GIS in Water Resource Consortium

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					       Arc Hydro: GIS for Water Resources
       David R. Maidment, University of Texas at Austin

• Arc Hydro
   –   Hydronetwork
   –   Drainage systems
   –   Channels
   –   Time Series
   –   Modeling
   –   Hydrologic integration

The Arc Hydro data model and
application tools are in the public
domain
 CRWR
CRWR         GIS in Water Resources
                   Consortium



                                 Water
                     GIS
                                Resources

        Bringing together these two communities by using a
                   common geospatial data model
   Arc Hydro design took 3 years from 1999 - 2002
Hydrologic Information System



              Analysis, Modeling,
               Decision Making




Arc Hydro
Geodatabase
       Geographic Data Model
• Conceptual Model – a set of concepts that describe
  a subject and allow reasoning about it
• Mathematical Model – a conceptual model
  expressed in equations
• Data Model – a conceptual model expressed in a
  data structure
• Geographic Data Model – a data model for
  describing and reasoning about the world
          What is Arc Hydro?
• A geographic data model for storing
  geospatial and temporal water resources
  data in ArcGIS
  – A set of hydro objects built on top of
    ArcObjects
  – A set of standardized attributes
  – A vocabulary for describing data (glossary)
  – A toolset for implementing the data model
           Arc Hydro Data Model



Drainage System     Hydro Network    Flow




                                                     Time

                                       Time Series




Hydrography         Channel System
 ArcGIS Hydro Data Model

Hydrography    Hydrology
Streams

Drainage Areas        Data Model
                        Based on
Hydrography
                       Inventory
Channels

Terrain Surfaces

Rainfall Response


Digital Orthophotos
   Data Model Based on Behavior
Follow a drop of water from where it falls on the
land, to the stream, and all the way to the ocean.
Integrating Data Inventory using
      a Behavioral Model
                 Relationships between
                 objects linked by tracing path
                 of water movement
      Arc Hydro Framework Input Data

            Watersheds   Waterbody




Streams


                             Monitoring Points
                                                                                                                                                                   Feature
        Arc Hydro Framework
                                                                                                                                            HydroPoint            Waterbody                     Watershed

                                                                                                                                            HydroID              HydroID                        HydroID
                                                                                                                                            HydroCode            HydroCode                      HydroCode
                                                                                                                                                         *       FType
                                                                                                                                            FType                                               DrainID
                                                                                                                                            Name                 Name                           AreaSqKm
                                                                                                                                            JunctionID           AreaSqKm                       JunctionID
                                                                                                                                                                 JunctionID                     NextDownID
                                                         !
                                                         (
                                                                  !
                                                                  (
                                                                           !
                                                                                                                           !
                                                                                                                           (                                         *                                *
!
(                              ! !!
                               ( ((                                        (
         ! !
         ( (                           ! !
                                       ( (                                                            !
                                                                                                      (                                 ComplexEdgeFeature                  SimpleJunctionFeature
    !
    (    ! !
         ( (       !
                   (                                 !
                                                     (                                                            !!
                                                                                                                  ((                !
                                                                                                                                    (

          ! !
          ( (                                                                                             !
                                                                                                          (
                           !
                           (                                                            !
                                                                                        (     !
                                                                                              (               !
                                                                                                              (
                       !
                       (                                                                !
                                                                                        (                                                   HydroEdge
                                                                                                  !
               !
               (
                                   !
                                   (
                                       !
                                       (                      !
                                                              (
                                                                                                  (
                                                                                                                  !
                                                                                                                  (                                                             HydroJunction
                               !
                               (             ! !
                                             ((                                                                                           HydroID                           1                     1
                                                                                                                      !
                                                                                                                      (
                                                                                                                                          HydroCode                             HydroID
                   !
                   (        !                            !
                                                         (
                           !
                           (
                            (
                                                 !
                                                 (
                                                                      !!
                                                                      ((                !
                                                                                        (
                                                                                             !
                                                                                             (            !
                                                                                                          (                               ReachCode                             HydroCode
                                                                                                                            !
                                                                                                                            (
                                             !
                                             (                                 !!
                                                                               ((             !
                                                                                              (                                           Name                                  NextDownID
                                                                                                                           !
                                                                                                                           (
                                                         !!
                                                         ((                                                                     !
                                                                                                                                (         LengthKm                              LengthDown
                                                 !                                          !!
                                                                                            (         !
                                                                                                      (                                                      HydroNetwork
                                                 (
                                                              !
                                                              (            !
                                                                           (        !
                                                                                    (
                                                                                             (!
                                                                                              (           (!
                                                                                                          !(                !
                                                                                                                            (             LengthDown                            DrainArea
                                                                                                  !
                                                                                                  (                                       FlowDir                               FType
                                                                                                                       !
                                                                                                                       (                  FType                                 Enabled
                                                                                                                                          EdgeType                              AncillaryRole
                                                                                                                                          Enabled

                                                                                                                                             EdgeType
                                                                                                                                             Flowline

                                                                                                                                             Shoreline
      National Hydro Data Programs
        http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/giswr/nhdconf/nationalhydro.html
 National Elevation Dataset           National Hydrography Dataset
           (NED)                                 (NHD)




  Elevation Derivatives for            Watershed Boundary Dataset
National Application (EDNA)
Arc Hydro Framework Dataset
for the Guadalupe Basin
 HydroNetwork through Canyon Lake




Flowlines through water body


      Generic Junction
      (for topological
      connection of edges)
          Network Tracing




Upstream Tracing     Downstream Tracing
HydroJunction has Waterbody Relationship
 Watersheds of the Guadalupe Basin

 Guadalupe            NWS forecast
 HydroNetwork         Watersheds
                      (flooding)




TNRCC water           EPA TMDL
availability points   Segments
(water supply)        (water quality)
Scales of representation of Drainage Systems
                    Basins – drainage areas for water
                    resources management

                        Watersheds – subdivision of Basin
                        for a particular hydrologic purpose

                            Catchments – subdivision of
                            Basin into elementary drainage
                            areas by physical rules




                       Digital Elevation Model –
                       land surface terrain grid cells
Channel Cross-Section
            Direction of Flow




  Channel

                                Cross-Section
Channel ProfileLines
Guadalupe Network


       Study area only
       1.4 km!
Study Area (Guadalupe river near Seguin, TX)




     1/2 meter Digital Ortho Photography
Boat setup for data collection
    Depth Sounder (Echo Sounder)




The electronic depth sounder operates in a similar way to radar It sends out an
electronic pulse which echoes back from the bed. The echo is timed electronically
and transposed into a reading of the depth of water.
 Differential GPS: Bank to Boat




GPS gives the location of each point collected in terms of
latitude and longitude. Two locations for differential GPS.
Channel Data




 Each point has (x,y,z)
Interpolation

           Points are interpolated
           in ArcMap to produce a
           continuous surface.
          Centerline
Define the centerline along
the thalweg of the channel
               Measure in ArcGIS
                                           Measures are assigned in
                                           meters
                          54.37   154.41
                  0
                                              281.36




A PolylineM can store
m-values at each vertex
along with x and y
coordinates.
Coordinate Transformation
                 m is measure along
                 the centerline
                 r is distance across the
                 river from the
                 centerline


                 Sinuous river becomes
                 straight when
                 transformed into (m,r)
                 co-ordinates.
     Coordinate Transformation




                   Straightened river




                Profile line and cross-sections

Sinuous river
Straightened River in 3D
         Data back to x,y coordinates




Original river in X,Y   Profile lines and cross-sections in (x,y)
                        created using FishNet in (m,r).
Profile Lines and Cross Sections in 3D


    Bird’s eye view!
Arc Hydro Time Series Object
TSDateTime


              TSValue




                        FeatureID

     TSType
National Water Information System




   Web access to USGS     Arc Hydro NWIS data
   water resources data       retrieval tool
       Retrieving NWIS Data
• Select Gage
  Layer
• Enter Period of
  Record
         Streamflow Time Series

Arc Hydro Time Series Table
 Time Series Extracted to Excel
(In Excel, use Data/Get External Data to query Geodatabase)




                                 Excel
                                 view               Geodatabase
                                                       view
       Nexrad Data for Florida
• Real-time Nexrad data
  supplied every 15
  minutes on a 2km grid
• Data from 14 radars
  calibrated with 435
  rain gages
• At end of month more
  careful calibration is
  done for historical rain
  map archive
HRAP Cells for Nexrad Data




Average area = 14.5 km2
  GIS and Hydrologic Modeling:
       Where are we now?
• All the major hydrologic models have GIS data
  support systems
   – HEC-GeoHMS, HEC-GeoRAS, GIS-Weasel for MMS,
     Mike-11GIS, WMS, ….
• An extensive body of experience in terrain
  processing for hydrology has been built up
• Standardized national geospatial datasets for
  hydrology
   – National Elevation Dataset, EDNA, National
     Hydrography Dataset, Watershed Boundary Dataset
  GIS and Hydrologic Modeling:
     Where are we going to?
• Integrated data and modeling systems e.g. Corps
  Water Management System, EPA Basins, DHI Mike
  Objects, …..
   – Integration of observational (time series) data, geospatial
     data, model-derived data
• Integration of vector, raster and time series data in a
  database management system
• A language (vocabulary and grammar) for
  communicating between databases and models e.g.
  XML
     Arc Hydro and Modeling
• Intrinsic Modeling – within a particular
  application eg Excel, ArcGIS, custom
  objects
• Dynamic Linked Library – tightly coupled
  package of functions (e.g. LibHydro from
  HEC)
• Independent Modeling – separate
  hydrologic model with data exchange
      Dynamic Linked Library


                           Can have
                           Fortran
                           subroutines
                           in a DLL
Muskingum
flow routing
      Independent Hydrologic Model




VB progam reads and writes
        text files
Interfaces to Arc Hydro Data and Models




                         Analysis, Modeling,
                          Decision Making




           Arc Hydro
           Geodatabase
     Vertical and Horizontal
     Water Balance
       Atmospheric Water




Soil Water          Surface Water



             Groundwater
Decoupling
and
connecting
hydrologic
systems
Model Building in ArcGIS 9
   What software do you need?
• ArcView 8.2
  – Viewing, querying existing geodatabases
  – Editing feature classes and adding data
• Spatial Analyst for ArcGIS
  – To operate the raster tools in Arc Hydro
• ArcInfo 8.2
  – To build geometric networks and create new
    relationships
  Arc Hydro tools and data model are on CD at back of
       Arc Hydro book and available on web at
            http://archydro.crwr.utexas.edu
          Learning Arc Hydro
• ―Arc Hydro—GIS for Water Resources‖ book
  from ESRI Press
• Tutorial on tools and sample dataset on CD at
  back of book
• Exercises in Fall 2002 GIS in Water Resources
  class http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/maidment
• GISWR website
  http://www.crwr.utexas.edu/giswr
• ESRI’s Arc Online (discussion forum)

				
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posted:10/20/2011
language:English
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