                                                                           Emi
                                                                                                                             Rem
                             3 0.0                                                                                           N rk


                             2 0.0


                             1 0.0


                              0.0

                                     H in d us                           C h ristia ns                          M u slim s
                     Perent of Households with at least one NRK, 2004

                     SCST

                 Brahmins

             Other Hindus

            Roman Catholic

                   Ezhawa
Community




                      Nair

                       CSI

                       IPC

Orthodox/Jacobite

             Latin Catholic

                Marthoma

                  Muslims


                              0.0   10.0   20.0    30.0     40.0   50.0   60.0

                                                  Percent
    Kerala Migration Survey, 2003
• Where do Malayalis go?
                               Percent
•   United Arab Emirates       37
•   Saudi Arabia               27
•   Gulf countries             89
•   United States of America   5
•   United Kingdom             1
•   Singapore                  1
       Worker’s Remittances

                     Rupees (In crores), 2003
•   India (No 1 in the world)       82350
•   Kerala (total remittances)      18465
•   % of Kerala to total            22.4
•   25% of the state domestic product
                               Remittances in Crores

20000
18000
16000
14000
12000
10000
 8000
 6000
 4000
 2000
    0
        1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
        Worker’s Remittances
•   Macro Economic Impact
•   Remittances: 18465 crores
•   Population in 2004: 32.5 million
•   Each one gets Rs. 5678 per year or
•   Rs 473 per month
•   Sufficient to buy at least 1 kg of rice per
    day per person
     Worker’s Remittances
• Importance of Remittances
• Remittances were 1.74 times the revenue
  receipts of the government
• 1.8 times than the Government of Kerala
  expenditure
• 7 times what Kerala receives from the
  central government
     Worker’s Remittances
• Importance of Remittances
• 60% of Kerala government’s debt can be
  wiped out by remittances
• 15 times more than the export earning of
  the cashew products
• 18 times more than the export earnings of
  the marine products
                      Percent of Households Directly Beniftted From Remittances
                 40
                 35
                 30
Percent of Hhs




                 25
                 20
                 15
                 10
                  5
                  0
                             Hindus               Christians             Muslims
                  Percent of houses that are luxurious
                     or very good By Community

             35

             30

             25
Percentage




             20

             15

             10

              5

              0
                  Hindus             Christians          Muslims
             E x p e n d itu re o n E d u c a tio n P e r H o u s e h o ld ,
                   b y M ig ra tio n S ta tu s a n d R e lig io n
         16000
                                                                           H in d u s
         14000

         12000

         10000                                                             C h ristian s
Rupees




          8000

          6000                                                             M u slim s

          4000

          2000

             0
                       A ll             NRK            N o n-N R K
                 Expenditure per Household on Health, by
                     Religion and Migration Status
         14000

                                                           Hindus
         12000

         10000
                                                           Christians
Rupees




          8000
                                                           Muslims
          6000

          4000

          2000

             0
                       All          NRK         Non-NRK
       Labour Market Issues
• Stagnation in agriculture (workers are not
  willing to work in agriculture)
• Increase in wages (about Rs. 200) in
  Kerala as against Rs.50 in Bihar
• Unemployment is very high (after
  deducting for internal and international
  migration
                              Unemployed Rate by Education 2004

             Degree

          Secondary

Secondary Incomplete

            Primary

  Primary Incomplete

             Literate

             Illiterate

                          0       5     10    15   20     25      30   35   40   45
     Migration and Development
•   Positive effects
•   Reduction in Poverty
•   Reduction in unemployment
•   Other effects
•   Conflict between new rich and old rich
•   Increase in income equality and conflicts
•   Replacement Migration

				
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posted:10/20/2011
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