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Movement and Footwork

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					        USPTA Specialty Course


Movement  and  Footwork




Guy Parks, USPTA Master Professional, and
  Bob Love, USPTA Master Professional


   UNITED STATES PROFESSIONAL TENNIS ASSOCIATION, INC.                       
   UNITED STATES PROFESSIONAL TENNIS ASSOCIATION, INC
         3535 Briarpark
         3535 Briarpark Drive . Suite One . Houston, TX 77042
                                     MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
                                     A USPTA Specialty Course
                  Prepared by Guy Parks and Bob Love, USPTA Master Professionals
 




                                            Acknowledgements

Guy and I feel that two special acknowledgements are necessary for this
presentation.

1) THANK YOU to David T. Porter Ed. D, former president of the USPTA, major
promoter and developer of professional development, and Director of Tennis,
Brigham Young University–Hawaii. Dave provided a valuable outline on which we
have based this presentation.

2) The Indiana High School Tennis Coaches Association who invited us to
present this topic. It has been very rewarding working with this fine group.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                           Presenter’s remarks

Guy and I have taught tennis for a combined 70 years and found that the
subjects of movement and footwork have been often neglected. Modern Tennis
requires that footwork and movement be emphasized as the developing of power
through the kinetic chain has been amplified by the development of modern
equipment. We hope the participants will take an active part in the drills and
demonstrations we provide.
                      Thanks much.                     Bob Love

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                           Contact Information:

                                Guy Parks, Director of Tennis
                           Racquet Club of Columbus (614) 457-5671
                               Email: gwparks1969@yahoo.com

                                             Bob Love
                                 Website: www.usptakentucky.com
                                 Email: boblovetennis@comcast.net
                              “Movement and Footwork”
              By Guy Parks and Bob Love, USPTA Master Professionals
                                   Course Description
Participating coaches and pros will be presented movement and footwork drills
and materials on topics to include: Predicting, Intercepting, Preparation,
Recovery, and Positioning. Special features include creating confidence through
basic footwork skills, directional footwork techniques, Modern Tennis Footwork,
and drills to facilitate learning for both singles and doubles.
                                      Course Outline
Hour 1:
I.   Predicting (Developing tracking skills)
       A. Contact Theory (Responding to visual cues)
       B. Verbalization
       C. Sequential dependencies
             1. Speed of the ball
             2. Spin on ball
             3. Trajectory of ball (DEPTH placement)
             4. Angle of ball’s path (ANGULAR placement)
             5. Adjustment (ball’s landing spot)
             6. Final position of ball at receiver’s “power point”
 II. The Confidence Model (Basic footwork skills)
       A. Step 1—Towards ball
       B. Step 2—Racket prep
       C. Step 3—Next to ball (“LOAD!”)
       D. Step 4—Execute (“EXPLODE!”)
       E. Step 5—Step out then recover
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hour 2:
III. Basic Footwork Techniques
      A. Lateral
            1. Glide
            2. Sprint
            3. Glide-Sprint integration (Corner-to-corner flow)
      B. Frontal
            1. The off-set stance
            2. Back-pedal
            3. Transition—“Carioca”
            4. Transition—Rear foot leading
      C. STRATEGY OF FOOTWORK
            1. Error Minimization – Setting Feet – Consistency
            2. Forcing With Movement
IV. Intercepting
     A. Initiating movement
            1. Basketball “cut-off the baseline” step
            2. Small-step
            3. Gravity step
     B. Upper-lower body coordination
     C. Heel shifts
     D. Maintaining Balance
                            “Movement and Footwork”
              By Guy Parks and Bob Love, USPTA Master Professionals

Hour 3:
 V. Modern Tennis Footwork
     A. Closed Stance groundstrokes
     B. Open Stance groundstrokes
     C. Deep ball groundstrokes
     D. Offensive rally groundstrokes
     E. Mid-court groundstrokes
     F. Short-ball groundstroke
           1. Inside groundstrokes
           2. Outside groundstrokes
VI.    Preparation
       A. Foot placement
       B. The “LOADING” process –Front Foot Versus Outside Foot
       C. Force Theory
             1. Ground Reaction
             2. Angular Momentum
             3. Linear Momentum
VII: Recovery
     A. The “EXPLODING” process
     B. Plyometric integration
     C. Run Recovery
VIII Modern Tennis Footwork Drills
       A. The CONE Series
       B. Favorites
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hour 4:
 IX.   Doubles Differences
       A. Taking away angles
       B. Zig Zag Theory – filling the open court moving forward
       C. Flowing with the ball patterns
       D. Poaching movements
       E. Doubles recovery
  X. The FOLLOW-UP process
     A. Positioning
           1. Geometry - Center of the Angle Recovery
           2. Hips and shoulders positioning
           3. Quickness
     B. Conditioning/training
            Favorites
                  a. M-drill
                  b. RATS AND RABBITS
                  c. Others
                            VERBALIZATION
                   Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)

                                VERBALIZATION
Verbalization is a powerful facilitator of learning and a wonderful aid for
coaches. The theory is simple: As you take a physical command to the verbal or
even physical level, you will use a greater portion of your brain and therefore
facilitate learning. This has been supported by considerable scientific research.
     INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES: BASIC TRACKING
         1) Say “BALL” when you SEE the ball contact the surface.
         2) Do “1”, plus CLAP YOUR HANDS upon contact.
         3) Do “1” and “2” and STOMP ONE FOOT upon contact.
         4) Instructor lets the ball continue bouncing and see if the students
            will continue their activities. THIS IS FUN!
     INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES: BASIC STROKING
                     EXERCISES
         Instructor drops ball and when it bounces to the peak of its bounce
               1) Say “HIT”!
               2) Say “HIT” and CLAP HANDS
               3) With racket in hand, say “HIT” and swing through a “shadow”
     RALLYING EXERCISES: SPIN AWARENESS
          Player calls out the spin his opponent has put on the ball and then
          BEFORE THE BALL BOUNCES ON HIS SIDE, call out the type of spin
          he is going to execute on his shot.
     RALLYING EXERCISES: PLACEMENT AWARENESS
          During a practice rally, a player must call out the target area where he
                g p              y, p y                          g
          is directing his stroke. THIS MUST BE DONE BEFORE THE BALL HITS
          THE COURT ON HIS SIDE. Symbols: X = CROSS COURT, D = DROP,
         M = MIDDLE, DL = DOWN THE LINE, B = BODY, L = LOB

     RALLYING EXERCISES: MULTIPLE AWARENESS
          During a practice rally, a player calls out the spin coming off his
          opponent’s racket and then BEFORE THE BALL BOUNCES ON HIS SIDE
          OF THE NET, calls out the target where his directing his shot. Use
          symbols above.

   VERBALIZATION is a growth environment!
     Pros and Players can grow within it!
                      The CONFIDENCE Model
                       Basic Tennis Footwork
                Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)

 NEED: Novice tennis players are often overwhelmed by the tasks of moving
  to the ball and making a basic stroke. They need CONFIDENCE to ease
      their journey in tennis. These techniques provide positive tools.


                                                        5
                           STARTING POSITION: About 5’ from
                           the singles sideline. Coach holds a
                             ball about 5’ from the baseline.




                  1:
             STEP 1: Step TOWARDS the ball by PUSHING OFF
                the back foot. Keep racket towards the ball.




                 2:
            STEP 2: Step TOWARDS the ball and take the racket
                    to a position parallel to the sideline.




                     3:
                STEP 3: Step NEXT TO the target ball and
                   “LOAD” the front leg by simply f
                            flexing it a little.




                    4:
               STEP 4: EXPLODE by “FIRING THE HIPS” and
                       “SWINGING TO THE FINISH” .

                  5:
             STEP 5: STEP OUT with the back foot and come to
                          a BALANCED FINISH.



             BUILDING:
CONFIDENCE BUILDING: Have the player start 10’ from the sideline and repeat
   the above, then move to the CENTER MARK and repeat. As the player
               SUCCEEDS she/he will develop CONFIDENCE!
          The CONFIDENCE WARMUP
       Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)


Concept:           alle  ork         a
Concept Using an alley, work one’s way from baseline to the
 net and back using proper footwork, strokes, and recovery.




                 1) READY POSITION




              2) DROP STEP to initiate
                    movement




      3) Take FIRST STEP towards “BALL”




      4) Take SECOND STEP towards “BALL”
            and TAKE RACKET BACK..


               5) STEP NEXT to the ball.
                “LOAD” the lower body.



          6) “FIRE” the hips, “EXPLODE” and
               ‘SWING TO THE FINISH”!
         VARIATIONS: Down the Line Finish or
                  Crosscourt Finish


       7) PULL THE RACKET INTO YOUR BODY
         and HAVE A CENTERED, BALANCED
                 READY POSITION.
                                Sprint-
                                Sprint-Glide Recovery Footwork
                                         Bob Love USPTA (Master Pro)
                 INTRODUCTION: The are three parts of every stroke
                   PREPARATION, EXECUTION, and FOLLOW UP.
      SPRINT-
      SPRINT-GLIDE RECOVERY FOOTWORK provides an extremely efficient
                        technique for FOLLOW UP.




          SPRINT                        SPRINT                        SPRINT       GLIDE                     GLIDE



         Sequence:
FOREHAND Sequence: SPRINT OUT OF THE CORNER then GLIDE!




                                                                                                             GLIDE
       SPRINT                           SPRINT
                                                                          SPRINT



         Sequence:
BACKHAND Sequence: SPRINT OUT OF THE CORNER then GLIDE!
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                      STEP-
                    Modern Execution: STEP-OUT TECHNIQUE

                              groundstrokes
     Intro: On most modern groundstrokes, players STEP OUT to the side
       towards which they are moving. Teachers and coaches need to be
      aware of this. The following photos show how I teach it to novices.




      LOAD!                       EXPLODE!                                LOAD!                     EXPLODE!
                      Footwork—    OFF-
              Frontal Footwork—The OFF-SET STANCE
                         Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)

  PROBLEM: INITIATING frontal movement is VERY awkward unless the player has an 
             INITIATING f t l              t i VERY k        d l     th l      h
  PROBLEM: INITIATING frontal movement is VERY awkward unless the player has an 
 OFF‐
 OFF‐SET stance.  This sheet will show how to demonstrate this to players and then how 
                           to improve their starting positions.




         Fig. 1: Toes to line         Fig. 2: With pressure, the                   OFF-
                                                                           Fig. 3: OFF-SET STANCE
                                        p y
                                        player starts to “TIP”!               permits resistance.
                                                                              p

 Demonstration:
 Demonstration 1) Have a player stand with both toes on the edge of a line and another
    player push against his chest and tell the player to prevent his being pushed over.
2) The player will start to “tip”. IF HE NOT RESIST THIS PRESSURE, HE CANNOT EASILY
 INITIATE MOVEMENT FORWARD. 3) By using an OFF-SET STANCE he can resist and
                           initiate movement forward if he wishes!


                                CREATING the OFF‐
                                CREATING the OFF‐SET STANCE




  Step 1) Simply place toes    Step 2) Move right toe to instep  Step 3) Spread feet apart
          to a line                  of the left foot and create to a balanced position.
                                               6-      off-
                                       about a 6-inch off-set.
                         YOU ARE READY for initiate FRONTAL movement.




WRONG: Squared toes     BETTER: OFF-
                        BETTER: OFF-SET          DOUBLES TROUBLE                          BETTER!
                                                                                     MUCH BETTER!
  will make frontal     STANCE will make        1) Too close to the net!         1) Further off the net!
 movement awkward!       frontal movement        2) SQUARE STANCE                    OFF-
                                                                                  2) OFF-SET STANCE
                           MUCH easier!            says, “LOB ME!!!”
                        Modern Tennis Footwork
                    Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)


   “LOAD AND EXPLODE”                                  is the motto of MODERN
   TENNIS. Move to the ball, LOAD YOUR LOWER BODY, and EXPLODE through the
   KINETIC CHAIN of your body’s linkage. MODERN TENNIS STARTS WITH FOOTWORK!

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             STEP           TURN,
     TO BEGIN WITH: THE DROP STEP, SHOULDER TURN AND STRIDE




 Figure 1           Figure 2            Figure 3            Figure 4         Figure 5
Figure 1) BALANCED READY POSITION (Figure 1) with forehand grip.
                                    TURN-
Figure 2) DROP STEP and SHOULDER TURN--Bring RIGHT foot UNDER your body so put
                       your weight on top of the Center of your torso .
                                       RIGHT—
Figure 3) PIVOT YOUR HIPS and STRIDE RIGHT— Towards your hitting location.
Figure 4) DROP STEP and SHOULDER TURN —Bring LEFT foot UNDER your body to put
                       your weight on top of the Center of your torso.
                                                                    location
Figure 5) PIVOT YOUR HIPS and STRIDE LEFT —towards your hitting location.

                                      Vocabulary
                     BODY:
  “LOADING” YOUR BODY: Pressure your weight DOWN towards the
                       ground to “LOAD” energy into that leg.
              TURN:
  SHOULDER TURN: As the shoulder turns (Figures 2 and 4) the ANGLE of
  the RACKET SHAFT is roughly PARALLEL to the player’s SPINE.
              HIPS: Push    f    th                  d l t th
  FIRE YOUR HIPS: P h up from the LOADED LEG and let the HIPS
             ROTATE while the racket DROPS into a POWER PATH.
  “EXPLODE”—
  “EXPLODE”—THE SUM OF LOADING, FIRING ONES HIPS, and CREATING
             EXCEPTIONAL RACKET HEAD SPEED.
           CHAIN:
  KINETIC CHAIN: The SEQUENTIAL MOVEMENT OF BODY PARTS FROM
                       THE KNEES THROUGH THE WRIST.
           FOOT” The f t       l     l d     t          t over- t ti d
  “BRAKE FOOT”—Th foot a players lands on to prevent over-rotation and
  establish one’s DYNAMIC BALANCE then move to the next shot.

LOAD and EXPLODE!             LOAD and EXPLODE! LOAD and EXPLODE!!
            TENNIS WITH LOVE: Modern Tennis Footwork
                             OPEN STANCE MODERN GROUNDSTROKES
       “LOAD” ON THE OUTSIDE FOOT!                                               “BRAKE” ON THE OUTSIDE FOOT!
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                       OPEN STANCE: MODERN TENNIS FOREHAND




                 Figure 6                                          Figure 7                                      Figure 8
        Mo e                         path                   FOOT       SHOULDERS,
Step 1) Move to intercept the ball’s path, LOAD the OUTSIDE FOOT, TURN SHOULDERS
                                                    Figures
                        and KEEP RACKET HIGH. (Figures 6 and 9)
Step 2) EXPLODE OFF THE OUTSIDE FOOT and ACCELERATE the racket through the
                                                                   Figures       10)
             ball, finishing with the elbow in front of the face. (Figures 7 and 10
Step 3) BRAKE (LAND) ON THE OUTSIDE FOOT and quickly pull the hands back in front of
                                                               Figures       11)
the chest to “center” the body and establish DYNAMIC BALANCE. (Figures 8 and 11
                       OPEN STANCE: MODERN TENNIS BACKHAND




             Figure 9                                        Figure 10                                      Figure 11
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                              CLOSED STANCE: MODERN TENNIS BACKHAND
                             FOOT!
         “LOAD” ON THE FRONT FOOT “BRAKE STEP” WITH THE REAR FOOT!




            FOOT!
 LOAD FRONT FOOT                                                EXPLODE!                          BRAKE STEP with REAR FOOT!
                TENNIS WITH LOVE: Modern Tennis Footwork
                             CLOSED STANCE: MODERN TENNIS FOREHAND
                           FOOT!
       “LOAD” ON THE FRONT FOOT “BRAKE STEP” WITH THE REAR FOOT!




           FOOT!
LOAD FRONT FOOT                                                 EXPLODE!                          BRAKE STEP with REAR FOOT!
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        SPECIAL NOTES: MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE BALL
                 1)      LET YOUR HANDS LEAD WHEN MOVING TOWARDS A BALL!
                                              Think about taking your hands TO the ball!

              2) SPRINT—NOT SHUFFLE—WHEN MOVING TOWARDS A WIDE BALL!


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                       SHORT BALL: MODERN TENNIS FOREHAND

                                                                    STYLE 1
                                                                         FOOT!
                                                  1) “LOAD” ON THE RIGHT FOOT

                                                 2) FIRE THE HIPS
                                                        AND
                                   LET THE SHOULDER ROTATE THROUGH THE STROKE!

                                           3) “BRAKE STEP” WITH THE LEFT FOOT!

                        ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                                     STYLE 2
                                                                           FOOT!
                                                     1) “LOAD” ON THE LEFT FOOT

                                                      2) FIRE THE HIPS
                                                            AND
                                       LET THE SHOULDER ROTATE THROUGH THE STROKE!

                                                3) “BRAKE STEP” WITH THE RIGHT FOOT!




                      LOAD and EXPLODE!                                          LOAD and EXPLODE!
               Teaching Modern Tennis—Footwork and Form
                            Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)

       FIVE-CONE DRILLS

                                1                                  1

                                                 S
                                                                            2    3
                   3    2


                                         4                   4




                                     5                       5




                              S = STARTING POINT for drills
              1 = DEFENSIVE STROKES—ADD SPIN AND GIVE MORE “AIR”
                     LOAD—REAR FOOT BRAKE—BACK OR FRONT FOOT
              * * * NEUTRAL STROKES—MOVING ALONG BASELINE * * *
              2 = CLOSED STANCE= LOAD FRONT + BRAKE REAR FOOT
              3 = OPEN STANCE= LOAD AND BRAKE OUTSIDE FOOT
              4 = OFFENSIVE RALLY = LOAD INSIDE + STEP THROUGH
                                       WITH THE OUTSIDE FOOT.
              5 = OFFENSIVE APPROACH = LOAD RIGHT AND BRAKE RIGHT
                            LOAD LEFT AND BRAKE LEFT
                         STEP TOWARD NET WITH REAR FOOT

—————————————————————————————————————————————————-
       FENCE (CURTAIN) STROKES
              PURPOSE: Develop concepts of KINETIC CHAIN : SHOULDER TURN, LOAD-
              ING, “EXPLODING” WITH DROP-THRU STROKE, FORWARD RELEASE,
              BRAKE STEP, DYNAMIC BALANCE.
              1) START about 2’ from a curtain or fence.
              2) TURN SHOULDER keeping racket high and front hand with racket.
              3) LOAD desired foot. (Press knee down.)
              4) EXPLODE lower body with DROP-THRU STROKE.
              5) BRAKE STEP with desired foot!
              6) RELEASE IN FRONT. (Use SWISH TEST for desired sound.)
              7) CATCH FINISH with DYNAMIC BALANCE.                                   Open Stance
Open Stance   8) FOLLOW-UP by moving to position for next shot.
 Shoulder                                                                              Brake Step
   Turn                                                                              Balanced Finish
              Teaching Modern Tennis—Footwork and Form
                              Bob Love USPTA (Master Professional)

                        FIVE-CONE STROKES and TECHNIQUES

                            CONE 1— DEFENSIVE (DEEP) GROUNDSTROKES
                    1) Move BACK—LOAD on REAR foot with FRONT foot to side.
                       2) EXPLODE THROUGH THE BALL, ADD TOP SPIN, and
                                        “GIVE THE BALL AIR!”
                       3) LAND (BRAKE) ON THE MOST FUNCTIONAL FOOT!
                         4) QUICKLY RECOVER TO THE STARTING POINT.
  LOAD    BRAKE                                                               LOAD       BRAKE
                        (ANGULAR MOMENTUM WHILE TURNING is KEY!)
  REAR    BEST                                                                 REAR       BEST

 ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-


                             CONE 2— CLOSED-STANCE GROUNDSTROKES
                          1) Move along baseline and LOAD on FRONT foot.
                         2) EXPLODE THROUGH BALL and LAND (BRAKE) on
                                             REAR Foot
                        3) Finish with hands in DYNAMIC BALANCED position
 LOAD      BRAKE              and RECOVER TO THE STARTING POINT.               LOAD      BRAKE
 FRONT      REAR                                                              FRONT      REAR

 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-


                              CONE 3 — OPEN-STANCE GROUNDSTROKES
                        1) Move along baseline and LOAD on OUTSIDE foot.
                         2) EXPLODE THROUGH BALL and LAND (BRAKE) on
                                           OUTSIDE Foot
                        3) Finish with hands in DYNAMIC BALANCED position
                              and RECOVER TO THE STARTING POINT..
 LOAD     BRAKE                                                                LOAD       BRAKE
OUTSIDE   OUTSIDE                                                             OUTSIDE    OUTSIDE


  ——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————


                                  CONE 4 — OFFENSIVE RALLY SHOTS
                       1) Move toward short ball and LOAD on INSIDE FOOT.
                       2) EXPLODE THROUGH BALL and STEP THROUGH BALL
                              with OUTSIDE foot (BRAKE STEP).
                       3) FOLLOW UP by RETURNING TO THE STARTING SPOT.
 LOAD      BRAKE                                                               LOAD       BRAKE
INSIDE     OUTSIDE                   AS YOU MOVE IN, ADD SPIN!                INSIDE     OUTSIDE

 —————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-
                                CONE 5 – OFFENSIVE APPROACH SHOTS
                       1)  Move toward short ball and LOAD on FRONT foot
                       2)  If to the RIGHT, use LOAD RIGHT and BRAKE RIGHT.
                       3)  If to the LEFT, use LOAD LEFT and BREAK LEFT.
                       4)  LOAD and EXPLODE THROUGH THE BALL and
                            STEP TOWARD NET with the REAR FOOT.
 LOAD      BRAKE       5) FOLLOW THE SHOT with HANDS in a DYNAMIC,              LOAD        BRAKE
OUTSIDE   INSIDE               BALANCED READY POSITION.                        OUTSIDE      INSIDE
                                    AS YOU MOVE IN, ADD SPIN!
                           M-DRILL (10 seconds)




 STEP 1:Start in corner.           STEP 2: Sprint up side             STEP 3: Backpedal on a
   Coach says, “GO!”               line and touch the net.            diagonal towards the CONE
                                                                      at the “T”.




  STEP 4: Shuffle behind the      STEP 5: Touch the net above the
cone and sprint on the diagonal                                                 SPRINT!
                                  sideline and turn to SPRINT
 towards the other singles line                                             The most important
                                  towards the baseline.
                                               baseline.                                  drill
                                                                             phase of the drill.
            d the t
         and th net.




                                                                      NOTE: ADJUST THE CONE
  STEP 6: SPRINT across the                                         POSITION TO ALLOW FOR SIZE
 baseline before the coach says                                                 DIFFERENCE.
                                                                       AND AGE DIFFERENCE.
   “GO!” fo the next runner.
           THE THEORY OF FLOWING DURING DOUBLES PLAY
                           Guy Parks USPTA (Master Professional)
POSITIONING:
    BL




           DN
           CN


     PAZ



         NPL



1. The Deep Net position is used for the receiver’s partner starting position.
When the ball is hit behind the net person, they should flow to DN.
2. From the Deep Net position, a player moves to CN only when the ball is hit
beyond the CN person or hit low to net person’s feet (ball must be below net level).
3. A player stays at DN when, (a) the ball is hit to a net person, (b) the ball is
lobbed over a net person, (c) the net person poaches, (d) two players come to
the net together.
4. A player moves to the Put Away Zone (PAZ) when they hit from close net, then move
   and angle/smash the next shot to end the point.
BASIC CONCEPTS
1. A person in doubles should follow the path of a ball hit to their opponent. The reason
   one should do this is to center one’s self in the best position to cover all possible
   shots. This means as a ball is hit wide, you must move wide to cover your alley, and
   your partner should move to the middle to follow the ball.
2. Flowing with the ball occurs only when you are at the net. Flowing must be up and
   back as well as side to side in relation to the ball on the other side of the net.
3. Always flow in from Deep Net (DN) to Close Net (CN) following the ball’s path. In
   other words, line up directly in front of the ball when it lands in your opponent’s court.
4. One must flow back as the ball is hit behind us while they are in CN position.
   Movement is back and to the center service line (one step from “T”) which is Deep
   Net (DN).
5. Flowing with the ball occurs only when on or inside the service line to CN/PAZ
   positions. Stay out of no person’s land.
6. Flowing movement, forward or backward, must stop before another player hits the
   ball. Do not get caught moving while the ball is being hit. Split stop and bounce as
   anyone else hits.
7. If one up and one back is the formation of your opponent, continuous movement
   should occur up and back, side to side, adjusting with every shot hit. Do not
   spectate, you came to play!
                      DOUBLES STRATEGY – SAGGING THEORY
                         Guy Parks USPTA (Master Professional)

The development of Sagging Theory is due to problems by aggressive doubles teams.
    BB            AB




                 A2
    B2

         B1 A1
         NPL


CONCEPTS
1. Two basic net positions exist in relation to net closeness. Positions A2 (Put Away
   Zone) and B2 is called CLOSE NET, Positions A1 and B1 are DEEP NET or
   SAGGING POSITION. NPL is No Person’s Land.
2. A net rusher comes to net on a short ball getting in as far as one can. The stopping
   point occurs just before the opponent hits the ball and is around position A1 or B1.
3. The first volley is hit from B1 deep crosscourt and then the player must move to
   CLOSE NET. The person hitting the ball moves to CN (B2) to follow the BB . The
   player A2 must then move back to position A1, SAGGING, to eliminate the
   vulnerability to the lob which exists if players stay side by side at CLOSE NET.
4. The basic idea is to keep one net player at position B1 or A1 to cover lobs better.
   The SAGGING POSITION is the name given to this position. This person is
   responsible for running down the lob or switching behind their partner to volley the
   ball out of the air straight ahead.
5. The basic rules of SAGGING are:
   a. The person who hits the ball closes off the net by going to CLOSE NET A2 or B2.
   b. The person who does not hit the ball SAGS back to position A1 or B2.
   c. If both opponents are at net, no one needs to SAG for the lob is not very likely.
   d. SAGGING only occurs when both you and your partner are at net together and
      the ball goes to a deep person at the baseline on the other team who has
      opportunity to lob.
6. The SAGGER (B1) is responsible for running down the lob, switching crosscourt (B1
   to A1) and volleying if possible. This occurs because the partner is too close at net
   (A2) to cover the lob.
7. A switch by the SAGGER (B1) from B1 to A2 occurs on a short lob over A2. The
   SAGGER volleys the ball out of the air straight down the line and player A2 goes to
   position B1 (“T”) then follows the ball as his partner hits the shot out of the air. After
   B1 moves over and hits the ball out of the air she must move to CLOSE NET (A2)
   position.
8. If the SAGGER moves forward after hitting the ball, the partner then must drop to
   position A1 to B1 and now is the new SAGGER.
                      POACHING MOVEMENTS FOR DOUBLES
     S                      Guy Parks USPTA (Master Professional)


          T


              SP
          P
          P

         RP




PART 1: SR the server and R is the returner. Poaching requires commitment and movement by
             is
a player at net to move forward and cut off the crossing return of serve. This movement requires
(SP) to have a very good split step at the moment the ball bounces and then a cutting diagonal
movement toward the “P” at the center of the net strap. This movement must be timed to not
leave their net position prior to the ball bouncing on the opponent’s side. The (RP) returner’s
partner can also poach by making a movement forward, split step and diagonally run to the “P”
on their side of the court to cut off the server’s first groundstroke/volley crosscourt.
PART 2: If the poacher does not cut off the ball, they must retreat back to the “T” to cover the
middle of the court for the next cross court exchange.
PART 3: One of the most important moves to have your players practice faking the poach every
shot and staying home.
PART 4: Teach your players how to cover their alley on wide shots when a player hits down the
line on any groundstroke.
                               THE ZIG ZAG THEORY
    S                      Guy Parks USPTA (Master Professional)
    Z1

         Z2

    Z3            SP



         RP




              R

CONCEPT:
In doubles, a player moving to the net needs to follow the shot they hit, close toward the
net and cover the passing shot. To do this, one must think about filling the court on a
diagonal. The (S) server is going to serve and volley with the return to them coming on a
line to the outside of the court (Z1), with this player moving to position for the next shot,
(Z2). The third shot should be covered by moving to final position (Z3). Note that the
player does not make a straight line move to the net, but covers angles. The picture one
should take is of moving through a piece of pie from the crust (baseline) to the center
sliver at the net. There is a middle line, but also two sides to the piece of pie of which
one side will be where the ball is hit. Players see the open court and hit to that opening,
receiving player must fill that opening to cover the next passing shot.

SPYDER DRILL: Changing Directions and Changing Levels of Balance

    X         S        X

    X         X        X




Two players may run the drill on a court at the same time by setting up tennis balls in the
same positions at the other end of the court. (S) Starting position should have a racquet
where the balls can be placed as they are picked up one by one. Players should work
on efficiency of movements by making one directional turn and changing the ball from
one hand to other so reach is used most effectively. Balls must stay on the racquet to
eliminate throwing them down but instead working on change of level by being required
to bend and lay the ball under control. This drill can be timed to create competition and
player improvements. Team times maybe set to force all to achieve their best for the
benefit of the team.
                    Spyders and Flys: A Fun, Conditioning Game
                           Guy Parks USPTA (Master Professional)

         F      S         F2
         F                F2
         F       S        F2
         F       S        F2
          F     S          F2




The objective of this game is that the Flys must past through the alley of the court to
the open space between courts. This game may be spread to the alley of the next court
and more Spyders placed in the alley of the second court. If a Spyder touches a Fly
passing through, they must trade places. Movement skills such as Zig/Zags, stop and
go, fakes and acceleration movements are developed by players trying to reach the “the
other side”. Spyders are not allowed out of the alleys while trying to touch the Flys.



                                  RATS AND RABBITS



       P1 P2
       P3 P4
       P5 P6
       P7 P8
       P9 P10




The game is played by lining players up side by side across a service line. One side is designated
as the rabbits and one side is designated as rats. The coach calls out one name and the opposite
team must try to touch their opponent before they can move away from their reach. Of course to
add some real flavor the coach can come up with some close names such as: raaooaches,
rooooccodiles, raaanacersous and any other close sounding names to calling a rat or rabbits.
Team that scores 4 touches first wins. You may have players plant their feet against each other.
Works on reflexes and is a fun game for building team camaraderie.
               MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
                  USPTA Specialty Course


                 Drill: _____________________________
                 Purpose:_____________________________
                 Notes:_______________________________
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                Drill: _____________________________
                Purpose:_____________________________
                Notes:_______________________________
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               MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
                  USPTA Specialty Course


                 Drill: _____________________________
                 Purpose:_____________________________
                 Notes:_______________________________
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Drill: _____________________________
Purpose:_____________________________
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                Drill: _____________________________
                Purpose:_____________________________
                Notes:_______________________________
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               MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
                  USPTA Specialty Course


                 Drill: _____________________________
                 Purpose:_____________________________
                 Notes:_______________________________
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Drill: _____________________________
Purpose:_____________________________
Notes:_______________________________
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                Drill: _____________________________
                Purpose:_____________________________
                Notes:_______________________________
                _____________________________________
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          MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
             USPTA Specialty Course


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NOTES:  ___________________________________  
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          MOVEMENT and FOOTWORK
             USPTA Specialty Course


NOTES:  ___________________________________  
NOTES:  ___________________________________  
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