WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION
INFORMAL PLANNING MEETING ON THE
VOLUNTARY CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME (VCP) AND
RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES
Melbourne, Australia, 26 February-1 March 2001
GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE MEETING
1. OPENING OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 1)
1.1 The 2001 Informal Planning Meeting (IPM) on the Voluntary Co-operation
Programme (VCP) and related Technical Co-operation Programmes was held in Melbourne,
Australia from 26 February to 1 March 2001, at the kind invitation of Australia. The meeting
was attended by 17 participants representing 14 WMO Members and three collaborating
technical co-operation organizations. The list of participants is given in Annex I to this report.
1.2 The meeting was opened at 09.30 a.m. on 26 February 2001. On behalf of
Prof. G.O.P. Obasi, Secretary-General of WMO, Mr H. Diallo, Director of the Technical
Co-operation Department, welcomed the participants to the meeting and thanked Dr Zillman,
Permanent Representative of Australia with WMO, for inviting the meeting and for the
excellent arrangements made and the hospitality extended to the participants. He also
thanked the representatives of Members and partner institutions for their attendance. He
highlighted the importance of the WMO VCP in the Technical Co-operation Programme and
noted that substantial contributions had been made in cash and in kind by several Members
during the past year. He noted that despite commendable efforts from donor Members, a
large number of VCP projects for both equipment and fellowships remain unsatisfied each
year. In this regard, he informed that the WMO Secretariat continued to devote considerable
efforts towards the mobilization of resources from the World Bank, regional development
banks, other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies such as the European Commission,
and the private sector. He referred in particular to the conclusion of Memoranda of
Understanding between WMO and the banks to enhance existing collaboration in areas such
as climate change, disaster prevention and mitigation and integrated water-resources
management. In addition, negotiations with bilateral funding sources and UNDP have led to
the approval of new national and regional projects such as the Small Island Developing
States - Caribbean regional project, known as SIDS – Caribbean. In view of the limited
resources available and the increasing needs of Members, he invited the meeting to reflect
on several new measures, such as the pooling of VCP resources to address major
deficiencies in the WWW facilities which may hamper the implementation of WMO priority
programmes and the funding of priority components defined in the strategic plans developed
by Regional Associations. He finally encouraged all Members to continue to support
national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in their endeavour to contribute
to the implementation of WMO Programmes for the benefit of the global community. He
wished the meeting success.
1.3 Dr J. Zillman, Permanent Representative of Australia with WMO, welcomed all
participants to the IPM especially those who had come a long way to this first IPM held in the
Southern Hemisphere. He remarked that this was a unique kind of gathering to provide
input on co-ordinated technical co-operation activities to the WMO EC Advisory Group of
Experts on Technical Co-operation. These activities were aimed to assist developing
national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) which were all vulnerable to
intense pressures resulting from the globalization, corporatization and commercialization.
Success under previous VCP and related technical co-operation activities had clearly
demonstrated the importance of NMHSs working closely with the aid agencies. A big
challenge to the IPM would be how to match the priority requirements of developing
countries with the often limited resources available to donor countries. He made a special
welcome to the participation at this meeting of Australian Agency for International
Development (AusAID), the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and
the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).
2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 2)
2.1 Election of the chairman (Agenda item 2.1)
2.1.1 Mr B. Angle (Canada) was unanimously elected chairman of the meeting. The
meeting expressed its appreciation to Mr D. Lambergeon (France) who had been
chairperson of the IPM for the past four years.
2.2 Adoption of the agenda (Agenda item 2.2)
2.2.1 The agenda adopted is given in Annex II to this report.
2.3 Working arrangements (Agenda item 2.3)
2.3.1 The meeting agreed on its working hours and to its work programme during the
3. MAJOR ISSUES, TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Agenda item 3)
3.1.1 The meeting reviewed information provided on major issues facing NMHSs and
the socio-economic and technological trends and developments that could significantly
influence the way WMO and NMHSs will function in the future. The meeting noted that
these concerns were both at global and regional levels.
3.2 Global aspects
3.2.1 The meeting noted that major issues facing NMHSs should be cast against
relevant developments, especially the identification of the desired outcomes, i.e., the results
and/or impacts which WMO and donors want to achieve and for which WMO can play a
significant role. These outcomes, which are now being developed within the framework of
the Sixth WMO Long-Term Plan, highlight the areas and domains of competence of NMHSs
and can be summarized as follows:
(a) contribution to improved protection of life and property;
(b) increased safety at sea and in the air;
(c) enhanced quality of life, especially through contributing to meeting basic human
needs in terms of food and water;
(d) sustainable economic growth; and
(e) protection of the environment, through greater understanding of the climate
system and the support to international strategies and conventions such as the
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and UN Convention to Combat
3.2.2 The meeting reviewed some of the major developments that will significantly
influence the way WMO and NMHSs will function in the future and which should be taken
into account in developing long-term plans at national and regional levels. Among others,
the meeting highlighted the following:
(a) rapid technological developments leading to improved observing,
telecommunication and data-processing systems, automation, improved
modelling capabilities and global communication systems such as Internet;
(b) globalization and regionalization in the provision of meteorological services,
leading to needs for rationalization and specialization, formation of alliances for
(c) increased competition in a commercial environment, leading NMHSs to
developing new approaches in their operations, to changing their status and to
becoming more market oriented;
(d) increased economic pressure on NMHSs to reduce costs and improve
(e) increased demand for new types of services and for better delivery to the users;
(f) demands for international legal agreements to address global problems.
3.2.3 The meeting also noted that WMO and NMHSs had to take into account the
evolving needs of the Members and of society as a whole in areas such as warnings of
severe events, environmentally sustainable development, co-operation and co-ordination to
improve effectiveness and efficiency and the modernization of technical facilities which
require adequately trained staff.
3.2.4 The meeting noted the usefulness of the information provided on the major
issues facing NMHSs as this serves as very useful background and as a guide in
determining the priority areas for the provision of technical assistance. The meeting noted in
particular that there was a need in the future to ensure that the VCP projects submitted for
funding focus on specific outcomes of relevance to the global community. The meeting was
encouraged by the recognition that new technological developments provided a very good
opportunity for solving a number of problems of NMHSs in a cost-effective manner. In
addition, the meeting agreed that there was a need to encourage Members to take into
account the globalization and regionalization trends in developing their strategies for the
provision of services at national level. In fact several factors such as commercialization,
increased competition from the private sector and the shrinking of resources from
stakeholders should guide NMHSs in planning their future operations.
3.3 Regional aspects
3.3.1 The meeting noted that the regional aspects on major issues and trends affecting
NMHSs are similar to the global aspects. The meeting also noted that there are common
issues for all regions, and that each region has its unique issues.
3.3.2 The meeting noted the common issues as being: (i) availability of human
resources is decreasing, and in some regions, non-existence of professional staff; (ii) some
observing networks are reducing at an appreciative rate causing the problem of poor data
availability; (iii) decreasing support from national governments; and (iv) inadequate
3.3.3 The meeting also noted some of the unique issues for various regions as being:
(i) rescue of historical data; (ii) rapid development and introduction of new technology;
(iii) emergence of commercial competitors; and (iv) increasing concentration of population,
development and infrastructure in coastal areas.
3.3.4 The meeting noted that as a start towards addressing the issues, strategic action
plans were developed for RA II and the Pacific Island Countries in RA V, aimed at
strengthening the capabilities of NMHSs to meet the growing demands for improved
weather, climate services and products to meet safety and well-being of people, and to
contributing to the achievement of sustainable development. A needs analysis of users and
of NMHSs was completed in November 2000 for the Pacific Island Countries of RA V. WMO
and IDB have initiated a feasibility study to ameliorate the social and economic impacts of El
Niño/La Niña events in RA IV and eventually will provide support to the proposals that will
result from the study, if required by countries of the region. Several countries including
Canada, Finland, France, the Netherlands, UK and USA have provided support for the
restoration of hydrological and meteorological networks damaged by Hurricanes Georges,
Mitch and Keith.
3.3.5 The meeting recommended that VCP assistance should focus on (i) human
resources development (education and training) at all levels of meteorology and hydrology;
and (ii) strengthening efforts and co-operation at the subregional and regional levels.
3.3.6 The representative from Australia provided an overview of the evaluation of
international activities conducted at the Bureau of Meteorology followed by a short
presentation by Canada and a round-table discussion. The meeting noted the continuing
pressures on NMHSs and donors to express clearly the merits of their international activities
including VCP. It was stated that every Member of WMO derives benefit from this
association. The meeting expressed the need to communicate the positive impacts of VCP
activities both in terms of the recipient countries and the donors. Further, it is necessary to
develop communication tools that go beyond the meteorological and hydrological
communities in order to foster support from external sources.
4. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN
SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES (Agenda item 4)
4.1.1 The meeting was informed of the priorities for assistance required to implement
the WMO Programmes in the fields of co-operation covered by the VCP as given in the VCP
rules: the World Weather Watch Programme, the World Climate Programme, the Hydrology
and Water Resources Programme, the Atmospheric Research and Environment
Programme, the Education and Training Programme and Applications of Meteorology
Programme. A summary of the information is given in Annex III. Information was also
provided on the activities undertaken within the framework of the VCP co-ordinated
programmes. A summary of the relevant information is given in Annex IV.
4.1.2 The meeting considered that the perception of the priorities may be different for
the donors, the recipients and the WMO constituent bodies. The criteria for the selection of
the projects supported by the donors include the cost, the availability of expertise in the
donor countries and the area of interest for the donor.
4.2 World Weather Watch Programme
4.2.1 The meeting reviewed the priorities in the implementation of the World Weather
Watch Programme, in particular for:
(a) Observing systems (see paragraph 1.1 of Annex III);
(b) Telecommunication systems (see paragraph 1.2 of Annex III);
(c) Global data-processing systems (see paragraph 1.3 of Annex III);
(d) Satellite receiving stations (see paragraph 1.4 of Annex III).
4.2.2 The information given in Annex III helped the donor countries in clarifying the
priorities in the WMO Programmes. However, the funds required to support all the projects
listed in this Annex greatly exceeded the total VCP contribution. In this respect, the meeting
recommended that the presentation of the list of projects submitted for VCP support include
projects having the highest priorities and in total better fitting with the possible VCP
contribution. The meeting recommended submitting this recommendation for the
consideration of the WMO constituent bodies.
4.2.3 The meeting noted that the UK distributes WAFS and OPMET data and products
on a channel of the UK Satellite Facilities (UKSF/SADIS). The UK proposed to distribute
WWW data and products on another channel (UKSF/WWW) as a contribution to the WWW
Programme. The Executive Council requested the CBS to study the possible use of the
UKSF/WWW as a component of the GTS. The UKSF/WWW covers Regions I, II and VI.
Regions I and VI are already covered by satellite distribution systems. A large part of
Region II is not covered by any satellite distribution system. CBS proposed to use the
UKSF/WWW to distribute data and products in Region II as an interregional component of
the GTS. Regional Association II agreed to carry out a pilot project for the UKSF/WWW.
The extension of the UKSF makes it possible to receive WAFS and WWW data and
products through the same satellite receiver. It is possible to extend the existing SADIS
receiving system for the reception of the UKSF/WWW. There are several countries in Region
II which are not equipped to receive and visualize the WWW data and products. The
meeting stressed that, when developing projects for the reception of one of the two channels
(UKSF/SADIS or UKSF/WWW), the countries should consider the extension of the project
for the reception of the second channel. Co-ordination is required between donor countries
to join their efforts to support the reception of the two channels.
4.2.4 Satellite receivers are at present primarily used to receive satellite data directly
from the satellites. Noting the availability and the rapid evolution of the Information and
Communication Technology (ICT), the meeting felt that alternative solutions, such as the use
of Internet, for the reception of satellite data at the WWW centres should be considered
when developing projects for the reception of satellite data at centres.
4.3 Applications of Meteorology Programme
4.3.1 The priorities in the assistance required for the implementation of the
Aeronautical Meteorology Programme, the Marine Meteorology and Associated
Oceanographic Activities Programme and the Public Weather Services Programme are
given in paragraphs 1.5 to 1.7 of Annex III, respectively.
4.3.2 The meeting felt that panels like the Data Buoy Co-operation Panel (DBCP) were
instrumental in defining the priorities in the development of the relevant observational
programmes and in co-ordinating the development and the operation of the relevant
programmes in particular with the funding agencies.
4.3.3 The representative from the UK informed the meeting of the development of a
new media weather presentation system. This PC-based system is cheaper than the system
presently provided by the UK. It will make it possible to support more systems each year
4.3.4 The meeting noted the availability of cost-effective satellite telecommunication
systems for the distribution of data to the users like the RANET, which is in operation in
Africa within the framework of an ACMAD programme. Future expansion of Worldspace into
Asia and Central America presents opportunity of alternative means to deliver weather and
climate information to rural communities.
4.4 Tropical Cyclone Programme
4.4.1 Priority subjects of the Tropical Cyclone Programme are given in paragraph 1.8
of Annex III.
4.5 World Climate Programme
4.5.1 The meeting reviewed priorities in the implementation of the World Climate
Programme, in particular, for:
(a) CLICOM and DARE projects (see paragraphs 2.1.1-2.1.7 of Annex III);
(b) CLIPS (see paragraphs 2.2.1-2.2.5 of Annex III);
(c) Agricultural Meteorology (see paragraphs 2.3.1-2.3.7 of Annex III).
4.5.2 Concerning CLICOM and DARE activities, the meeting noted the new strategy to
combine data rescue activities with the new Climate Database Management Systems
(CDMSs) and supported this initiative. Furthermore, the meeting noted the successful
implementation of the drought preparedness project in support of NMHSs in Africa and
recommended that similar projects, with DARE components, be prepared and supported for
countries in RA I, RA II and RA V.
4.5.3 The meeting noted that the heat/health warning systems projects being carried
out within the framework of the CLIPS project were being successfully implemented.
4.6 Hydrology and Water Resources Programme
4.6.1 The meeting noted that the main priority activities which should be considered for
VCP support related to hydrological observing systems, data acquisition and processing
systems and training in operational hydrology, especially at technician level. The meeting
agreed that efforts should be continued to address the VCP requests for hydrological
activities, especially through national and regional water resources institutions and agencies.
4.7 Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme
4.7.1 The meeting noted that Thirteenth Congress had requested WMO Members to
give all possible support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a
high priority to the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research
Programme. Congress had also agreed that measurements of the chemical composition and
related physical characteristics of the atmosphere should be given similar attention to that
received by classical meteorological parameters.
4.7.2 Within the framework of the VCP, several donors agreed to continue offering
support through “twinning” arrangements. The meeting noted that in this context, the
recently established GAW stations of global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset
(Algeria), Ushuasia (Argentina), Arembepe (Brazil), Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto
Tabang (Indonesia) and Mount Kenya (Kenya) have been successfully twinned with
countries or groups of countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Germany and USA.
The Kenya/Switzerland twinning arrangement of a specific activity is exemplary. Switzerland
is providing funding for the training of personnel. The meeting encouraged Members to
continue supporting twinning arrangements within the framework of the VCP.
4.8 Education and Training Programme
4.8.1 The meeting noted with appreciation that major VCP donor Members continued
to provide VCP fellowships and that many other Members continued to provide VCP
contributions by waiving tuition fees and providing subsidized accommodation to WMO
4.8.2 The meeting was informed that the gap between the needs in fellowships and the
reduced funding opportunities continues to increase. It noted that the Secretariat continued
to seek additional extra-budgetary resources and new potential sources of funding aimed at
increasing and complementing the traditional fellowships financial resources. Cost-sharing
tripartite fellowship arrangements were also encouraged, in particular in the RMTCs, to
optimize the use of limited VCP and regular budget fellowship funds.
4.8.3 The meeting considered that training should continue to be given high priority,
(a) Short-term fellowships;
(b) Workshops and seminars on specialized topics;
(c) Twinning arrangements with RMTCs in developing countries to organize
specialized training courses in the most cost-effective manner; and
(d) Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs,
particularly in the areas of:
- computer-aided learning (CAL); and
- distance learning, including the use of the Internet.
4.8.4 The meeting noted that alternative solutions should be found to support long-term
fellowships which are becoming more and more costly and encouraged donors to continue
their support to education and training activities. In this connection, the meeting was
informed of proposals to conduct ”Business Orientation Workshops” and a planned
workshop on the “Operation of NMHSs in Developing Countries” by Israel. The meeting
noted the need for such capacity building and suggested that the EC Advisory Group on
Role and Operation of NMHSs consider its merits.
4.9 Regional programme
4.9.1 The meeting was informed of the outcomes of the 6th Technical Conference on
the Management for Development of Meteorological Services in Africa, November 2000; the
12th session of RA II, Seoul, September 2000; and the Pacific Meteorological Services
Needs Analysis Project (PMSNAP) for the Pacific Island Countries in RA V, completed
November 2000. All RAs emphasized the need to address the problem of poor data
availability, increasing NMHSs status and visibility, improving telecommunication systems,
mitigation of and preparedness for natural disasters, human resources development, and
regional technical co-operation.
4.9.2 The meeting noted the requests from RAs for VCP to assist in: (i) rehabilitation,
strengthening, and improving the RBSN in all regions; (ii) preparing a Strategic Action Plan
for the Enhancement of National Hydrological Services (NHSs) in RA II; (iii) carrying out a
study on the development and the implementation of a regional telecommunication strategy
in RA I; (iv) improvement of current telecommunication arrangements for six Caribbean
Meteorological Services; (v) further implementation of EMWIN systems and DCPs
particularly for the Pacific Island Countries in RA V; and (vi) implementation of
telecommunication connections to RMDCN in RA IV.
5. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO-
OPERATION PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2001 (Agenda item 5)
5.1 Review of the expected contribution to the VCP in 2001 (Agenda items 5.1
5.1.1 The meeting reviewed the various projects approved for circulation during the last
five years for which no full offer of support has so far been received. The meeting was
informed of the plans of donor Members to support some of these VCP projects in the near
future and expressed the views that these plans could not be considered as firm
commitments on the part of the donor Members as conditions could change and result in re-
adjustment of their plans.
5.1.2 The statements related to the co-operation activities of Argentina, Australia,
Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, China, India, Israel, Japan,
New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Spain, United Kingdom and USA,
including their contributions to the VCP(ES) and VCP(F) and information on bilateral
activities, are given in the following paragraphs.
5.1.3 It was agreed that the country reports are a very useful means of communicating
objectives and expressing constraints of individual donors. It was also noted that embedded
in these reports is the seeds of interesting ideas and potential collaborative activities. It was
recommended that countries submit their reports well enough in advance so that the
Secretariat can distribute them before the meeting as part of the documentation.
5.1.4 During 2000, Argentina has continued to assist in technical co-operation activities
in Region III, through the provision of three fellowships (two fellows from Peru and one from
Venezuela) for the satellite image interpretation course, and five fellowships (four fellows
from Ecuador and one from Peru) for the operational aeronautical meteorology course (cost
estimated at US $4,000).
5.1.5 In 2001 the support to the VCP is expected to achieve the level of 1999
(approximately US $45,000) through the provision of fellowships, equipment and services.
5.1.6 Australia contributed US $25,000 to the VCP(F) in 2000. In addition, it provided
US $10,000 as partial assistance to Russian Federation to improve its upper-air observation
network under VCP(ES) project OB/1/2/1.
5.1.7 During 2000, Australia also participated in the following technical co-operation
activities on a bilateral or multilateral basis:
(a) Contribution to technical co-operation in the Pacific: Needs Analysis US $60,000;
provision of observing equipment to Niue and Solomon Islands US $6,280; partial
contribution to the organization of an international meeting in Cook Islands US
(b) Contribution to training courses/workshops and fellowships for officers from
Greece, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, etc, totalling US $68,920;
(c) Bilateral technical co-operation especially with Indonesia and Viet Nam.
5.1.8 In 2001, Australia will continue to contribute to the VCP(F) at the current level.
Resource mobilization efforts will be enhanced for VCP(ES), including the provision of
training fellowships and applications to AusAID for funding: (i) an ASEAN-Australia
Development Co-operation Programme (AADCP) project for ASEAN countries through
ASMC Singapore; and (ii) a major project on meteorological systems and numerical weather
prediction for Viet Nam. AusAID will commence implementing a third phase of a Sea Level
and Climate Monitoring Project for the Pacific in 2001. AusAID will also finalize its
implementation plans as follow-up to the recommendations of the Needs Analysis for the
5.1.9 In 2000, as the government again reduced the meteorological budget the
capacity of Brazil to contribute to the VCP activities was reduced, but the following activities
(a) Technical support to develop agrometeorological capacities at the Meteorological
and Hydrological Service of El Salvador;
(b) Technical co-operation agreement for training support in use of numerical
forecast products, based on the regional model MBAR (HRM/DWD) for the
Meteorological Service of Chile; and
(c) Technical co-operation agreement for training support in wave numerical forecast
modelling for the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Peru.
5.1.10 In 2001, Brazil intends to develop the following activities:
(a) To achieve training in co-operation with the FMI in strategic planning for
development of an automatic weather station network;
(b) To support the technical agrometeorological assistance to El Salvador;
(c) To support training activities in numerical forecast products for meteorologists
(d) To support training activities in wave numerical modelling for hydrographers from
(e) To support a technical visit of an INMET telecommunication expert at the
National Meteorological Institute of Mozambique.
5.1.11 In 2000, Canada entered into the final phase of the shipment of 167 Stevens
Stream Gauges to eight countries; total disbursements toward meteorological- and
hydrological-related activities amounted to approximately US $740,000. These initiatives
were undertaken by the Meteorological Service of Canada within the framework of the VCP.
There are several projects in progress such as Data Rescue for RA IV (DARE IV) and the
support to the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) project.
Canada also assisted several countries with their first national communications to the
Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA) and the International Development Research Council (IDRC) funded a
number of projects related to environmental monitoring in Central America, South America,
Africa and Asia. These efforts were in support of monitoring flood potential and drought for
the mitigation of natural disasters.
5.1.12 In 2001, Canada will continue to work with the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation
to Climate Change (CPACC) on a project designed to, inter alia, gain a better understanding
of climate change impacts (e.g., coastal zones, freshwater, sea level rise) and vulnerabilities
to climate change (e.g., tourism, agriculture). Efforts shall be continued to ensure a robust
early warning system to mitigate the effects of natural disasters in the southern part of RA IV
through a project to evaluate, define and refine an Integrated Observing System for the
region in partnership with the US National Weather Service, CIDA, and IDRC. It is expected
to continue limited programming in drought monitoring, disaster mitigation and the use of
remote sensing for environmental monitoring. Canada also noted the Canada Climate
Change Development Funds through CIDA with goals to provide funding for emission
reductions, sequestration, adaptation and core capacity building in developing countries. It
is hoped that some funds may be identified for NMHSs.
5.1.13 In 2000, China contributed to actively participate in the WMO VCP Programme.
Its contribution amounted to US $432,300. A study tour to China’s meteorological services
for the directors of NMHSs in RAs III and IV was successful and fruitful. China also
continued to provide meteorological instruments, including PCs, weather and
agrometeorological stations. The long- and short-term fellowships were provided for
graduate students and participants in international training courses in WMO RMTC Nanjing.
In addition, China contributed US $8,000 to the RMTC Kenya. Also, China has donated
US $120,000 for the headquarters of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
(SPREP), and provided a set of satellite receiving equipment to Vanuatu through bilateral
5.1.14 In 2001, the budget of the proposed contributions of China to the WMO VCP will
increase slightly. The proposed contribution of China in 2001 will be as follows:
(a) Donation of instruments and equipment
Republic of Korea OB/1/2/2 Provision of 1000 pieces of 750g balloons for upper-air sounding
Georgia DP/1/2/2 Provision of two PCs
Guinea Provision of consumables for weather stations
Moldova AGM/2/1/1 Provision of 20 soil hygrographs
Yugoslavia OB/2/2/1 Provision of instruments for five RBSN stations.
(b) Study Tours
- China will organize two study tours in 2001. In mid-May, a ten-day study tour will
be organized for about 15 directors or senior officials of NMHSs from all regions. In late
October or early November, in conjunction with the Regional Seminar on Cost Recovery and
Administration in RA II, another study tour will be hosted by China for about 20 directors and
senior meteorologists in RA II.
- An international training course on agrometeorology will be held at RMTC
Nanjing from April to May for 25 participants.
- A one-month training course on satellite meteorology for 25 participants will also
be held in October at RMTC Nanjing.
- Provision of long-term scholarship for two graduate students from Viet Nam and
one from Yemen.
- Provision of short-term scholarship (partial support) for four experts on
meteorological instrument from Ethiopia for a three-month training at RMTC Nanjing.
- Chinese contribution to the VCP(F) in 2001 will be US $10,000.
5.1.15 During 2000, Finland provided expert services in collaboration with WMO to
support the development of a project proposal "Hydrometeorological safety to Transport
Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA)".
5.1.16 On a bilateral basis, Finland continued to support the climate change component
of the environmental programme 1998-2000 in Nicaragua; the final phase of the regional
project 1991-2000 in Central America; and the project 1998-2000 on new developments of
upper-air stations in St. Petersburg and Murmansk. These projects were successfully
completed in 2000.
5.1.17 At the International Reconstruction Conference on Mozambique (Rome, 3 to 4
May 2000) the Finnish Government pledged FIM 25 million (approximately US $4 million) for
the reconstruction programme of the Mozambican Meteorological Service. Phase I
"Immediate actions 2000-2001" of the programme started in September 2000. The
immediate actions consist of reconstruction of two surface observing stations, establishment
of an automatic weather station, message switching systems, PDUS upgrade, hydrogen
generator, GTS consumables and project homepages on the web. A detailed project
proposal of the second phase 2001-2004 was prepared and finalized in December 2000.
The total contribution implemented in 2000 by bilateral arrangements amounted to
US $1,017 million.
5.1.18 For 2001, Finland will continue to support the meteorological re-construction
programme of Mozambique. Furthermore, Finland, in collaboration with WMO, will support
the preparedness to climate variability and global change in Small Island Developing States,
Caribbean region, in 2001-2003 (the total budget amounts to US $3.4 million).
5.1.19 The meeting was informed of the funding sources of France for technical co-
operation in the field of meteorology as follows:
- VCP(ES) from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (amounting generally to
US $300,000 per year);
- Bilateral and multilateral actions funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs after
consultation with Météo-France and conducted directly by a French agency;
- Actions directly funded by the Météo-France budget, such as expert services and
- Exceptional actions from other Ministry, such as the CLICOM Drought
Preparedness Project financed by the Ministry of Environment.
5.1.20 As regards VCP, the projects financed by France cover a large range of activities
and countries. In 2001 a substantial part will be devoted to the upgrading of the RETIM
satellite reception systems to RETIM 2000 in various countries.
5.1.21 The bilateral/multilateral funding applies generally to Eastern Europe and North
Africa. An important part is devoted to the ALADIN project, which includes the common
development and operation of a limited area NWP model. The ALADIN Consortium includes
14 countries in Eastern Europe and Morocco, Tunisia, Portugal and Belgium.
5.1.22 France devotes important resources to support ACMAD activities. An ACMAD
staff member is appointed by France, and as in the past years the AMEDIS project on
telecommunications in Africa was substantially funded by France.
5.1.23 Germany will continue to provide assistance in education and training and
fellowships, mostly on a bilateral basis, and especially for short-term fellowships on a cost-
sharing basis in the field of research and development. Relevant plans and
recommendations from WMO bodies will be taken into account as far as possible.
5.1.24 As regards training in operational hydrology, Germany concentrated on
supporting WMO-sponsored training courses.
5.1.25 In 2000 the International Postgraduate Course on Applied Hydrology and
Information Systems for Water Management at the IMTR in Nairobi, Kenya, was supported
with a financial contribution of DM 12,000. This amount was paid into the Hydrology and
Water Resources Trust Fund of WMO.
5.1.26 Furthermore, a German expert joined this course for a week as lecturer on
coastal zone management and interactions of tide and inland water flow. His contribution
was fully financed by the German IHP/OHP National Committee. Similar financial
assistance and contribution in kind for the course in Nairobi will be provided in 2001.
5.1.27 Following the flood catastrophe in Mozambique, Germany contributed a further
amount of DM 8,000 for the inclusion of the subject "flood forecasting/flood mitigation" in the
Nairobi course and for facilitating the attendance of a participant from Mozambique.
5.1.28 The VCP co-ordinated project ASMET (African Satellite Meteorological Education
and Training) was completed in early 2000 with a further contribution of DM 50,000 by GTZ.
5.1.29 The meeting was informed that Germany would continue to provide technical
assistance, mostly on a bilateral basis, and taking into consideration the relevant
recommendations of WMO bodies. Continued emphasis is placed on support to WWW
System Support Activities by means of seconded experts, training, etc.
Hong Kong, China
5.1.30 Hong Kong, China contributed for the first time to the VCP(ES) in 2000 in the
form of training fellowship given to Oman to attend a workshop on Port and Marine
Meteorology conducted in Hong Kong, China (US $19,000).
5.1.31 In 2001 and beyond, Hong Kong, China will continue to contribute to VCP(ES) by
offering short-term training fellowships to Members to undertake training to be conducted in
Hong Kong, China. The subjects of the workshops will include:
- Weather service;
- Service delivery via the Internet;
- Design and operation of automated observing systems;
- Design and operation of meteorological warning systems as part of a public
Aviation meteorological systems; and
- Port and marine meteorology.
5.1.32 Within the framework of the WMO VCP, training fellowships for five short-term
fellows were underway in 2000 in the fields of general meteorology and agrometeorology
(approximately US $7,000). In addition, eight fellowships were being implemented under
bilateral/multilateral technical co-operation in 2000. In 2001 about ten short-term fellowships
are expected to be supported under the VCP and a similar number is expected under
5.1.33 Israel contributed US $388,100 to the VCP for 2000 through the provision of 105
fellowships for four training courses in Israel at the RMTC, three on-the-spot courses with 82
participants in Kenya, Myanmar and Poland, short-term missions for Lithuania and Papua
New Guinea, as well as support to Turkish-Israel joint projects. In 2001, Israel will continue
to provide fellowships for participation in the four international post-graduate courses on
applied meteorology to be held in RMTC Bet Dagan, and on-the-spot courses abroad, within
the framework of the VCP.
5.1.34 Under the Turkish-Israel joint project, a data bank was established to integrate
the knowledge of the impact of climate, agricultural technology, soil and socio-economic
conditions on variability of the wheat yields in the Aegean Region of Turkey.
5.1.35 In 2000, Japan contributed US $200,000 to the VCP(F) and US $20,000 to
support the development of a Regional Strategic Plan in RA II, and US $25,000 to support
the improvement of the upper-air observation network in the Russian Federation. An
amount of US $250,000 was paid for training/fellowships.
5.1.36 The training courses which Japan hosted and financially supported in 2000 were
(a) A four-month group training course in meteorology aimed at enhancement of
capability of basic and operational meteorology was offered to nine participants
from nine Member countries from 21 August to 15 December 2000; and
(b) A training course on advanced weather observation was offered to four
participants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 28 February to 16 March
5.1.37 Japan will continue to contribute to the VCP(F) and VCP(ES) in priority areas of
WMO Programmes including marine meteorology and associated oceanographical activities
and GCOS workshop in RA II. It will continue to host a four-month group training course in
meteorology which will consist of about ten participants from various regions.
5.1.38 The prospects of the bilateral/multilateral technical co-operation activities are as
(a) The project for the strengthening of weather warning services related to natural
disaster in Bangladesh and the project for natural disaster reduction in Mongolia
were completed in 2000;
(b) A technical co-operation project in Cambodia recently commenced in February
2001 as a three-year project. The purpose of the project is an improvement of
the weather forecast system and its application to agrometeorology in Cambodia.
Two long-term experts in the field of meteorology and agrometeorology
respectively will be seconded to the Department of Meteorology (DOM) in
Cambodia. In addition, several short-term experts will be seconded, and several
staff members of DOM will visit Japan for training. The provision of certain
instruments such as a MTSAT image receiver, a SADIS system and an automatic
weather station will be considered.
5.1.39 During 2000, New Zealand provided varying assistance in public sector reform
advice, institutional strengthening, commercial approaches, quality assurance and technical
advice and support to a variety of countries. The countries assisted included Cook Islands,
Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Samoa, South Africa, Tokelau Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu. In addition,
New Zealand provided expert advice to a Meteorological Needs Analysis conducted in the
Pacific region by a multilateral aid co-ordinating organization.
5.1.40 New Zealand’s historical programme management’s involvement in the WWW
programmes at Kiribati, Tuvalu and Penrhyn Island (Northern Group of the Cook Islands)
continues. Under the 1990 multilateral accords, Penrhyn Island may close in May 2001 after
22 years of operation if alternative arrangements cannot be found. The radar is obsolete
and the facility, initially only planned for a 12-month project, requires a complete
refurbishment if it is to continue.
5.1.41 New Zealand will continue its support, especially in the Pacific, in 2001.
5.1.42 The Philippine contribution to the VCP is in the form of partial support to
training/fellowships. During 2000, it supported two WMO long-term fellows enrolled at the
University of Philippines (approximately US $1,500).
5.1.43 The activities of Portugal in 2000 included the Tropical Desk, short-term missions
and conferences, training course on Meteorological Satellites and support to RMTC of
5.1.44 Further to the installation of the "Tropical Desk" at the Institute for Meteorology
(IM), a course on Numerical Weather Forecast and Climate Modelling began in November
2000. At present, six meteorologists from Angola, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal
and Sao Tome and Principe participated in this course. Unfortunately, one meteorologist
from Cape Verde has not yet been able to attend the course.
5.1.45 There were bilateral actions involving Cape Verde (short-mission on the
assessment of the costs of meteorological data and products), Guinea-Bissau (joint
CRIA/IM/WMO short-mission on the assessment of the difficulties of the Meteorological
Service), Sao Tome and Principe (on-the-job weather forecast training course) and Special
Administrative Region of Macao (installation and putting into operation a sea state
forecasting model). Lectures and technical conferences were also held in Luanda, Angola
(Climatic Evolution and Warning and Alert Systems) and Sao Tome and Principe (Impacts of
the New Technologies on the Area of Meteorology and Human Resources). Jointly with the
Chinese Meteorological Administration and Macao Meteorological and Geophysical
Services, a Technical Conference on Meteorology was held in Macao in March 2000.
5.1.46 A very successful course on Meteorological Satellites co-sponsored by
EUMETSAT, IM and CRIA was held in Lisbon. Although the course was designed especially
for meteorologists from the Portuguese-speaking African countries (PALOP), meteorologists
from Brazil, Macao and IM also attended.
5.1.47 Further to the request from WMO regarding the support to the RMTC Nairobi, to
enable Mozambique officers to attend a postgraduate hydrology course in flood forecasting,
the Portuguese Government has contributed an amount of PTE 3,000,000, approximately
5.1.48 The expected activities concerning training/fellowships under the VCP in 2001
refer to the continuation of the course on Numerical Weather Forecast and Climate
Modelling (up to April 2001) and the realization of a three-month course on Marine
Meteorology for two meteorologists from each of the PALOP countries.
5.1.49 The following actions are expected to be achieved in 2001:
(a) Preparation of MSG Applications in Africa (MApA) project to develop satellite
applications in the African Portuguese-speaking countries;
(b) Complementary short mission on Weather Forecast Training in Sao Tome and
(c) Short mission in Sao Tome and Principe on Seismological Assessment;
(d) Short mission in Mozambique to prepare a project on a system for alerting natural
(e) Short mission in East Timor in order to assess the needs concerning the links
between a civil protection service and natural disasters;
(f) Second Symposium of Climate and Applications in the Portuguese-speaking
countries (in Brazil);
(g) Provision of computer equipment and graphic material for instruments for
Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tome and Principe.
Note: In some of these co-operation actions, the following entities were, and hopefully will
further be, involved: Portuguese Agency for Development Support (APAD), Institute for
International Scientific and Technological Co-operation (ICCTI), Portuguese Institute for Co-
operation (ICP), Agency of the Portuguese-Speaking Countries for the Climate and Related
Environmental Issues (CRIA), EUMETSAT, institutions from Brazil and WMO.
Republic of Korea
5.1.50 The meeting was informed that the third ”Training Course on Weather
Forecasting for Operational Meteorologists” for Member countries in Asia and the Pacific
region was held in Seoul, Korea from 10 to 30 April 2000. A total of 21 participants from
NMSs in the region attended the course. All expenses for their participation including
international travel and accommodation in Seoul were fully borne by the Korea
Meteorological Administration (KMA) through the sponsorship of the Korea International
Cooperation Agency (KOICA). It amounted to approximately US $120,000
5.1.51 The fourth “Training Course on Weather Forecasting for Operational
Meteorologists” for Member countries in Asia and the Pacific region will be held in May 2001.
It is expected that almost the same number of participants will be invited as in 2000 for four
weeks, one week longer than last year.
5.1.52 In 2001, the KMA is planning to organize a “Course on Meteorological
Technology Policy”, which will be conducted in the form of a study visit to KMA for a group of
directors of NMSs in the WMO region. As with the above two training courses, the course is
expected to be sponsored by KOICA.
5.1.53 Consequently, the total amount to be expended on VCP by the Republic of Korea
in 2001 will be approximately US $200,000.
5.1.54 The total contribution of Spain to the VCP amounted to US $314,503 in 2000.
The meeting was informed of the Spanish activities of multilateral co-operation in 2000-2001
5.1.55 Recognizing the importance of ACMAD project to reinforce the NMHSs in the
region, Spain contributed to ACMAD in 2000 US $85,300. Taking into consideration the
Spanish interest in this regional project, the voluntary contribution to ACMAD for the Year
2001 will be at the same level.
5.1.56 Considering also the importance of the participation of experts from developing
countries in the activities of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Spain’s
contribution to IPCC in 2000 was increased to US $31,000.
5.1.57 In 2000 the UK contributed US $50,000 (£37,000) to the WMO VCP Fund
(VCP(F)). The level of contribution will remain the same in 2001.
5.1.58 In 2000/2001, the UK contributed to the VCP(ES) to the value of approximately
£455,000. (Figures refer to the UK Financial Year April – March.) The primary expenditure
was on supporting:
On-going VCP projects which were completed during the year:
Congo and Zambia TE/5/3/1 - Provision of Internet connection;
Ghana, Rwanda AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a satellite-based distribution system for
and Mozambique WAFS data and products;
Ghana and Senegal PWS/1/1/1 - Upgrading/Provision of a media presentation system;
Seychelles OB/1/3/1 - Replacement of the hydrogen generator for the radiosonde
Zambia AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a Year 2000 compliant WAFS display
VCP Projects fully or partially supported and reported as completed in 2000:
Armenia PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a Weather Forecast Presentation System for
television and newspapers;
Costa Rica OB/1/2/10 - Provision of upper-air consumables;
Jordan TE/6/2/2 - Upgrading of the MDD receiving system to be Year 2000
Madagascar PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a media system;
Namibia PWS/1/1/1 - Upgrading of the television weather broadcast
Uganda OB/1/2/5 - Provision of radiosondes and DCP for Entebbe Upper-air
[In 2001/2002 the UK aims to deliver long-term support for key observations from data-
sparse areas. However this will be achieved through the UK’s WWW contribution rather
than through the VCP. The aim is to sustain this WWW support at about the same level as
present (currently four upper-air stations) with replacement of any that become
5.1.59 In 2001/2002, in terms of VCP(ES) support, and excluding the £37K for the
VCP(F), the level of contribution is planned to be approximately £418K. The priorities will be
(a) Support for communications, particularly satellite (Meteosat) reception of
meteorological data required for the preparation of adequate forecast and other
services. This is mainly focussed on disaster mitigation (especially food security
and storm warning). The communications anticipated would be MDD/AMEDIS
systems totaling approximately £114,000, currently judged to be 3 x £38,000 per
site (sites yet to be identified). The systems would be integrated systems
structured in such a way as to achieve dissemination of observations;
(b) Support for data processing systems (archiving, CLICOM, DARE, etc.)
(c) Support for UKSF/SADIS for reception of UKSF/WWW information (£133,000).
Initial sites are likely to be in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Macau; further work is
required on the technology to be used;
(d) Support for media weather presentations systems. This is seen as indirectly
encouraging the local observation collection system and also for disaster
mitigation - dissemination of warnings and advice (£111,000), made up of 2 x
£29,000 installations, plus approximately nine sites with low-cost media systems
(£6,000 each). These cheaper systems would meet the demand that cannot be
met with the higher cost systems;
(e) Support for web site development and operations, with same objectives as (d)
above, and miscellaneous small projects (£20,000); and
(f) WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (£20,000).
[It is assumed that support for MSG systems in North Africa will not fall liable until FY
5.1.60 In 2000/2001, the UK supported fellowships to the value of £188,000. The
primary expenditure was on supporting:
- Eight students to attend the Statistics In Agricultural Climatology course at the
University of Reading, United Kingdom;
- Ten students and external consultation for the transfer of the Statistics in
Agricultural Climatology course to the Kenya Meteorological Department Institute
for Meteorological Training and Research in Nairobi;
- Three meteorology MSc students;
- Thirteen students to attend a Regional Marketing Seminar hosted by the South
African Weather Bureau in Pretoria;
- Attendance at the Initial Forecasters course, the Advanced Forecasters course
and the Meteorology for Graduates course at the Met Office College, Reading,
- The final part of one student’s PhD study at a UK University;
- The WMO Aviation Seminar at the Met Office College, Reading, United Kingdom.
Funding was obtained from the United Kingdom Government Climate Change Challenge
Fund for one student to attend the MSc in Climate Change at the University of East Anglia,
5.1.61 In the year 2001/2002 the UK again aims to support fellowships to the value of
approximately £188,000 for:
- Forecasters to attend the WMO Aviation Seminar to be held at the Met Office
College in July;
- Training professionals to attend the WMO Training Seminar on Curriculum
Development at the Met Office College in Reading, United Kingdom;
- Eight students to attend a new and shortened Statistics In Agricultural
Climatology course at the University of Reading, United Kingdom;
- The second Statistics in Agricultural Meteorology course to be run at the Kenya
Meteorological Department Institute for Met Training and Research in Nairobi;
- Ten students in Meteorological Instrument Training at RMTC Cairo, Egypt
(subject to further exploratory discussions);
- Travel assistance for attendance at the Conference of Commonwealth
- Travel assistance for attendance at the European Conference on Applications of
5.1.62 The UK will continue its policy of supporting short-term specialized courses and
seminars. The UK will also continue to exploit the facilities at RMTCs for the delivery of
training. This will mean a reduction in the amount spent on MSc training for individuals.
Where support is requested for national training courses, the UK will be seeking expansion
of the proposed training to include students from other countries in the region to ensure the
most cost-effective use of the funds.
United States of America
5.1.63 The USA reported that its annual contribution to the VCP was US $2 million in
2000 and would likely be the same in 2001. During 2000, the USA funded 16 fellowships at
the International Desks at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Four
long-term fellowships were also funded.
5.1.64 The USA informed the meeting that training at the new Pacific Desk, located at
the NWS Weather Forecast Office in Honolulu, Hawaii, would begin in March 2001.
Fellowships will be provided for meteorologists from NMHS’s in RA V that are members of
the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Also planned to start in 2001 is a
model transfer desk at NCEP which will respond to international requests for numerical
weather prediction codes, including model installation and technical assistance.
5.1.65 The USA continued to sponsor, co-sponsor or support attendance to the following
workshops: Tropical Meteorology (Miami, Florida), Climate Applications (Norman,
Oklahoma), Flood Forecasting (Silver Spring, Maryland), Automatic Stations (Lincoln,
Nebraska), Cost Recovery (Mexico), Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques (San Jose,
Costa Rica), Research Applications (Mombasa, Kenya), New Technology (Nairobi, Kenya),
Port Meteorological Officer Training (Cape Town, South Africa), and WAFS/STAR4
5.1.66 The USA remained active in data rescue activities in Africa and Central America;
further data rescue efforts are expected in 2001 for Indonesia. The USA remains active in
data rescue of upper-air data in Africa and of surface/synoptic and hydrological data in
5.1.67 The USA supported AMDAR pilot projects in the Caribbean, South Africa, and
Saudi Arabia; projects with Hong Kong and the Russian Federation are pending for 2001.
5.1.68 The USA will continue to support routine upper-air observations in the Caribbean.
A two-year hydrogen generator replacement programme will start in 2001.
5.1.69 The total number of sites in the WAFS/STAR4 network reached 80 in 2000,
including 29 two-way and 51 one-way stations. The USA contractor for STAR4 changed in
2000 to Global Science and Technology, Inc. (GST). GST will complete installation of five
workstations and carry out required maintenance through 2001. The USA supported a short
course in RA IV on the use of products available on WAFS. In the future, the USA will look
to off-the-shelf, PC-based satellite workstations to replace the existing STAR4 systems.
5.1.70 In RA IV, the USA continued to support the following projects:
- A project that has distributed 50 low-cost automatic weather stations to amateur
radio operators in the Caribbean and Central America to provide supplementary
observations to local NMHSs and the RSMC Miami during tropical weather
- Regional maintenance to provide sustainability to observing systems in the
Caribbean and Central America;
- Regional Internet connectivity to make increased use of the Internet for
exchanging data and forecasts.
5.1.71 The USA maintained its on-going assistance with recovery efforts by NMHSs in
Central America and the Caribbean which were affected by Hurricanes Georges/Mitch in
1998 and Keith in 2000.
5.2 Review of the VCP Programme and related technical co-operation activities
(Agenda items 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7)
5.2.1 The meeting reviewed various issues related to the WMO Voluntary Co-operation
Programme, including support to the VCP projects, support to education and training
fellowships, the effectiveness of the VCP Programme, the evaluation of VCP projects, the
co-ordinated programmes, utilization of the VCP(F) and the WWW Implementation Support
Revolving Fund, publicity, and co-operation with other funding/technical co-operation
Support to VCP projects
5.2.2 The meeting reviewed the Members’ contributions to the VCP in 2000 given in
Annex V and the evolution of the support to the VCP over the past 20 years given in Annex
VI. It noted that the contribution to the VCP(ES) in 2000 was at almost the same level of the
largest contributions in 1989-1990, 1997 and in 1999. The contribution to the VCP(F) has
decreased to the level in 1998. However, in constant dollars, this would be an overall
5.2.3 The meeting noted that in 2000, 67 VCP projects for equipment and services
were circulated amongst donor Members, and 46 VCP projects obtained partial or full
support. The support received for these projects grouped by fields of co-operation during
the period 1988-1999, and in 2000 is given in Annex VII.
5.2.4 During 1988-2000, a total of 1,221 VCP projects was circulated amongst donors.
About 47% of the VCP projects received support: VCP projects related to surface observing
stations, upper-air observing stations, satellite receiving stations, telecommunication
systems, data processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and meteorological
applications activities (including Aeronautical Meteorology and Public Weather Services
Programmes) have received a high level (41-59%) of support, while those for weather radar
stations and GAW activities received a lower level (7-19%) of support. Compared with the
level of support in the past twelve years, 1988-1999, VCP projects for surface observing
stations, data processing systems, research and training centre activities, CLICOM and
climatological activities, and hydrological activities received more support in 2000, due to the
support given to the upgrading of WWW facilities in connection with the Year 2000 problem
and to the upgrading of CLICOM equipment. Four VCP projects related to hydrological
activities and three for the Internet connection were supported by Members and with the
VCP(F) in 2000.
Support to education and training fellowships
5.2.5 The meeting was informed that during 2000, a total of 240 requests for
fellowships expected to be supported within the framework of the VCP was received from
Member countries, and 108 short-term and five long-term fellowships were awarded under
5.2.6 Since January 1996 until December 2000 WMO has awarded 668 fellowships
funded under the VCP programme. The great majority (86%) of the fellowships awarded
under VCP during this period was for short-term studies. The meeting noted that many
short-term fellowships were awarded for study tours to familiarize senior staff of NMHSs with
modern techniques in meteorology and operational hydrology as well as modern
management techniques and operations in more advanced NMHSs, and that such study
tours proved most useful and cost-effective. VCP funds were also utilized to organize group
training with great success. Noting the cost-effectiveness of this tripartite cost-sharing
scheme, the meeting felt that the group-training scheme should be enhanced in the future.
The meeting also requested that the information be presented in terms of total investments
versus numbers of short-term and long-term fellowships.
5.2.7 In spite of the substantial offers of support obtained every year, between 140 and
180 requests for fellowships remain unsatisfied each year, meaning that over a half of the
fellowship applications received in any one year could not be satisfied (mainly for long-term
fellowships). Noting that the VCP has become a major source in supporting WMO
fellowships, the meeting encouraged donor Members to maintain and even increase their
VCP contributions to education and training fellowships with emphasis on cost-effective
programmes and preferably through RMTCs.
Effectiveness of the Voluntary Co-operation Programme
5.2.8 The meeting was pleased to note that the Secretariat prepared guidance material
on the VCP web page to assist Members in the preparation of requests for assistance under
the VCP (for equipment and services, fellowships and the WWW Implementation Support
Revolving Fund). This would ensure submission of clear requests and a better adaptation of
the requests to the likely offers of support and to the priority areas of the WMO Programmes.
The Final Report of the IPM/VCP/TCO continues to be distributed on a yearly basis to keep
the Members informed of the priority areas of WMO Programmes to be supported under the
VCP. The meeting also noted that the Secretariat is providing regular progress reports on
the status of VCP projects to Members concerned.
5.2.9 The meeting further noted that various measures have been taken to ensure the
cost-effective and efficient management of the VCP Programme. These measures served
for the regular and speedy circulation of the VCP requests and quicker implementation of the
5.2.10 The meeting noted with appreciation that in 2000 the VCP and TCO Home Pages
were updated and further enhanced with improved presentation of the web pages. As
requested at the last IPM, links were established between the TCO Home Page and the
technical co-operation-related pages of NMHSs web sites. The latest information on the
UNDP- and Trust Fund-supported projects (on-going and pipe-line) is now available on the
TCO Home Page. The distribution of VCP-related documents and publications in Adobe
PDF (Portable Document Format) was made in 2000. Documents and Final Reports of the
IPM and the third session of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation
became available on the web. In addition to the guidance materials for Members’
preparation of VCP requests, annual VCP publications including the Consolidated Report on
the VCP, the Consolidated Lists of VCP Projects and Status of Implementation and its
supplements are now accessible from the VCP Home Page. In addition to the lists of
approved VCP projects for equipment for circulation, full information on VCP project
requests circulated in 2000 and thereafter will also be available on the VCP Home Page. In
view of the usefulness of the on-line information for donors, the meeting encouraged the
Secretariat to continue to increase the availability of on-line information on the VCP.
Evaluation of VCP projects
5.2.11 The Secretariat presented a summary of statistics on the 138 valid evaluation
reports carried out in 2000 as given in Annex VIII. During the life span of the project (defined
as the time between the date of completion of the implementation of the project and the date
of preparation of the evaluation report), and during the three months preceding the date of
the preparation of the report, approximately 82% and 85%, respectively, of expected
services or results were available from the VCP project. About 83% of the equipment is now
in a satisfactory working condition. On the other hand, during the last three months about
3% of the projects had achieved 20% or less of the expected services or results, and 4% of
the equipment is now out of service. The main reasons for possible unavailability of services
are: inadequate equipment (hardware, software, documentation, consumables, etc.) and
inadequate training; and also breakdown of the equipment after installation, and lack of
consumables and spare parts. Seventy-four percent of the reports showed satisfactory in
arrangements for the maintenance of the equipment and 65% showed satisfactory in the
level of training of maintenance operators on equipment. However, approximately 43% of
reports indicated a requirement for complementary equipment as further assistance, and
39% indicated a requirement for complementary training.
5.2.12 The number of answers to the questions in the evaluation reports is given in
Tables Q2-Q5 in Annex VIII by fields of co-operation. The meeting noted that more than
80% of projects related to upper-air observing stations, telecommunication systems, data
processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and aeronautical meteorology
activities have achieved successful services or results (more than 85%), while four projects
related to upper-air observing stations, satellite receiving stations and aeronautical
meteorological activities have realized low-level services or results (less than 20%) during
the last three months. Further assistance for equipment including spare parts and
consumables is requested, in particular, for the projects related to satellite receiving stations,
CLICOM and climatological activities and public weather services activities. More training at
the time of the installation is needed especially for satellite receiving stations and data
processing systems, and post implementation training is also requested for the projects
related to data processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and public
weather services activities. Most of the projects related to public weather services activities,
in particular, require further assistance in expert services.
5.2.13 The meeting reviewed examples of the information and comments on the status
of the projects given in Annex VIII. Several reports indicated problems with computer
equipment which have not been upgraded to be Y2K compliant. Most of the reports showed
achievement of available expected services thanks to elaborated arrangements and efforts
of recipient countries for operation and maintenance of the equipment under improved local
5.2.14 In reviewing the process of the evaluation of projects, the meeting felt that the
questionnaire should be modified to identify the outcomes of the projects. The information
on the outcomes of the project could also be reflected on the VCP request.
VCP co-ordinated programmes
5.2.15 The meeting reviewed the list of the approved VCP co-ordinated programmes
and expressed the views that efforts be made to reformulate these programmes taking into
account the following:
• Noting the development of upper-air observation systems such as the AMDAR
programmes, it would be worthwhile to enlarge the co-ordinated programme
entitled “Improvement of the global network of upper-air stations with special
emphasis on GCOS upper-air network” and to consider the development of a
composite observing system, including the GCOS upper-air network;
• Noting the development of the WWW Information systems and services, the two
co-ordinated VCP programmes entitled “Improvement of the GTS” and “Support
to Internet capabilities at NMHSs” could be integrated into one co-ordinated
programme for the support to the telecommunication systems, including the use
of Internet technology;
• The scope of the co-ordinated programme entitled “Automation of NMCs” should
be redefined. In the context of VCP support, it would be better defined as the
support for improvement in performance of NMCs; this would include such
processes as telecommunication, visualization and elaboration of products
tailored to end-users.
Utilization of the Voluntary Co-operation Fund (VCP(F))
5.2.16 The meeting was informed of the status of the VCP(F) in 2000. In 2000, nine
Members made cash contributions amounting to about US $290,000 to the VCP(F). The
meeting noted with appreciation that Dr S.E. Moon, Former Administrator of the Korean
Meteorological Administration, made a personal contribution to the VCP(F). The expenditure
and obligations for approved projects amounted to about US $470,000. The funds were
used mainly for expert services, short-term fellowships, TCDC activities and high priority
programmes, in particular for support to upper-air stations, operational hydrology activities,
Y2K problem, Internet capability, climatological activities and mitigation of natural disasters,
in accordance with the guidelines approved by EC-XLVIII.
5.2.17 The meeting reviewed the proposals for the allocations of VCP(F) for 2001
amounting to approximately US $290,000, and considered that these proposals are in line
with the priority areas of WMO Programmes.
WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund
5.2.18 The meeting noted that since the establishment of the WWW Implementation
Support Revolving Fund in 1985, 27 loans were granted to 21 countries for temporary
assistance to purchase spare parts and consumables for continued operation of existing vital
WWW key elements. In 2000-2001 Malawi utilized the Revolving Fund scheme for the
purchase of meteorological instruments and consumables and Yugoslavia has indicated its
wish to utilize the Revolving Fund for computer equipment for Montenegro Republic
Hydrometeorological Institute. It also noted with pleasure that, through the utilization of the
diplomatic channels and with assistance of Regional and Subregional Offices, three
Members took action for reimbursement of their loans in 2000.
Publicity of the VCP
5.2.19 The meeting was informed that efforts have been made for publicizing the
accomplishments of the VCP in order to attract new donor Members and to mobilize external
resources including International Funding Institutions. Further to a special issue of the WMO
Bulletin focusing on the WMO VCP published in July 1996, the TCO/VCP web pages have
been developed and enhanced for publicity purposes. A presentation material (MS-
PowerPoint file) is being developed for use in publicity and resource mobilization activities by
the Secretariat and Members. A further enhancement of the Internet web pages (with new
looks) and preparation of a VCP brochure for publicity are underway in 2001. In this respect,
donor Members were invited to contribute articles on their activities in terms of the VCP to
the brochure. The meeting strongly endorsed the need to communicate the goals and
successes of the VCP and Technical Co-operation more broadly to assist in mobilizing
resources both internal and external. The meeting considered the brochure to be an
excellent means of accomplishing this. Australia indicated its willingness to assist with some
funds for this initiative.
Co-operation with other technical co-operation partners
5.2.20 As agreed at the last IPM, representatives of several funding institutions and
technical co-operation organizations based in Asia and the Pacific were invited to the
meeting in order to foster close co-operation with these agencies and exchange information
on relevant activities. In this context, a special session was dedicated to presentations by
the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the South Pacific Regional
Environment Programme (SPREP) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
(IOC) regional office in Perth, following the presentations by the WMO Secretariat, the
President of WMO and the President of CBS.
5.2.21 The meeting was given a brief introduction by Ms J. Laurence, Programme
Officer, Environment and Natural Resources, Pacific Regional Section, AusAID, of its
activities and on-going projects supported by AusAID. AusAID is the agency responsible for
the Australian Government aid programme to developing countries. It focuses its activities in
the Asia and Pacific region and provides assistance through bilateral, multilateral and
5.2.22 Regional projects are undertaken simultaneously across a number of countries in
areas that are more appropriately dealt with from a regional perspective as they are not
confined by country boundaries. Meteorology falls into this category. Regional projects can
also be undertaken to address gaps in bilateral programmes. Though most governments of
developing countries would recognize the important contribution of meteorology to the
economic and social well-being of their country, in bilateral consultations it is often not
considered as high a priority as other issues. As Australia recognizes the importance of
meteorological services and wishes still to be involved in this area it considers it appropriate
for inclusion in the regional programme. Regional projects may also operate in sensitive
areas, such as child abuse or HIV/AIDS.
5.2.23 The AusAID regional programme has been involved in meteorological activities
for some years. Recent projects related to these activities in the Pacific include the Sea
Level and Climate Monitoring Project and the Disaster Management Unit at the South Pacific
Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). Phases I and II of the Sea Level and Climate
Monitoring Project saw the installation of tide gauges in twelve Pacific islands. The specific
goal of Phase III is to provide an accurate long-term record of sea levels in the South Pacific
for partner countries and the international scientific community that enables them to respond
to and manage related impacts. The Disaster Management Unit at SOPAC is aimed at
assisting Pacific Island National Governments to develop the capacity to formulate and
administer effective Disaster Management Plans specifically relevant to their own country’s
5.2.24 The AusAID project most directly relevant to the meteorological community is the
Pacific National Meteorological Services Needs Analysis. At the Regional Meteorological
Directors meeting in 1999 the Directors finalized a Strategic Plan for the development of
Meteorological Services in the Pacific. The first step identified in the implementation of the
plan was to conduct a needs analysis. AusAID was asked to be involved in the analysis and
agreed to fund travel and administrative costs. SPREP, WMO, Australian Bureau of
Meteorology, the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
(NIWA), US NOAA/NWS, Météo-France and the Fiji Meteorological Service provided in-kind
assistance to develop the report.
The Needs Analysis emerged in three parts:
• The context of meteorology in the Pacific;
• A country by country description of capability and needs; and
• Development project proposals.
5.2.25 The meeting noted that Australia is keen to be further involved in the results of
the Needs Analysis and is planning, subject to specific approvals, to take up one of the
development projects outlined in the study. Considering that East Timor will be a future
Member of WMO, Portugal expressed its availability to co-operate in the assessment of the
needs of this country and also in the planning of its own Meteorological Service.
5.2.26 The meeting was informed by Mr G. Miles, Head, Environmental Management
and Planning Division, SPREP of its recent activities. The South Pacific Regional
Environment Programme, as the region’s intergovernmental agency responsible for the
environment, has been assisting Pacific Island countries strengthen their meteorological
services since 1993. Working closely with WMO, Météo-France, Bureau of Meteorology
(Australia), MetService (NZ), and National Weather Service (USA), SPREP has focused on
specific training, technical advice and equipment to ensure the validity and maintenance of
the observational network and the co-ordination among Directors of Meteorology. Through
annual meetings of region’s Directors of Meteorology it has been possible to prepare a clear
picture of needs and an effective framework for the provision of regional assistance.
Through this approach over US $6 million has been secured to assist Meteorological
Services over the past decade.
5.2.27 In 1997, SPREP offered to host the WMO Subregional Office for the South-West
Pacific. This has improved co-operation between WMO and SPREP and provides the basis
for joint programming and well co-ordinated assistance to all Pacific Island countries.
5.2.28 In response to the Strategic Plan for the Development of Meteorological Services
in the Pacific Region adopted in 1999, SPREP commissioned a report on the needs of the
region. The Pacific Meteorological Needs Analysis Project, made possible through the
financial assistance of Australia (AusAID), was a team effort involving WMO, Météo-France,
Bureau of Meteorology (Australia), MetService (NZ), and National Weather Service (USA)
and all NMSs and has provided a region-wide framework for the provision of assistance.
5.2.29 The Needs Analysis highlights the significant challenges for this region from basic
observational needs and limited human resources through to building infrastructure. The
analysis contains a range of possible projects that could usefully guide investment in the
region. For the effective implementation of the outcomes of the Needs Analysis at the
regional level it will be essential to invest in:
- dedicated human resources within SPREP and WMO;
- continued meetings of Directors of Meteorology;
- rapid response to maintenance of the observational network; and
- provision of climate information through the Island Climate Update.
The WMO VCP was encouraged to use the Needs Analysis in allocating resources for use in
this region and to use the Needs Analysis as a possible model for other regions.
5.2.30 Mr W. Erb, Director of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)
Perth Regional Programme Office presented the regional capacity building activities of the
IOC Regional Office. The Office is primarily charged with developing the Global Ocean
Observing System (GOOS) Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean regions. Since the GOOS
Programme is highly focused on capacity and awareness building, the regional GOOS
activities look to the capacity building panel for policy guidance. WMO and IOC jointly
sponsor the capacity building programme of the Joint Technical Commission on
Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). The programme must co-operate with
other programmes, such as WWW and GCOS, and seek partnerships with funding agencies
to pursue mutual objectives.
5.2.31 The IOC components of the GOOS capacity building programme contributed to
the implementation of 35 meetings with capacity building content hosted by 26 Member
states. There were 21 training events plus 14 other meetings covering the Mediterranean,
Western and North Indian Ocean, Latin America and the Caribbean, South and North-
western Pacific, as well as some with global scope. IOC co-sponsors a programme known
as Training Through Research with UNESCO and the Russian Ministries of Natural
Resources and Science and Technology. In 1991-2000 Russian research vessels
conducted ten major cruises, five workshops and eight post-cruise conferences. IOC also
supported various international conferences during 2000 that had capacity building
objectives. IOC supports with UNESCO a Chair in Coastal Oceanography in Chile and a
programme on Marine Education for Central America, designed for primary and secondary
school teachers. In summary, IOC’s year 2000 activities involved more than 800 participants
from 80 Member states.
5.2.32 The meeting expressed appreciation to the representatives of the above
organizations for their valuable contributions and recommended that further dialogue be
maintained with these institutions, including during future meetings.
6. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP
AND/OR RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES
(Agenda item 5)
6.1 Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR)
6.1.1 The meeting reviewed the development of the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay
(AMDAR) System in comparison with the radiosonde observing system (see paragraph
6.2.5). The AMDAR Panel was established with an aim to enhance the upper-air component
of the WWW GOS through co-operation with Members in the acquisition, exchange and
quality control of automated meteorological observations from aircraft. AMDAR has proved
to be a cost-effective data source that responds to the needs of WMO and WMO-sponsored
programmes such as WWW, WCRP, GCOS and GOOS and that brings benefits to end-
users beyond the aviation community.
6.1.2 Priority AMDAR projects include the co-ordination of national and regional
programmes, promotion of standardization in formats and reporting intervals, improvement
of data exchange and quality control and two pilot projects respectively for Southern Africa
and the Middle East. The objective of the pilot projects is to enhance the quantity of
automated meteorological reports from aircraft in these areas to meet the goal of improving
forecast accuracy. Three successful operational AMDAR programmes are already in
existence in Australasia, USA and Europe. Since the commencement of these programmes,
relevant AMDAR data are being made freely available and disseminated globally through the
GTS. In the USA, a first-generation operational water vapour sensor has resulted in the
installation of the first sensors on almost 50 aircraft and a second-generation sensor is
almost complete and is expected to become operational by 2002. The European AMDAR
programme is a very successful co-ordinated regional programme under EUMETNET known
as E-AMDAR. One of the most important tasks of E-AMDAR is the avoidance of duplication
of effort and resources.
6.1.3 The southern Africa and Middle East high-priority projects are expected to be
developed into regional programmes following their impact studies. There is a need for
targeted observations from foreign carriers and in this regard assistance for the cost of
transmission of AMDAR data is required. Several other countries have commenced the
development of AMDAR programmes including Canada, Hong Kong, China and Japan with
an expansion of the programme expected in Canada in spring 2001.
6.1.4 The USA provided financial assistance to the Panel with the planning and
development of a new AMDAR programme in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Central
America. AMDAR data are expected to be provided through targeted observations mainly
from US and European aircraft. Chile is beginning to take initial steps towards approving the
development of a national AMDAR programme. China already has the appropriate
infrastructure in place and is working to co-ordinate a large national programme in the near
future. Other countries that have indicated an interest in the possible development of
AMDAR programmes include Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.
6.1.5 The major expenses incurred from an operational AMDAR programme arise from
data transmission costs. The cost per AMDAR observation varies from 1 to 11 US cents
with the median being 4 cents. A fully automated AMDAR profile of temperature, wind,
turbulence and possibly humidity up to cruise levels at 200 hPa (compared to 5 hPa for
radiosonde) typically consists of up to 30 observations costing approximately US $1.20.
Compared with the costs of the consumables and staff time of a conventional GPS
radiosonde sounding of at least US $300, AMDAR is a remarkable cost-effective data
source. With two soundings per day, an annual minimum AMDAR programme would cost
less than US $1,000 versus about US $220,000 for GPS-based radiosonde soundings. An
AMDAR profile every three hours would only cost about US $7,000 per year.
6.1.6 The daily volume of AMDAR data disseminated through the GTS has increased
rapidly in recent years with a maximum of approximately 50,000 observations per day in
February 1998. At the end of 2000, the number has been more than doubled. Africa is
producing a few hundred observations daily during the pilot project phase but this will
expand to about 4,000 in the latter part of 2001 when the programme reaches full
operational status. It is anticipated that Canada and Saudi Arabia will be producing up to
5,000 observations daily by the end of 2001.
6.1.7 EC-LII in May 2000 expressed concern that the activities of the Panel could be
curtailed unless adequate contributions to the AMDAR Trust Fund were forthcoming. In this
regard, AMDAR Panel members were invited to encourage their administrations to continue
to contribute to the AMDAR Trust Fund to ensure that the existing technical support is not
disrupted and the positive results achieved so far by the Panel were not compromised. In
this regard, the meeting invited donor Members to consider providing support to this
important programme through financial contribution to the AMDAR Trust Fund.
6.2 Co-ordinated support to the Upper-Air Network and consideration of new
6.2.1 The 2000 IPM meeting, noting a deterioration in the operation of the upper-air
network in the Russian Federation, considered that assistance be given for the improvement
of the Russian Federation upper-air network. In collaboration with the Russian Federation,
the United Kingdom prepared a report entitled "The necessity of supporting the world upper-
air network” for consideration. Following the discussions at the side meeting during EC-LII,
a VCP project request for short-term requirements was submitted and circulated in
November 2000, and Australia, Japan and UK indicated their willingness to support the
project. In 1998-2000 Finland supported the upgrading of three upper-air stations in the
north-western region of Russian Federation, and the monitoring results of the ECMWF
showed a better quality of the observations from these stations. Negotiations are underway
between the Russian Federation and the World Bank for long-term requirements.
6.2.2 Recognizing the existence of similar problems in other regions, RA I and RA III in
particular, EC-LII endorsed the proposal that similar project proposals should be developed
for these regions.
6.2.3 Since the widely applied OMEGA-Navaid system ceased its operation in
September 1997, some 250 upper-air stations had to be equipped with a new windfinding
system. In areas where no reliable LORAN-C or VLF coverage was available, Members
have mainly chosen the GPS windfinding system for this replacement. Given that within the
first years of the GPS implementation significant problems related to the reliability of the
wind measurements arose, this issue could now be widely solved by the application of an
improved system solution by all providers of this kind of equipment.
6.2.4 The information contained in Annex IX provides a rough overview on the
performance and costs of all presently applied radiosonde systems related to wind
6.2.5 In addition, limited upper-air profiles are being obtained by using aircraft
equipped with AMDAR systems. AMDAR reports are limited to special airports and are not
normally available at night due to restrictions imposed for night flights (in most European
countries) and humidity can not yet be measured. Although AMDAR reports cannot replace
radiosonde observations for climatological purposes, the low cost of the operation of
AMDAR reports in comparison with that of radiosonde (see above paragraph 6.1.5), the
meeting felt that the development of AMDAR programmes would ensure sustainable source
of upper-air data in areas where the radiosonde observations are sporadic or missing.
Therefore donors showed particular interests in the support of the development of AMDAR
programmes. However, noting the above-mentioned limitation of AMDAR observations, the
meeting felt that the radiosonde observations should continue to be made and supported as
6.2.6 Although it was noted that upper-air observations can be derived from satellite,
wind profilers and other remotely sensed data, a robust surface-based upper-air system is
required to ground-truth these data. Furthermore, there are limitations in remotely sensed
data (e.g., humidity, lower-resolution, height) for which the surface-based network continues
to serve a vital need.
6.2.7 In addition to this, there is research on-going in deriving profiles of the
precipitable moisture in the atmosphere by using the available GPS signals. However, its
operational application cannot be expected in the near future.
6.3 Internet capabilities in NMHSs
6.3.1 The Internet provides a cost-effective means to exchange information amongst
NMHSs and with end-users, complementing the GTS. Several WWW centres, and in
particular RTHs, have implemented and operate Internet servers (Web or FTP) to post
information that NMHSs/NMCs could download. Internet access enables Members to
actively participate in WMO Constituent Bodies (e.g., CBS, Regional Associations), WMO
programmes and with external Organizations. Furthermore, creative use of the Internet is a
powerful means to increase the visibility of the NMHS in its country, improve the quality of
end-user oriented services and to raise the level of scientific knowledge and public
awareness of meteorological matters.
6.3.2 Full access to the Internet includes e-mail services, access to HTML web
services (browser) and provision of a Web server normally through an Internet service
provider as an initial step. The support for implementation of Internet capabilities at NMHSs
of developing countries should preferably be associated with the initial automation of NMCs.
Several NMHSs in developing countries would require assistance for implementing a full
Internet connectivity. Special equipment (e.g., wireless communications) is required for
NMCs of some developing countries, for alleviating the unreliable and low-quality local
connections with Internet providers.
6.3.3 The number of NMHSs with Internet access has grown from 34% in 1997 to just
over 70% in 1999 and is still increasing. In 1999, about one-third of the NMHSs were using
the Internet for dissemination of warnings. However, for several reasons it is difficult to
guarantee delivery, timeliness, authenticity or accuracy of network information. At this stage
of its evolution, the Internet cannot truly be a viable operational system for the NMHS, and
should not be depended solely upon to support forecast and warning operations for
purposes where data attribution must be guaranteed.
6.3.4 The Internet has limitations as a medium for dissemination of urgent warnings
and enables the public to have access to many more sources of information, some of
questionable quality, authenticity and origin, with the potential for public confusion. But at
the same time, it complements the GTS and allows NMHSs to access information to support
their public weather services, and to provide information directly to users and the public. In
addition, the Internet can serve as an effective medium for NMHS staff education,
programmes of public education and awareness, service promotion and user feedback.
6.3.5 Numerous NMHSs have web sites but the process is slower to develop in small
and developing countries mainly due to the inadequacy of resources, staff and training.
Weather sites are some of the most popular sites on the Internet and with modest resources
an NMHS can establish a web page either on its own server, its service provider's server, or
on a sister agency's web page. The best option for NMHSs that do not as yet have a web
site is to develop their own simple site and provide links to more specialized information at
6.3.6 CBS has developed the WMO Guide on Internet Practices to provide guidance to
NMHSs. The meeting encouraged all Members to use this information to create or improve
their presence on the World Wide Web. Noting all the above-mentioned benefits for the
NMHSs, the meeting agreed to promote the assistance to the projects related to the access
of the NMHSs to the Internet.
6.4 Co-ordination of assistance in response to natural disasters and countries
emerging from conflict
6.4.1 A proposal for the mechanism for timely and co-ordinated assistance in response
to disasters was presented to the meeting with emphasis on the concept and activities of the
Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART), given in Annex X.
6.4.2 The meeting was pleased to note that during the period 1991-2000, assistance
was provided to Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,
Mozambique, Sudan, Yemen and Viet Nam as well as countries in Central America and the
Caribbean within the framework of the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (officially entitled
WMO Disaster Assistance Fund for Meteorological and Hydrological Services) and the VCP
by donations of Member countries and private companies, for rehabilitating networks of
stations and associated facilities destroyed by natural disasters. Contributions in cash and
in kind were received from Australia, China, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Republic of Korea, UK and USA, and also from French and UK instrument manufacturers.
6.4.3 The meeting also noted that further to the EC-LII’s endorsement of the concept of
the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART), within the framework of the
implementation of Secretariat review, a WMO Secretariat Task Force on Natural Disasters
called “Emergency and Disaster Response Group“ (EDRG) was established in August 2000.
The EDRG, chaired by the Deputy Secretary-General with membership comprising Director
Co-ordinators and relevant Directors including those from WWW and TCO Departments, will,
among others: (a) assess the preliminary information on the emergency or disaster; (b)
determine the need to assemble an Emergency and Disaster Response Team (EDRT) and,
as appropriate, activate an Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART); and (c) provide
policy advice to EDRT and EART. The EDRG will contribute to the work of the EART. An
EDRT will be assembled within the WMO Secretariat for a particular disaster or emergency
and would assume tasks including: (a) ensuring effective lines of communication to be
established between WMO Headquarters, relevant Regional and Subregional Offices,
NMHSs and Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) for the duration of the
event; (b) establishing contact with other relevant agencies and authorities within the UN
system and as necessary NGOs; (c) arranging for the preparation of bulletins for distribution
through NMHSs, Regional Centres and to other international organizations; (d) media
interactions (e.g., preparing and arranging press releases, briefings, and interviews); and (e)
arranging briefing sessions for Geneva missions.
6.4.4 In reviewing the proposed EART activities, including its membership, terms of
reference, co-ordination and funding mechanisms, its procedures and promotion, given in
Annex X, the meeting fully endorsed the implementation of proposed EART activities. It
considered that the presented PowerPoint proposal material would be greatly useful and
valuable to demonstrate and promote the EART concept to the government and external
donors and encouraged participants to utilize the material in their activities in support of
EART activities in respective countries. It expressed the views that regional meteorological
organizations, such as the Caribbean Meteorological Organization (CMO) and SPREP could
be a member(s) of the EART.
6.4.5 The meeting noted that there is also a need for co-ordinated support to the
countries emerging from conflict, such as Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone and Yugoslavia and
potentially East Timor which is not, as yet, a Member of WMO.
6.5 Implementation of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)
6.5.1 The meeting recalled that the mission of the Global Climate Observing System
(GCOS) is to ensure the availability and quality of the atmospheric, oceanographic, and
terrestrial data critical to a wide variety of climate users and to promote improvements in
climate observing systems where needed. Gaps and deficiencies in observing system
networks are especially significant in developing countries. Aware of these deficiencies, the
Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), in its Decision 5/CP.5, invited GCOS, in consultation with relevant
regional and international bodies, to launch a regional workshop programme to facilitate
improvements in observing systems.
6.5.2 The GCOS Secretariat initiated a Regional Workshop Programme in mid-2000 in
response to the COP invitation. The first workshop in this programme was organized for
Pacific Island countries in August 2000. The second workshop, planned for the countries of
eastern and southern Africa, will take place in April 2001. Pending availability of resources,
eight additional workshops in developing regions are anticipated before the end of 2003.
GCOS is relying heavily on working closely with regional partners, both to help with the
organization of workshops and to take the lead in developing post-workshop action plans
and proposals for improving observing systems in each region.
6.5.3 Funding for the first workshop was secured from WMO and UNEP and from
several individual donor countries, including Australia, New Zealand and USA.
Subsequently, the GCOS Secretariat submitted a proposal to the Global Environment
Facility (GEF) to fund approximately 50 percent of the Regional Workshop Programme.
GCOS will still need additional resources, approximately a further US $1.5 million for the full
ten workshops and related follow-up activities. Given the funding required, the meeting
encouraged donor countries to support GCOS efforts in this regard.
7. FUNDING OF PROJECTS (Agenda item 7)
7.1 The meeting noted that since 1997 necessary guidance and materials (annual
VCP Publications, web pages, presentation materials and VCP brochure) were/are being
prepared to assist Members in the resource mobilization activities in terms of the VCP to
explore possible support from other governmental institutions, non-governmental
organizations and the private sector. In 2000, some firms were contacted for possible
support to the Programme. It further noted with satisfaction that Hong Kong, China and
Saudi Arabia reported its initial contribution to the VCP(ES) in 2000 in the form of providing
fellowships to WMO Members.
7.2 The meeting, in view of the limited resources available and the increasing needs
of Members, considered several new measures, such as: (1) the concentration of the VCP
support on priority areas of WMO Programmes so as to resolve urgent problems; (2) the
funding of priority components defined in the strategic plans developed by RA II and V and
those being developed by RA I and III, to resolve increasing major gaps concerning
observing and telecommunication facilities; and (3) the mobilization of resources at national
level from governmental and non-governmental organizations and the private sector for
meteorological and hydrological projects.
8. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING (Agenda item 8)
8.1 Date and place of the next meeting (Agenda item 8.1)
8.1.1 The meeting expressed its appreciation to Australia for having hosted this
meeting and noted that holding the meeting in Melbourne, Australia offered a very good
opportunity for representatives from partner organizations in Asia and the South Pacific to
8.1.2 The meeting agreed that the Chairman-designate act between meetings to assist
in preparation for the next meeting. It was agreed that Mr B. Angle would act as Chairman-
designate for the period up to the next meeting.
8.1.3 The meeting agreed that the IPM 2002 meeting be held in Geneva in conjunction
with the fourth meeting of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation in
February-March 2002. External organizations to be invited to the next IPM could include the
Geneva/Europe-based funding institutions and technical co-operation organizations
including the European Commission (EC), UNDP, World Bank (WB), UN Office for Project
Services (UNOPS), UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and
the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNESCO. Brazil and Canada
offered to host subsequent meetings.
8.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting (Agenda item 8.2)
8.2.1 The meeting noted that it was time to more clearly define the role of the IPM. It
was decided that an internal review be conducted over the next year with the goal to report
to the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation in 2002. The Chairman
agreed to develop the scope of this review in consultation with the WMO Secretariat and a
sub-group will meet at EC-LIII in June 2001. It was generally felt that this review would
• Terms of reference;
• Links to the Long-Term Plan objectives;
• Improved evaluation of VCP projects;
• How best to communicate and co-ordinate between meetings;
• Review of the documentation required by the group to reach conclusions;
• Setting reasonable targets and outcomes; and
• Strengthening the role of regional and subregional offices in the process.
9. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 9)
9.1 The meeting reviewed the draft Report and requested the Chairman-designate to
approve the Final Report on its behalf.
9.2 The Chairman expressed appreciation on behalf of the meeting to the work done
by the Secretariat staff and staff of the Bureau of Meteorology in support of the meeting.
9.3 The meeting was closed at 13:23 on 1 March 2001.
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)
Name Country Official position Address/Tel/Fax/E-mail
TSUI, Dr Venantius K. Australia Superintendent, Bureau of Meteorology
International and Public GPO Box 1289K
Affairs Melbourne, Victoria 3001
Tel: 613 9669 4219
Fax: 613 9669 4473
DALL’ANTONIA Jr., Mr Brazil General Coordinator of Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia
Alaor Moacyr Agrometeorology (INMET)
Eixo Monumental - Via S1
Brasília - DF
Tel: +55 61 344 3333
Fax: +55 61 344 0700
ANGLE, Mr Bruce Canada Senior Advisor, Meteorological Service of Canada
International Affairs Atmospheric Environment Service
North Tower, Fourth Floor
Les Terrasses de la Chaudiere
10 Wellington Street
K1A 0H3, Canada
WANG, Mr Caifang China Director-General, China Meteorological Administration
International 46 Baishiqiao Road
Cooperation Department Western Suburb
Tel: 86 10 62173417
Fax: 86 10 62173417
SAGBOM, Mrs Finland Chief, International Finnish Meteorological Institute
Marianne Development P.O. Box 503
Cooperation FIN-00101 Helsinki
DUVERNET, Mr France International Relations D21/INT – Meteo-France
François Manager 1 quai Branly
75340 Paris Cedex 07
Tel: (+331) 45 56 70 50
Fax: (+331) 45 56 70 05
BAUER, Mr Hans Germany International Affairs Deutscher Wetterdienst
Officer Frankfurterstr. 135
LAM, Dr Hung-Kwan Hong Director Hong Kong Observatory
Kong, 134A Nathan Road
ALPERSON, Mr Zvi Israel Director Israel Meteorological Service
P.O. Box 25
Il-50250 Bet Dagen
SASAKI, Mr Hideyuki Japan Head, Office of Planning Division
International Affairs Japan Meteorological Agency
Tel: +81 3 3211 4966
Fax: +81 3 3211 2032
VEITCH, Mr Tony New Manager, International Meteorological Service of New
Zealand Development and Zealand
Services 30 Salamanca Road
P.O. Box 722
RASQUINHO, Mr Olavo Portugal Head, External Relations Instituto de Meteorologia
Rue C-Aeroporto de Lisboa
SHAW, Mr David UK Head, The Met. Office
International Relations London Road
Berks. RG12 2SZ
Tel: +44 1344 856633
Fax: +44 1344 854543
PAREIN, Mr Jon International Activities NOAA/NWS
Office W/IA Room 13426
1325 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
LAURENCE, Ms AusAID Pacific Regional Section Australian Agency for International
Joanne Development (AusAID)
62 Northbourne Avenue
G.P.O. Box 887
Canberra ACT 2601
ERB, Mr William IOC Director Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Perth Regional Office
P.O. Box 1370
West Perth WA 6872
MILES, Mr Gerald SPREP Head, Environmental South Pacific Regional Environment
Management and Programme (SPREP)
Planning Division P.O. Box 240
DIALLO, Mr Harouna M. Director, Technical Co-operation Department
TOYA, Dr Tokiyoshi SPM/VCP, Technical Co-operation Department
KERHERVE, Mr Pierre World Weather Watch Department
TAIKI, Mr H.K.T. Subregional Office for the South-West Pacific
KRISHNA, Mr Ram
PHILLIPS, Ms Sarah
1. OPENING OF THE MEETING
2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING
2.1 Election of the chairman
2.2 Adoption of the agenda
2.3 Working arrangements
3. MAJOR ISSUES, TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS
4. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL
ASSISTANCE IN SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES
5. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO-
OPERATION PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2001
5.1 VCP(ES) for 2000 and prospects for 2001
5.2 VCP(F) for 2000 and prospects for 2001
5.3 WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund of the VCP
5.4 General perspectives of VCP donors’ actions
5.5 VCP-related bilateral projects for 2000 and prospects for 2001
5.6 Information on other VCP-related technical co-operation activities
5.7 Training and fellowships related to the VCP
6. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP
AND/OR RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES
6.1 Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR)
6.2 Co-ordinated support to the Upper-Air Network and consideration of
6.3 Internet capabilities in NMHSs
6.4 Co-ordination of assistance in response to natural disasters and
countries emerging from conflict
6.5 Implementation of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)
7. FUNDING OF PROJECTS
8. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING
8.1 Date and place of the next meeting
8.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting
9. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING
PRIORITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WMO PROGRAMMES
1. World Weather Watch Programme
1.1 Observing systems
Surface Observing Stations
1.1.1 The results of the October 2000 annual global monitoring indicate that the number of SYNOP
reports actually received at Main Telecommunication Network (MTN) centres remained unchanged
globally, compared to 1999, at 75%. The percentages of reports received daily at MTN centres of the
GTS increased slightly from 59% (in 1999) to 64% in Region III, from 83% to 85% in Region IV and
from 92% to 93% in Region VI. Some decrease in the availability of reports was noted in Region I (from
52% (1999) to 49%) and in Region II (from 82% to 81%). The monitoring shows that in some regions a
considerable percentage of reports are still missing due to absence of observations or
telecommunication problems. In this connection, Regional Association II at its twelfth session (Seoul,
Republic of Korea, September 2000) appealed to donor countries and the Secretary-General to give
high priority to efforts for providing support and technical assistance to help developing countries
sustain and improve their observing networks and to implement the necessary telecommunication
means for exchanging the observations.
Upper-air Observing Stations
1.1.2 The October 2000 global monitoring also shows that the number of upper-air reports actually
received at MTN centres increased in all regions giving a global average of 61%, compared to 57% in
1999. In particular, the percentage of reports required by the Regional Basic Synoptic Network (RBSN)
in Region I amounted to 31% (29% in 1999), 59% in Region II (52%), 39% in Region III (35%), 86% in
Region IV (84%), 58% in Region V (57%) and 73% in Region VI (70%). This positive trend is due
primarily to the successful replacement of obsolete OMEGA-based observing technology in certain
regions and continued individual and multilateral efforts of Members to re-activate and improve RBSN
stations performance. However, monitoring results confirm that large gaps in data coverage still persist
in South America, Africa, and Asia. These deficiencies in upper-air networks were caused to a large
degree by a high cost of consumables and financial and technical problems in certain countries. The
twelfth session of RA II also stressed that all possible measures be taken, including assistance provided
through VCP projects, to increase the availability of upper-air data.
1.1.3 In accordance with decisions of the Thirteenth Congress, the VCP Programme should be
continued along similar lines as in previous years. In the light of this decision, the improvement of the
global upper-air network should have the highest priority within VCP projects related to observing
systems. This approach was reiterated by the twelfth session of RA II, which recommended that
highest priority be given to realization of projects which would have the greatest impact on the WWW
implementation on regional and global scales. The Association also felt that based on the analysis of
proposals solicited from Members concerned, priority activities should be aimed at remedying
deficiencies in the RBSN through co-ordinated support projects, new joint funding mechanisms,
contributions of potential donors, and the VCP.
1.1.4 Support is urgently required in several countries in Africa, particularly to Angola, Liberia,
Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Tanzania; in Asia to Yemen; in South America to Bolivia and
ANNEX III, P. 2
Venezuela; and in Central America particularly to Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, to assist them
with provision of essential consumables, spare parts and replacement of damaged and/or obsolete
1.1.5 Support is also necessary in the Newly Independent States and in Yugoslavia in provision of
core observational equipment, consumables and spare parts.
1.2 Telecommunication systems
1.2.1 The further development and upgrade of the Regional Meteorological Telecommunication
Network (RMTN), as endorsed by XII-RA I (1998), includes in particular:
- Strengthening GTS implementation, especially at national level;
- Further development of the satellite-based telecommunication network covering the Western
and Central African area, called SATCOM, which includes the capacity to support upgraded
GTS links. Members concerned need support for installing the necessary local connection
and terminal equipment to join and benefit from the SATCOM network;
XII-RA I also invited Members concerned to solicit the support of donor Members or Organizations with
a view to assisting in the implementation of DCPs in critical areas.
1.2.2 The Co-ordination Meeting on the GTS Strategy in Africa (October 2000) identified the following
rehabilitation and capacity-building projects required to urgently address the most significant
- Implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems and establishment of the most cost-effective
connection to RTH Nairobi for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Rwanda, and Somalia when the local
situation would be appropriate, and to RTH Pretoria for Angola;
- In non-ASECNA countries benefiting from SATCOM facilities (Western and Central Africa),
implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems at the NMC and interconnection to the
SATCOM earth station facilities. The highest priority should be given to Guinea (Conakry) and
Ghana in this respect;
- In ASECNA countries, implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems at the NMC/DMN
(Direction de la Météorologie Nationale) and interconnection with the NMC/ASECNA;
- Implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems for Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe, and
upgrading the GTS circuit to RTH Pretoria;
- Upgrading or rehabilitating the NMTN for national data collection in Angola, Cameroon, Chad,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nigeria,
Rwanda, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, and also in Sierra Leone and Liberia when
the local situation would be appropriate;
- Implementation of Internet access at all NMCs, and implementation of Internet server at RTHs;
ANNEX III, P. 3
- Upgrading the GTS circuit for Sudan and Zambia and the GTS circuits Cairo-Algiers, Algiers-
- Training activities on GTS procedures and basic ICT for the GTS and WWW development. In
this respect, a training seminar on the use of new technology, similar to the training seminar
held in Nairobi in May 2000, is planned for 2001 in Niamey to facilitate and support the effective
introduction and operation of information and communication technology for the WWW systems
at NMCs. Support for the provision of PCs and basic application software (data-communications,
data/products handling and display) is required.
1.2.3 The twelfth session of Regional Association II (Seoul, September 2000) agreed that highest
priority in the RMTN should be given to efforts to establish GTS connections in those NMCs that are
still not connected (Baghdad, Phnom Penh, Sanaa, Vientiane). It urged Members concerned, and in
particular donor countries, to pay attention to the important requirements of providing for system
redundancy when planning GTS support projects.
New RA III Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network
1.2.4 The plan for the design and implementation of the new RA III RMTN using the concept of
Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN) services has been agreed upon.
The international Invitation to Tender (ITT) is being prepared and is planned for 2001. Co-operation
support is likely to be required for the procurement and implementation, and for some RA III countries
for implementing the necessary computer-based equipment at NMCs to benefit from the new RMTN.
1.2.5 The Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in Region IV, at its third
session (Santo Domingo, April 2000), agreed that the highest priority for VCP projects should be
given to the projects related to the improvement of the upper-air network, with respect to both
implementation and sustained operation (e.g., GPS radiosondes). The session also gave a high priority
to the implementation of automatic weather stations, which are playing an increasing role in the framework
of the WWW Programme as well as for climatic research purposes. It reiterated the importance of
training activities and fellowships. It also agreed that the improvement of the current telecommunication
arrangements for the six Caribbean meteorological offices not equipped with a VSAT was of highest
priority, on the understanding that the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States
(SIDS) project for the Caribbean, supported by Finland, could be a source for funding this project with
a view to an early implementation.
1.2.6 The Implementation Co-ordination Meeting on the GTS in Region V (December 1999) agreed
upon the following priorities for co-operation activities, including in particular VCP projects:
- Further implementation of EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network
through the GOES satellites) receiving systems, in particular in South Pacific islands;
- Further implementation of DCPs for upgrading observational data collection;
ANNEX III, P. 4
- Implementation of computer-based systems (e.g., PC-based) at small NMCs for GTS function
as well as handling and display of data and products.
1.2.7 The twelfth session of Regional Association VI (Tel Aviv, May 1998) agreed to allocate the
highest priority within the framework of the technical co-operation activities related to the WWW in
Region VI to the co-ordinated project to assist the countries in implementing their connection to the
Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN). RA VI Members that are not yet
connected to the RMDCN are located in the eastern part of the region. There is also a requirement for
the rehabilitation of GTS systems in Yugoslavia.
1.3 Global Data-processing System
1.3.1 It is now widely accepted that international actions, including those by WMO required to bridge
the digital divide, include among others:
- Support national actions aimed at harnessing the potential of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) through providing assistance to developing countries, and strengthen their
capacity in building infrastructure and generating content;
- Encourage research and development in ICT and related applications adapted to specific
requirements in developing NMHSs;
- Commit the necessary resources to bridge the digital divide and promote measures to increase
the number of computers and other Internet access devices in developing NMHSs.
1.3.2 Follow-up action in respect of human resources capacity building is for provision, on request,
through technical co-operation and regular training programmes, short-term and long-term NWP
fellowships to NMCs in Africa wishing to establish a critical mass of scientists in NWP field. This was
also emphasized by EC-LII. In particular support will be required for cost of the attachment to the
advanced centres of the ACMAD selected RA I research and development experts in NWP.
1.3.3 NWP research and development facilities equivalent to those required for running Regional
Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) will need to be made available to the NMCs of the selected
experts for the experts' use.
1.3.4 Provision of hardware and software facilities will be required for NMCs/RSMCs/Emerging Centres
with critical mass of scientists in the NWP field with potential to run operational Regional/Limited Area
Model (LAM) such as NCEP ETA model, RAMS or public domain MM5 model. Potential centres
include ACMAD, RSMCs Dakar and Nairobi, DMCs Nairobi and Harare, NMCs Dar-Es-Salaam, Addis
Ababa, Antananarivo and Lagos.
1.3.5 Provision of data-processing and forecasting, related telecommunications interface facilities
for data collection, quality control of data and post processing of imported products will also be required
to produce value added products. Potential centres are all NMCs except those already with NWP
facilities or handling post-processing functions. Where only data handling and display facilities are
available upgrade facilities to post-processing facilities of imported NWP products to generate value-
added products would be required.
ANNEX III, P. 5
1.3.6 Requirements for the high priority co-ordinated projects are as follows:
(1) ACMAD, RSMC Nairobi, DMC Nairobi
(i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships;
(ii) Attachment to advanced centres;
(iii) Research and development facilities for running RAMS;
(iv) Facilities to operationally run Regional/Limited Area Model;
• high-end workstation as computer server;
• pre-processing server;
• data server for on-line database and devices for archiving;
• software as indicated under RSMC/Large NMC in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 5;
(v) Interface with existing telecommunications facilities.
(2) RSMC Dakar and DMC Harare
(i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships;
(ii) Attachment to advanced centres;
(iii) Research and development facilities for running RAMS;
(iv) Facilities to operationally run Regional/Limited Area Model;
• high-end workstation as computer server;
• pre-processing server;
• data server for on-line database and devices for archiving;
• data management server to distribute files including full Internet functions;
• workstations, X-terminals, PCs and other peripherals (plotters, etc.);
• Software as indicated under RSMC/Large NMC in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 5;
(v) Interface with existing telecommunication facilities.
(3) National Meteorological Centres (NMCs)
(a) NMCs Addis Ababa, Antananarivo, Dar-Es-Salaam and Lagos
(i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships;
(ii) Attachment to operational centres;
(iii) High-end workstation as computer server;
(iv) NWP model code and related pre- and post-processing facilities;
(v) Hardware and software as indicated under the recommended and minimum computer
system for an NMC.
(b) With the exception of the centres dealt with above in projects 1 to 3(a), and the following
centres which run operational NWP models (RSMCs Algiers, Cairo, Pretoria and NMCs Tunis
and Casablanca), other NMCs in Africa and other developing regions have the following
ANNEX III, P. 6
(i) Hardware and software as indicated under the recommended minimum computer
system for an NMC specified below.
NWP capacity building
1.3.7 Capacity building should focus on provision, on request, of hardware and software facilities to
NMCs in Africa and elsewhere, with critical mass of scientists in the NWP field. These will be NMCs with
potential to run operational Regional/Limited Area Model such as NCEP ETA model, RAMS, or those
available in the public domain such as MM5 model. Developing RSMCs are encouraged to commence
with implementation and operation of similar or more sophisticated NWP regional models. For this
purpose centres requesting relevant high-end workstation/PC facilities to run such models should be
supported through a co-ordinated assistance programme.
1.3.8 To facilitate real-time data management, a co-ordinated programme should be developed and
supported for the provision of encoding and decoding software for WMO table driven codes (BUFR
and CREX) and GRIB from advanced GDPS centres.
1.3.9 A data-processing sub-system at an RSMC or a large NMC should consist of:
- A computer server (a mainframe machine or high-end workstation with a high computing speed
and large memory) for the production of numerical analyses and forecasts, research work and
other tasks requiring considerable computer power; the server should be capable of running
operational Regional/Limited Area Model with imported boundary data and with limited local
- A pre- and post-processing server for other data-processing tasks, which must be handled in
real-time (for example, graphical presentation of the NWP products for the forecasters within
the NMC or other weather services);
- A data server for keeping a central on-line database, with additional devices for archiving;
- A data management server to distribute files (observational data, grid-point data, graphics,
pictures, etc.) within the office, to other remote offices or customers within the country; this
communication server also provides other services (for example, file transfer via e-mail and
access to the World Wide Web);
- Workstations, X-terminals, PCs, all other peripheral devices (plotters, printers, etc.) installed in
the various departments of the RSMC or NMC; they communicate with the above-mentioned
servers with the help of local area networks (LANs);
- Adequate interface between the data server and the telecommunication system.
1.3.10 The software for meteorological applications should be capable of the following:
• Organization and procedures for data collection;
• Data recognition and decoding procedures;
• Data storage and retrieval procedures;
• Processing of data prior to analysis;
• Quality control of data;
ANNEX III, P. 7
• Procedure for numerical analysis;
• Numerical weather prediction methods;
• Procedures for deriving and presenting output products;
• Utilization of numerical products.
1.3.11 The minimum requirements for an NMC to computerize both its communications and applications
- For telecommunication and basic data handling and presentation facilities - dual unit PCs with
Ethernet/communication cards, modem and relevant communication, data handling and
- For data-processing component - workstation units (256 MB RAM or more), with peripherals as
digitizer, streamer tapes, laser printers, scanner, LAN and suitable PCs, and relevant data-
1.3.12 Follow-up essential actions on NWP and ICT training events involve provision of a set of minimum
PC-based automation of NMC functions, telecommunications, data handling, and post-processing
and presentation facilities to the countries concerned. Training events on NWP and ICT with co-ordinated
support for provision of equipment and facilities need to be continued as a means of capacity building
and addressing the digital divide.
1.4 Satellite receiving stations
1.4.1 The space-based sub-system of the Global Observing System is composed of two segments,
the space segment and the ground segment. A portion of the ground segment, ground stations
receiving the direct broadcast service, has been continuously evaluated. Four categories of satellite
receiving equipment in WMO regions have been surveyed: low-resolution polar-orbiting data (APT);
high-resolution polar-orbiting data (HRPT); low-resolution geostationary data (WEFAX); and high-
resolution geostationary data (HR). Since the 1995 survey, there has been an increase of 351 receiving
stations in the total number of satellite receiving equipment reported to be operating within NMHSs.
1.4.2 The WMO goals for Members equipped with satellite receiving equipment are 100% for polar-
orbiting satellite data receivers (either APT or HRPT) and 100% for geostationary satellite data receivers
(either WEFAX or HR). This means that each WMO Member should be equipped with at least one
polar-orbiting satellite data receiver and one geostationary satellite data receiver. In 2000, the level of
implementation of both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite receivers was 86%. With regard to
each category, WMO Members have achieved an overall implementation of 88% and 90% for polar-
orbiting and geostationary satellite receivers, respectively.
1.4.3 The expected change from analogue to digital low-resolution imagery coupled with improved
capability to utilize satellite data within all WMO Members indicates that a strategy towards implementation
of low- and high-resolution digital receivers should be pursued by WMO Members as well as through
assistance programmes. Due to several delays in the satellite operator, the commencement of the
new broadcast services has been delayed.
1.4.4 As regards VCP priorities, the following guidelines should be used, in priority order:
ANNEX III, P. 8
1st Satellite receivers should be provided for those Members without any receivers;
2nd Satellite receivers for those Members without a polar-orbiting receiver or a geostationary
3rd Satellite high-resolution receivers for those Members with only low-resolution polar-
orbiting receivers or only low-resolution geostationary receivers;
4th Satellite receivers for those Members already exceeding the WWW goal.
Based on the latest information available contained in the WMO Secretariat database, WMO Member
lists have been prepared for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th priority and are available on request.
1.5 Aeronautical Meteorology Programme
1.5.1 The views of Thirteenth Congress regarding the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) satellite
broadcasts were summarized in paragraph 220.127.116.11 of the Report of the work of the Congress session:
"Congress expressed satisfaction with progress achieved on the implementation of the WAFS,
particularly with the achievement of global satellite coverage of WAFS satellite broadcasts in
1996 and the installation of 165 WAFS satellite reception systems in 120 countries with further
installation planned. Congress expressed its appreciation to Members, in particular the United
Kingdom and United States for having provided other Members with very small aperture terminal
(VSAT) equipment and STAR4 workstations to access and use the WAFS satellite broadcast
data and products."
1.5.2 Although 153 countries have now installed about 200 satellite broadcast and display terminals
to access the WAFS data and products, 14 additional VCP requests are awaiting consideration by
donors. It is expected that, in the future, additional requests for continued installation of terminals in
countries that still have the satellite terminals or for upgrading existing terminal equipment would be
submitted to WMO. Relevant VCP projects concerning WAFS satellite broadcasts terminal equipment
are given in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 6, Appendix L.1 (VCP projects related to meteorological
applications activities - Aeronautical Meteorology Programme).
1.5.3 In addition to the installation of satellite terminal equipment, the full implementation of the
WAFS by 2002 would require SIGWX forecast charts to be replaced by digital coded SIGWX forecasts.
In this regard, there will be a pressing need for training operational forecasters on the use of BUFR
coded SIGWX forecasts to enable them to convert these coded SIGWX forecasts into SIGWX charts at
the local level when required by the airlines. In addition, by learning how to apply the US software
PCGRIDDS to WAFS products, such training would also provide the opportunity to enable forecasters
to be able to develop tailored aviation products to meet the specific needs of the airline industry.
Support for training, the highest priority for the Aeronautical Meteorology Programme, such as the
UK/WMO annual training seminar and the previous US NWS/WMO WAFS seminar, is also requested
from the Informal Planning Meeting.
ANNEX III, P. 9
1.6 Marine Meteorology and Associated Oceanographical Activities Programme
Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and coastal surface observations
1.6.1 Large parts of the world's oceans and coastal waters are seriously data deficient, for both
surface meteorological and oceanographic observations. Many of these data deficient sea areas (e.g.,
Indian Ocean, RA I waters, South Pacific Ocean) are adjacent to developing countries, which could
thus contribute substantially to overcoming the deficiencies, but lack the technical means to do so.
Specifically, their contributions would be directed towards satisfying requirements for marine surface
data given in the WWW Programme, for surface oceanographic data for global climate studies specified
in the GOOS/GCOS Implementation Action Plan, and for local/regional marine services.
1.6.2 Detailed specifications for shipboard equipment (for the VOS and ships of opportunity) are
given in the Guide to Marine Meteorological Services and the CIMO Guide. Specifications for coastal
observing stations are also given in both guides, and have been further elaborated by CMM (now
JCOMM). The assistance required involves not just the equipment but also training of local technical
personnel in installation and maintenance. Steps towards such training have already been taken
through the organization of three regional workshops for Port Meteorological Officers (PMOs). The
training imparted through these workshops needs to be backed up now through the provision of
appropriate shipboard equipment, which will serve to enhance the global availability of ship
Ocean data buoys and sub-surface measurements
1.6.3 Drifting ocean data buoys are a proven and very cost-effective technology for the observation
and transmission of ocean surface variables, both meteorological and oceanographic, from data sparse
areas, in support of operational meteorology and oceanography and global climate studies. As such,
the data from these buoys, distributed globally, benefit all Members. The Data Buoy Co-operation
Panel (DBCP), working in particular through its regional action groups and technical co-ordinator, co-
ordinates support for agencies and institutions in developing countries to participate in the work of the
panel, in the operation of buoy programmes and in the use of their data.
1.6.4 Similarly, upper ocean thermal structure is an important variable in ocean circulation and in
seasonal to interannual climate variability. The JCOMM Ship-Of-Opportunity Programme (SOOP), co-
ordinated through the SOOP Implementation Panel (SOOPIP), provides a network of ship lines
deploying XBTs which is fully complementary to the new Argo programme of profiling sub-surface
floats. SOOPIP works directly (in particular through its technical co-ordinator) with agencies in developing
countries to facilitate their participation in the programme as well as in the application of the data
1.6.5 Both these observation areas are crucial to global programmes such as the WWW, WCP, GOOS
and GCOS, as well as to individual Members. They would benefit directly from VCP support in the
provision of hardware, technical assistance and training. Such support would be most effective if
directed through and co-ordinated by the DBCP and SOOPIP.
1.7 Public Weather Services Programme
1.7.1 WMO Members, especially those in small and developing countries, need to acquire, or replace
and upgrade computing and communications systems in an effort to meet the substantial increase in
demand for meteorological data and products, as well as to keep pace with the rapid advances in
ANNEX III, P. 10
technology. VCP priorities in the PWS Programme would therefore include, but not be limited to:
(a) Computer systems at meteorological work stations that allow forecaster interaction and enable
the creation of new or enhanced products; these will include systems to access satellite imagery
(inputs) and the preparation of processed products (outputs) for users;
(b) Media weather presentation systems comprising computing and communications hardware,
peripherals and software, video equipment, and assorted relevant accessories, e.g., equipment
to produce crawlers on TV broadcasts with the latest warnings; also, training in the use of
(c) Increased Internet access for NMHSs so they can use it as a fundamental communications tool
to improve their data access, as well as expand the dissemination methods of their public
weather services through NMHS’s web pages;
(d) Fixed and mobile communication systems including modern telephone services preferably
utilizing digital processes, mobile telephones, pagers/short message system (SMS) and fax-
(e) VHF radios to provide simple radio broadcast and warning alert systems;
(f) Training related to national PWS plans; this includes training in media skills (writing and
presentation), product design, and public education and awareness among other things.
1.7.2 The high priorities listed above can be succinctly integrated into the following two foci:
(a) Modern computing and communication systems (hardware and software) to improve data access
and to facilitate design and delivery of public weather services;
(b) Requisite training in the management, maintenance and use of the systems and in support of
the provision of efficient and effective public weather services.
1.8 Tropical Cyclone Programme
1.8.1 Emphasis will be placed on the following subjects:
(a) Training support for meteorologists from Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka at the Indian
Institute of Technology (IIT) to study the institute's storm surge simulation model and how it
can be adapted to Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka (US $7,500; two weeks per person).
(b) Upgrading of the telecommunication equipment in Cambodia, Democratic People’s Republic
of Korea and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The Members mentioned currently do not
have the financial resources to purchase the required equipment. This project will help improve
the tropical cyclone warning dissemination system of the three Members (US $30,000).
ANNEX III, P. 11
2. World Climate Programme
2.1 Climate Computing (CLICOM) and Data Rescue (DARE) projects
2.1.1 The Drought Preparedness Project for 12 African countries has been implemented successfully
with CLICOM systems (equipment and software) installed in each country and training sessions
organized for the local staff, including a two-week regional climate applications workshop.
2.1.2 With the new Climate Database Management Systems (CDMSs) being offered to WMO (all
systems will be Windows compatible), a new strategy will be to combine Data Rescue activities with the
new CDMSs. The development of technology allows the use of scanners and/or digital cameras for
data preservation and possibly digitizing.
2.1.3 It is planned that each country will be able to choose the database management system it
prefers but it is expected that groups of countries in a particular region will choose the same CDMS. All
new systems being offered to countries will include equipment for Data Rescue: scanners, OCR
software, etc. At a regional level (CLICOM Area Support Centres), digital cameras will be used in
roving missions for data preservation.
2.1.4 Based on the success of the Drought Preparedness Project, two new projects with a DARE
component are proposed:
• The beneficiary countries in Region I will be : Cameroon, Congo, Gambia, Madagascar,
Rwanda, Uganda, Sao Tome and Principe, Tanzania and Zambia;
• In Regions II and V: Cambodia, Myanmar, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Viet
2.1.5 Following the VCP requests received from Region I and the results of the WMO survey mission
in April 2000 in Regions II and V, it is suggested that these two projects be considered with a high
2.1.6 In Region VI, there is a need to upgrade the database management system in some of the
Newly Independent States (NIS) such as Azerbaijan and Kazakstan.
2.1.7 A CDMS implementation in a group of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in Region V is
another possibility. Many countries involved in the Finnish Meteorological Institute project in the
Caribbean are requesting Microsoft Access-based CDMS for their climate database management. It is
expected that by July 2001, it will be possible to make available to SIDS in the Caribbean and South-West
Pacific, the system being developed in Zimbabwe with the support of UK.
2.2 Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS)
CLIPS Showcase Projects: Heat/Health Warning Systems
2.2.1 WMO, together with a number of major partner organizations in the Climate Agenda and national
and municipal agencies, is collaborating in a series of Showcase Projects begun in 1999 to demonstrate
the application of climate information and weather forecasts to the reduction of human deaths related
to extreme heat waves. Although the Rome and Shanghai projects are drawing heavily from the
successful experiences of similar climate applications that were instituted in USA, they are also
ANNEX III, P. 12
incorporating knowledge gained throughout the network of climate and health applications that are
overseen by the WMO’s Commission for Climatology (CCl).
2.2.2 The identifying features of the projects are that they involve a multidisciplinary team from the
outset, they depend on proven climate applications that correlate historical climate and health information
with dangerous air masses, they result in an integrated warning system that gives city dwellers concrete
information to mitigate the life-threatening effects of extreme heat waves, and the ongoing responsibility
for the resulting system lies wholly within the local organizations.
2.2.3 The WMO’s participation in the Showcase Projects is a product of the CCl’s priority on
"Development of climate services in support of human health". The projects follow guidelines that
were proposed by a group of experts convened by the WMO, which met in Freiburg, Germany in
1997. The group included health and meteorology specialists from WMO, UNEP and WHO. The
WMO activities are cross-co-ordinated through its CCl, Commission for Basic Systems (CBS), and
Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS).
2.2.4 The first phase of the projects involves focused study and development of a warning algorithm
specifically for individual cities - ideally, one in each region. VCP support during 2001 could provide
for the travel of climatological experts and the travel of NMHS partners to assist in the development of
the correlations and the warning algorithm, and to cover the costs of retrieving the archived
2.2.5 The second phase will comprise the preparation of generalized guidance for NMHSs to use in
developing similar systems. Other climate/health relationships will be considered and appropriate
applications developed during this phase. The second phase will commence in 2001. VCP support
will be sought for the development of generalized guidance and the conducting of a workshop on
climate and health that would use the Showcase Project as its main example.
2.3 Agricultural meteorology
2.3.1 In the Agricultural Meteorology Programme, the main priority activities, which should be
considered for VCP support, are:
• Improving agrometeorological bulletins and advisories;
• Training in Agricultural Meteorology with emphasis on new methodologies and building
• Expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility
2.3.2 There are increasing demands for timely and effective agrometeorological information for on-farm
applications. The growing interest in the possible impact of natural and human-induced climate variability
and long-term climate change on agriculture and forestry has created new demands for information
from, and assessments by agrometeorologists. Also the growing demands for food and concerns with
the need for achieving greater efficiency in natural resource use while conserving the environment are
placing a much greater emphasis on understanding and exploiting climatic resources for the benefit of
agriculture and forestry. The need for reorienting and recasting meteorological information, fine tuning
of climatic analysis and presentation in forms suitable for agricultural decision making and insulation of
marginal farmers with small holdings from the adverse impacts of weather vagaries has become more
ANNEX III, P. 13
2.3.3 Developments in communications and electronic media, in particular the ever-expanding
cyberspace linkages through the Internet and the World Wide Web are changing the way people view
information dissemination and exchange. The potential to enhance the international exchange of
ideas, concepts, data and information at the global level is expanding rapidly. The enhanced computing
power that is available today is making data manipulation much easier than ever before. Revolutionary
changes in audio-video media make it easy to take the information to users. Geographical Information
Systems and other spatial modelling tools make it possible to integrate biological, physical and socio-
economic factors in a holistic manner. Hence the opportunity exists, more than ever before, to obtain
and provide information to users through a variety of sources. Also it is now possible to reach a larger
audience using cost-effective means that were just not available even a few years ago.
2.3.4 NMHSs, or other departments providing agrometeorological services, can contribute to the
national economy, and best obtain recognition and remuneration for the investments made in agricultural
meteorology, through the effective use of the information by the agricultural community in the widest
sense by making the best use of the current advances in the audio-video media and the communications
2.3.5 The Twelfth Session of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM-XII) considered
the need to enhance agrometeorological services to improve agricultural production and to conserve
the environment. It emphasized the importance of timely provision of agrometeorological information
in a user-friendly format.
2.3.6 In order to improve agrometeorological bulletins that are routinely supplied to the users, WMO
is organizing an Inter-Regional Workshop on Improving Agrometeorological Bulletins in October 2001.
Following this workshop, it is proposed to organize a number of training workshops in different regions
to train the staff in NMHSs to use the improved methodologies and tools for the preparation of
agrometeorological bulletins and advisories. VCP support is being requested for the organization of
the training workshops in different regions. Estimated funding needed is US $10,000 for each training
seminar and potential donors are invited to indicate their preference for the region.
2.3.7 Members from developing countries often request WMO for expert services for the formulation
of technical assistance projects and feasibility studies. VCP support is being requested for the provision
of such expert services.
3. Hydrology and Water Resources Programme
3.1 In the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, the main priority activities, which should
be considered for VCP support, are:
- hydrological observing systems (in particular, automatic stations, satellite transmission
equipment for automatic stations, gauging equipment);
- data acquisition and processing systems (software and hardware for data base
management, with particular emphasis on those countries which still maintain, partly or
totally, their data bank on paper support; Geographic Information System (GIS) and
Remote Sensing (RS) application to hydrology);
- training in operational hydrology with emphasis at the technician level; and
ANNEX III, P. 14
- expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility
3.2 Progress has been achieved in the hydrological data rescue pilot project in Africa to convert
the stored data from paper to electronic form. At present, seven countries are currently participating.
The VCP(F) support was provided for this purpose and work in three countries was accomplished
during the year 2000. The other four countries are at different stages of implementation.
3.3 Canada and USA provided substantial support to countries in Central America and the Caribbean
in equipment and training for restoration of the hydrological network destroyed by Hurricanes Georges
3.4 Many requests for VCP support in hydrology have been received. It is possible that some
projects have not been supported because of the high cost involved. In such cases it might be
recommended that Members scale down their request to a maximum value of US $50,000.
4. Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme
4.1 Thirteenth Congress in its Resolution 3.3/1 had requested WMO Members to give all possible
support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a high priority to the Global
Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP). Congress agreed
that measurements of the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere
should be given similar attention to that received by classical meteorological parameters.
4.2 While GAW requests for VCP support are considerable, donors agreed to consider offering
support through "twinning" arrangements. It is in this context that the established GAW stations of
global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset (Algeria), Ushuaia (Argentina), Arembepe (Brazil),
Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia) and Mount Kenya (Kenya) have been
successfully twinned with countries or groups of countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Germany
and USA. Specialists from South Africa and Switzerland have also provided technical and scientific
expertise to Kenya. The Kenya/Switzerland twinning arrangement of a specific activity is exemplary.
Facilitated through WMO GAW, Switzerland has provided ozonesonde tracking equipment for the
Nairobi GAW station. Switzerland is providing funding, has trained personnel and the project is
participating fully in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) data project, an
endeavour to improve ground-based balloon sonde data in the tropics and subtropics for satellite data
validation. Donor countries should be encouraged to enter into twinning agreements as a contribution
to the Voluntary Co-operation Programme.
5. Education and Training Programme
Education and training fellowships
5.1 Major VCP donor Members continue to provide VCP fellowships and many other Members
continue to provide VCP contributions by waiving fees and providing subsidized accommodation to
5.2 The gap between the ever-increasing Members’ fellowships needs and the reduced funding
opportunities for WMO fellowships continues to increase. In view of the rising costs of fellowships, the
ANNEX III, P. 15
diminishing financial resources (particularly under UNDP) and the increasing needs for fellowships, the
IPM meeting may wish to consider maintaining, and even increasing, the present annual allocation for
short-term fellowships. The meeting may also wish to encourage donors to continue and hopefully
expand their contribution to this highly appreciated programme.
5.3 The Secretariat continued its exploration of additional extra-budgetary resources and new
potential sources of funding aimed at increasing and complementing the traditional fellowships financial
resources. It also continued the cost-sharing tripartite fellowship arrangements; in particular in the
RMTCs, aimed at optimizing the use of limited VCP and regular budget fellowship funds.
5.4 The main priority activities requiring VCP support are:
- Long-term fellowships;
- Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs,
particularly in the area of:
- Computer-aided learning (CAL); and
- Distance learning, including the use of the Internet.
6. Regional Programme
6.1 Lack of data and products remains the most serious problem faced by many Member countries
in RA I. The Sixth Technical Conference on the Management for Development of Meteorological
Services in Africa (November 2000) encouraged NMHSs to have strategies to implement and operate
as a matter of urgency relevant new technologies and appropriate facilities such as the Internet, automatic
weather stations, AMDAR Aircraft reports, remote sensing data including those from the new generation
satellites. Thanks to the contributions made by France, UK and USA, two important training seminars
on the use of new technology for the exchange, processing and applications of meteorological data
and products were successfully organized for English- and French-speaking participants respectively
in Nairobi (May 2000) and Niamey (February 2001). The training programme included computer basics,
operating systems, telecommunication technology, networking and TCP/IP Web site building, Internet
basics, PC-based applications and AMEDIS system and all trainees were given relevant equipment to
take back to their respective NMHSs.
6.2 Based on this experience and its positive impact on NMHSs, VCP donors should continue to
make contributions to the following relevant actions:
- Extend training activities in the use of IT to other needy Members ($50,000);
- Carry out a study on the development and the implementation of a regional
telecommunication strategy ($30,000 for expert services);
- Assist African countries not covered by the E.U. funding to ensure sustained reception
and use of MSG satellite products;
ANNEX III, P. 16
- Connect NMHSs to the Internet, where it is required;
- Upgrading and automation of NMHSs in Africa;
- Upgrading some RA I Members’ upper-air systems (VCP projects already formulated).
6.3 Regional Association II (Asia), at its twelfth session (Seoul, September 2000), recommended
that the highest priority of the VCP projects be given to the realization of projects which would have
the greatest impact on the WWW implementation on regional and global levels.
6.4 The reasons for the low availability of the observation data from RBSN stations in the region
are due to deficiencies in the operation of both observing and telecommunication networks, which are
caused by technical and economic problems. All possible measures should be taken including
assistance provided though VCP projects to increase the availability of the data.
6.5 XII-RA II showed deep concern over the deterioration of upper-air networks in certain areas of
the region, in particular in Central Asia and its near-polar region. The need for the rehabilitation and
strengthening of these networks through VCP and bilateral assistance was emphasized.
6.6 The establishment of the GTS connection of NMCs not yet implemented for the exchange of
data and products should be given a high priority. In this connection, the remaining technical problem
of the implementation of a 9600 bit/s circuit Bangkok-Vientiane should be solved urgently.
6.7 As regards the training of meteorological and hydrological staff, the effort to secure more
funding under the VCP should be continued in order to meet the increasing demand of Members for
training of staff for the development of their Services.
6.8 In order to implement the Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of NMSs in RA II (2001-2004), a
need analysis should be carried out to identify the requirements of NMSs at national, subregional and
regional levels for the enhancement of their Services.
6.9 Priority areas in RA III (South America) are given below:
(i) Implementation of the new Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network
(RA III RMDCN);
(ii) Improvement of the Regional Synoptic Observation Network for surface and upper-air
(iii) Automation of the Data Processing Systems of the NMHSs;
(iv) Strengthening education and training activities in the region, since most of the countries
suffer from a serious lack of trained personnel for the prediction and operation of the
(v) Development by the Members of CLIPS implementation plans for NMHSs to obtain
tendency forecasts of 90 and 180 days in the region;
ANNEX III, P. 17
(vi) Pilot Project for In-Service Training Programme on Numerical Weather Prediction
between the NMHSs of the region;
(vii) Actions in relation to WMO, the Inter-American Development Bank, NOAA, the
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the International Research
Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) for the countries involved in the project in the
(viii) Development of risk maps for the countries in the region in order to provide this service
to the different types of users;
(ix) Assistance in the implementation of hydrological projects;
(x) Prevention and mitigation of hazards related to weather and climate (e.g., floods and
(xi) Implementation of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme in the region.
6.10 Regarding the priority area in relation to the World Weather Watch Programme, Hurricanes
Georges and Mitch in 1998 and Hurricane Keith in 2000 seriously affected the Central American and
Caribbean region. Before the impacts of such severe storms the national observing networks were
already in very critical operational conditions. After the storms the observing networks in some countries
practically vanished. In spite of the important and generous assistance provided by donors, especially
Canada and the USA, for restoration of hydrological and meteorological networks, additional assistance
is required for equipment and training.
6.11 Referring to natural disaster reduction, the region is very sensitive and vulnerable for flooding
and is prone to flash flooding occurrence. However, the hydrological monitoring networks, satellite
image receivers, radar coverage, the use of hydrological forecast models and other prevention and
warning systems are inefficient. Assistance is required to install and put into operation an efficient
flood warning system in the most populated river basins, with a wide dissemination network of information
to the vulnerable communities.
6.12 Activities of the Education and Training Programme in the region must be strengthened since
some of the countries suffer from serious deficit of trained personnel and in many of them most of the
existing professionals are near retiring age. Education and training is needed at all levels in meteorology
and hydrology, from specific training courses to graduate degrees, to replace retiring personnel, increase
the number of professionals and upgrade the skills of the local staff. In most of the countries training
on new technologies is also required.
6.13 Data rescue activities, carried out within the priority area of the World Climate Data and Monitoring
Programme and supported by the USA, have been initiated in Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
and Panama. Canada has supported similar activities in Costa Rica. The SIDS-CARIBBEAN project,
supported by Finland, has a DARE component to help the small island states. In some countries (El
Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras), these activities had covered only the river basin of the Lempa
river, but it will be necessary to mobilize resources to cover the total amount of information that needs
to be rescued, not only in Central America but also in the Caribbean.
6.14 With the participation of WMO, the Inter-American Development Bank, NOAA, the International
Food Policy Research Institute and the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, a feasibility
study is being carried out to ameliorate the socioeconomic impacts of El Niño/La Niña in Latin America
and the Caribbean. During 2001, case studies for RA IV Member countries, Jamaica, Mexico and
Panama, will be developed. Workshops in Santa Fe (Argentina) and San Jose (Costa Rica) will be
ANNEX III, P. 18
organized to promote interaction between the users and the forecasters. It is suggested that the
governments of the countries of the region support this initiative and, eventually, the proposals that
will result from the study.
6.15 Some of the priority areas frequently expressed in RA V (South-West Pacific) are given below
for VCP donors' consideration of support:
(i) Reducing the deficiency in the Global Observing System (GOS) and Global Data-
processing System (GDPS);
(ii) Improvement of the operation of the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) in the
region by taking into account new telecommunication techniques and means available,
such as the Internet, DCPs and EMWIN;
(iii) Natural disaster reduction through the provision of more reliable and effective warning
of tropical cyclones, monsoon depression and other extreme weather events, including
associated storm surges and flash floods;
(iv) Seasonal and inter-annual climate prediction;
(v) Public awareness;
(vi) Training and education of meteorological and hydrological staff to meet the increasing
demand of Members for training of staff for the development of their Services;
(viii) Capacity building;
(ix) Management of NMHSs.
6.16 The Association agreed to continue giving the highest priority to the WWW as well as to the
(i) Enhancement of the worldwide cost-effective and optimum observational network
including upper-air particularly over ocean areas for in situ observation;
(ii) Attention should be given to the reduction of the deficiency in the Regional Basic
Synoptic Network (RBSN) in the eastern and southern part of the region, mainly:
(a) Both upper-air and surface stations near nuclear power plants or other highly
important stations, which require assistance in order to support emergency
prevention and response activities in case of nuclear accident. Availability of
timely atmospheric observations, from the ground right up through the
atmosphere, from the affected regions are prerequisite for the quality of the
transport model to predict the track and dispersion of the radioactive particles
throughout the atmosphere and the location where they are likely to reach
the ground. Only in the eastern part of the region, in nine countries, there are
more than 100 reactors in 21 nuclear power plants;
(b) Rehabilitation of data transmission links from those stations;
(iii) Continuous improvement of the performance and reliability of the GTS through cost-
effective monitoring arrangements. In that respect, the full implementation of the
RMDCN has a paramount importance;
ANNEX III, P. 19
(iv) Improvement of the quality of local weather forecasts with special emphasis on warnings
of floods and severe weather;
(v) Promotions of the introduction and performance assessment of appropriate observing
technology, taking into account the new systems and their suitability;
(vi) Promotion of the introduction of new Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) for collecting, transmitting, processing and managing meteorological, hydrological
and related data and products;
(vii) Enhancement of services provided by NMHSs through the intensive use of weather
radars, satellites and weather prediction models in addressing environmental issues
and those associated with nuclear accidents;
(viii) Strengthening NMHSs of the less-developed countries in the region by providing
training, capacity building, assistance in the acquisition of new technology and in
management and bridging the gap between developed and less-developed countries
in the region.
ACTIVITIES OF VCP CO-ORDINATED PROGRAMMES IN 2000
1. Improvement of the global network of upper-air stations with special emphasis
on GCOS upper-air network
1.1 Members concerned together with the Secretariat continued to undertake joint efforts to upgrade
GUAN stations in accordance with the recommendations of CBS Task Team. Since the previous IPM on
the VCP and related Technical Co-operation Programmes (Washington, D.C., January 2000), five upper-air
stations have been put in full operational mode in Guinea, Mozambique, Panama, Papua New Guinea and
Zambia. The above replacement VCP projects have been supported through substantial contributions
provided by Australia, UK and USA.
1.2 CBS at its twelfth session (Geneva, 29 November-8 December 2000) reviewed the issue of
replacement of obsolete observing systems. In particular, it noted that following the request of Cg-XIII, in
close collaboration with CIMO, the matter regarding reliability of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based
radiosondes was kept under permanent review. The results of a survey conducted in 1999 among Members
concerned, which indicated that about every fifth launch of GPS-based radiosondes had been faulty,
were submitted to CIMO, which has been working with relevant manufactures to improve the situation.
Improvements achieved through these joint activities showed that the windfinding performance would
soon be returned to at least the same level as it was with OMEGA-based radiosondes before its termination.
1.3 Following the recommendation of the RA I Advisory Working Group (Arusha, April 2000) to alleviate
the situation and provide an improved basis for rehabilitation and sustainable development of WWW
components including observing systems in Region I, the Secretariat has prepared and disseminated
among countries of the region a questionnaire aimed to assess the status of operation of WWW basic
systems especially where the most serious deficiencies are experienced. The results of this survey are
being analyzed and will serve as a basis for the development of a Rehabilitation and Capacity Building Plan
and other relevant documents to be further reviewed and developed by RA I Working Group on Planning
and Implementation of the WWW in Region I.
2. Improvement of the GTS
2.1 Various expert missions were carried out with WWW technical support to facilitate installation or
upgrade of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems and related telecommunication equipment at NMCs, as well as
for upgrades of Message Switching and Telecommunications Systems and GTS facilities of RTHs. A
training seminar on the use of new technology (Nairobi, May 2000) was held to facilitate and support the
effective introduction and operation of information and communication technology for the WWW systems
at NMCs. A similar training seminar, in French, is planned for 2001 in Niamey.
2.2 A regional meteorological data-communication strategy and a rehabilitation and capacity-building
plan was under development with a view to addressing WWW shortcomings in a co-ordinated manner, and
will be reviewed by the RA I Working Group on WWW (March 2001).
2.3 The technical specifications for the VCP projects for the GTS connection of Cambodia and Lao
People’s Democratic Republic were developed, and Japan offered support to the project for Lao People’s
ANNEX IV, p. 2
Democratic Republic. The specifications of a project for the use of satellite systems to connect NMC
Sanaa (Yemen) to the GTS are being prepared.
2.4 The replacement of HF broadcast systems by satellite distribution systems is being considered in
Region II. UK offered to use the spare capacity of the UK Satellite Facility (UKSF) to broadcast data and
products for WWW purposes, and proposed to carry out a pilot project with the participation of RA II
Members, preferably equipped with a SADIS receiving system. The pilot project is being developed.
New RA III Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RMTN)
2.5 Directors of NMHSs of South America agreed upon a plan for the design and implementation of
the new RA III RMTN using the concept of Managed Data Communication Network Services. The technical
and administrative documentation in view of the international Invitation to Tender (ITT) was prepared. The
ITT is planned for launch during 2001.
2.6 VSAT and STAR4 equipment installation and upgrade were completed (except Haiti). An upgrade
of the NMC terminal equipment and telecommunication arrangements is planned for meteorological offices
of small islands in the Caribbean with a view to improving meteorological data exchange.
2.7 The implementation plan fulfilling the special requirements for communications in the South Pacific,
in particular for South Pacific islands, continued to make progress through the implementation of DCPs for
observational data collection and EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network (through
the GOES satellites)) systems (Papua New Guinea and Tonga). This plan was also co-ordinated with the
South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Upgrade Project (1997-2000), funded by the European Union (EU).
2.8 The Initial Deployment of the Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN) in
Region VI was completed in 2000. The formal Service Commencement Date of the RMDCN was 15 March
2000. The RMDCN ensures the transport service for the connection to the GTS of 31 Member countries
in Region VI. Three meetings of the RMDCN Operations Committee were held in 2000.
3. Automation of NMCs
3.1 Automation of small NMCs using available, affordable and maintainable technologies based on
PCs and TCP/IP protocols, and off-the-shelf hardware and software components, is now available from
several manufacturers. Its implementation in several NMCs and some RTHs demonstrated its feasibility
and performance, providing a considerable upgrade of GTS and basic GDPS operation.
3.2 Standard data-communication techniques, protocols and applications that are adopted for the
GTS provide better opportunities for improving the cost effectiveness of GTS facilities and systems and
ANNEX IV, p. 3
benefit from new telecommunication means, services and equipment which are widely supported by
telecommunication providers and manufacturers. These benefits equated to direct savings in financial
and human resource to Members by reduced costs for communications equipment purchase and
maintenance, as well as reduced software development work through use of industry standard software
NWP capacity building
3.3 A workshop on NWP was held in Nairobi in December 1999. The workshop contributed to capacity
building of the RMTC Institute Laboratory through upgrade of PCs with LINUX facilities and installation and
running the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) model. Kenya Meteorological Department
also subsequently received a PC system configured and installed with RAMS model, which will run in
quasi-operational mode as part of a capacity building measure for the RSMC. Another workshop will be
considered for implementation in the second biennium.
3.4 WMO co-sponsored the ACMAD NWP workshop held in Niamey from 20 March to 9 June 2000.
The workshop contributed to human resources capacity building. As one of the objectives, the workshop
would also lead to selection of a team of experts to be sent for attachment to advanced centres. Upon
their return to their services they would act as a pool of NWP research and development experts for the
African region, co-ordinated through ACMAD to develop/adapt modes for implementation in the NMCs of
3.5 Prior to the training seminar on the use of new technology held in Nairobi in May 2000 further
capacity building of the RMTC Institute Laboratory was enhanced with relevant PC training facilities.
4. Support to transition to low-rate picture/image transmission satellite receivers
4.1 In anticipating the transition and its corresponding impact on its Members, WMO initiated an
LRPT/LRIT project within the Secretariat that will address three specific aspects of the conversion. The
first aspect to be covered will be the transition period, its duration and regional application. The second
aspect will address the modification or replacement of the existing ground receiving stations. This aspect
will be accomplished in concert with CGMS satellite operators and equipment manufacturers. Finally,
improved capabilities through increased awareness of the potentialities for the new data will be presented
to potential users in the form of a new WMO Satellite Activities Technical Document.
4.2 In February 1998, the Secretary-General of WMO wrote to all WMO Members to inform them of the
LRPT/LRIT activities to be undertaken by the WMO Secretariat to assist during and after the conversion
period. The letter also noted that extensive use of the WMO Home Page would facilitate further notifications.
The latest tables are available on the Internet through the WMO Satellite Activities home pages at
http://www.wmo.ch/hinsman/APT_WEFAXstatus.html. The tables were reviewed at the twenty-eighth
session (October 2000) of CGMS where the satellite operators discussed the dates when the new digital
services would commence for their satellite systems and the duration of a transition period when both
analogue and digital services would be available.
4.3 An analysis of the table for LRPT conversion shows that the morning (AM) satellite will start LRPT
in 2005 while the afternoon (PM) satellite will start LRPT in 2009. Since there will be no transition period
for the AM orbit or PM orbit separately, but rather a six-year period when both APT (PM) and LRPT (AM) will
be available, it will be necessary to maintain a dual capability (APT and LRPT) during the period 2005-2009
if it is deemed necessary to have information from AM and PM satellites.
ANNEX IV, p. 4
4.4 As for the LRIT conversion in Regions III and IV (South, Central and North America including the
Caribbean), a test signal will be provided for a few weeks through a GOES spacecraft other than the
operational GOES-East or GOES-West in the January 2002 time frame. During that period, GOES-East
and GOES-West will continue to provide routine WEFAX data. This LRIT test signal will allow users to test
new or modified receiver equipment without disrupting normal WEFAX transmissions. Around November
2002, GOES-East will be converted from WEFAX to LRIT transmission and will cease transmitting WEFAX
data. The conversion of GOES-West to LRIT will be based on the needs of the users. The date for
GOES-West conversion will be announced as soon as practical. In Regions I (Africa) and VI (Europe), the
transition period with parallel operations of Meteosat-7 and MSG-1, starting from the commissioning of
MSG-1 in 2002, extends until the end of 2003. It is technically possible to further extend the overlap until
2004 assuming continued nominal operations of Meteosat-7. Regions II (Asia) and V (Southwest Pacific)
will also have one-and-a-half-year overlap starting in 2003 when MTSAT-1R becomes operational.
4.5 The CBS Open Programme Area Group (OPAG) Integrated Observing System (IOS) Expert Team
Meeting on Satellite System Utilization and Products held in Locarno, Switzerland, 2-4 June 1999 discussed
a new WMO Satellite Activities Technical Document that would provide guidance to WMO Members on
how to exploit the new LRPT/LRIT services. The meeting noted that the new technical document should
be available prior to the commencement of the new digital services.
4.6 The third session of the OPAG IOS Expert Team Meeting on Satellite System Utilization and
Products was held on 3-7 July 2000 in Lannion, France. The session noted that the Technical Document
on the migration from analogue (APT/WEFAX) to digital (LRPT/LRIT) broadcast services will be distributed
to WMO Members in early 2001.
Replacement of current meteorological satellite ground receiving systems in NMHSs in Africa
4.7 The Task Team on the Preparation for the Use of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) in Africa
(PUMA), since its establishment in 1996, has developed project proposals for the supply and installation
of the new equipment in the five sub-regions, namely, IOC (Indian Ocean Commission), IGAD (Inter
Governmental Authority on Development), ECOWAS, (Economic Community of Western African States),
SADC (Southern African Development Conference) and CEMAC (Communaute Econornique et Monetaire
de I' Afrique Centrale). The project proposals were submitted to the European Commission (EC) for
funding, and EC has now agreed to cover the project cost of about 11 million Euro for the period 2001-2005.
This will allow each country to benefit from:
(a) equipment to assure continuous direct reception of the new data stream from MSG;
(b) software to operate the equipment and derive usable products (like weather forecasts, estimates
of rainfall, real-time observation of fires or sea-surface temperature;
(c) training in making better use of data; and
(d) improved ability of NMSs to work in closer partnership with the broader community of users, through
the support for useful new products.
4.8 However, the approved project does not cover countries of the Mediterranean basin (Algeria,
Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) and South Africa. Other alternatives for funding (approximately
US $200,000) are being explored, in particular from bilateral arrangements, trust funds and the VCP.
ANNEX IV, p. 5
5. Support to the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP)
5.1 An RA IV Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting and Warning was held at RSMC Miami - Hurricane
Centre from 27 March to 8 April 2000 with funding from the Regular Budget. Financial assistance to the
RA IV Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting and Warning in 2003 was not budgeted by Cg-XIII. Participants
of the workshop will be mainly from RA IV (English-speaking countries) and a limited number from Typhoon
Committee Members. Financial assistance to participants only from the latter will be provided from the
Typhoon Committee Trust Fund (US $30,000).
6. Support to Internet capabilities at NMHSs
6.1 The support for implementation of Internet capabilities at NMHSs was, in most cases, associated
with the initial automation of NMCs. A rapidly increasing number of NMCs have access to the Internet
through relatively low-cost equipment, at least for e-mail services and some NMHSs of developing countries
benefited from VCP support (Armenia, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia)
7. Support to public weather services activities
7.1. Several Members sought and received assistance through the VCP in developing their national
public weather services (PWS) programmes especially in the area of forecasts and warnings, and information.
It should be noted that all requests for VCP support with respect to PWS converged on the programme's
two foci, the provision of equipment to improve communication standards, and the provision of the necessary
training to support high quality services. The report of related activities for 2000 is presented below.
7.2. Currently, there are listed outstanding requests for assistance in acquiring Television/Media
Presentation Systems from the following sixteen Members (ref. IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 6, Appendix
L.4): Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Guyana, Lao
People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Mauritania, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo and
Zimbabwe. In addition, the United Republic of Tanzania requested assistance to replace non-Y2K compliant
computers for their TV weather presentation studio.
7.3 In 2000 UK supported three VCP projects for Ethiopia for upgrading and strengthening the weather
forecast presentation, for Ghana for upgrading a media presentation system, and for Madagascar for the
provision of a media presentation system. Three VCP projects for Armenia, Madagascar and Namibia were
completed in 2000, and three projects for Ethiopia, Ghana and Senegal supported by UK are under
8. Support to climate data management and CLIPS
Climate computing (CLICOM) project
8.1 In 2000, four countries have improved their CLICOM systems with financial support from the UK,
France and the VCP(F). There are still 27 countries requesting VCP assistance for implementation of the
CLICOM project. Ten countries are requesting the provision of a CLICOM system, and the other 17
countries, having CLICOM, presented VCP requests for the upgrading or replacement of their obsolete
ANNEX IV, p. 6
hardware and software.
8.2 CLICOM installation and training missions were conducted in 11 African countries as part of the
Drought Preparedness Project co-sponsored by France, UK and WMO. Following these installations, a
regional training seminar on climate data management focusing on applications for drought preparedness
was held at ACMAD, Niamey, Niger in December 2000. Two candidates from each of the six French-speaking
countries participated. The UK contributed the expertise from the University of Reading to design and run
the workshop. A similar seminar is planned for Nairobi early in 2001 for the five English-speaking countries.
8.3 There was significant progress during the past year to move towards next generation, multi-tier
client/server climate data management systems (CDMSs) for the CLICOM project. A CCl Task Group met
at the Secretariat in May 2000 to use the results of the December 1999 questionnaires to establish the
evaluation criteria for such CDMSs and to determine the strategy for the subsequent evaluation and
implementation phases. The Task Group identified 14 WMO Members with systems in operation or under
development, who were prepared to share them with other Members. These 14 Members were given the
opportunity to answer an evaluation questionnaire and use test data sets to self-test their system and to
prepare a standard set of products. The results of this self evaluation will be analyzed by a few selected
experts and the outcome made available, beginning in February 2001 for Members to consider.
8.4 The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHI) has installed a new Oracle-based CDMS developed
in the Czech Republic in two countries, Ghana and Macedonia; a complete system including one server,
two workstations and commercial software such as MS Office, GIS packages, etc. It is planned to install this
system in Armenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Nigeria.
Data Rescue (DARE)
8.5 Finland has committed to providing financial support to the Caribbean countries in the upgrading
of their database management systems and the implementation of data rescue programmes. This will
ensure that the data collection and archiving systems in the region are standardized to such extent that
the data could be easily combined for regional analyses. There are a considerable amount of historical
observation data stored in inadequate and vulnerable media and these data need to be rescued.
8.6 A survey mission was conducted by the WMO Secretariat in April 2000 in Regions II and V to
examine the condition of climate records in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Viet Nam. Taking into
account promising results from new techniques (digital cameras) being tried in RA IV, new projects in the
area of data rescue activities were recommended for Regions II and V.
8.7 A CLICOM/DARE workshop was held in San José, Costa Rica from 17 – 28 July 2000 and was
hosted by the National Meteorological Institute of Costa Rica. An implementation plan and framework for
the future DARE IV project were proposed by the participants, which included conducting pilot projects in
one English-speaking country and one Spanish-speaking country in order to evaluate the use of digital
camera technology for preserving climate data and facilitating its digitization. It was recommended that a
report on the pilot projects be presented to a proposed WMO-organized international expert meeting on
data rescue in May 2001 in Geneva.
8.8 In the related Archival Climatic History Survey (ARCHISS) Project, initial searches for valuable
historical data were conducted in the National Archives of Chile, Ecuador and Peru with follow-up action
being planned for 2001. Representatives from the sponsoring agencies of the International Council on
Archives, UNESCO and WMO met with relevant Secretariat staff on 17 November 2000 to develop a
future strategy for the project which included seeking major funding for joint ARCHISS/DARE projects
ANNEX IV, p. 7
aimed at locating and digitizing priority climatological and hydrological data.
Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS)
8.9 In July 1999, a VCP request was received from China for the CLIPS Showcase Heat Watch/Warning
System in Shanghai. The VCP project was formulated and circulated in September 1999 for climate data,
decision-tree model, and expert services for a detailed project plan and system and software development,
which was supported by the USA. A project team visited China (Shanghai, 8-10 October 1999) to develop
with the CMA a detailed plan for the CLIPS Showcase Project: Heat/Health Warning System for Shanghai.
A multidisciplinary team from Shanghai travelled in July 2000 to the Center for Climatic Research in Delaware,
USA, to complete the statistical manipulation of the health and mortality data. Those results and correlations
are the ones to be utilized within the system. The team also completed the within-offensive category
algorithm development, and constructed an algorithm which explains about 40 percent of the variance in
mortality within the MT+ air mass. Testing and the development of the public health intervention plan will
take place in 2001.
9. Support to training and human resources development for meteorology and
9.1 One of the major VCP activities supporting training and human resources development in
meteorology and operational hydrology is the award of short- and long-term fellowships. A detailed account
of the status of fellowships under the VCP is given in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 7, paragraphs 3.1-3.4.
9.2 Under the ASMET (African Satellite Meteorology Education and Training) project, funded by the
Government of Germany and implemented by EUMETSAT, two computer-aided learning modules on
satellite meteorology adapted to African regions in CD-ROMs have been produced. EUMETSAT plans to
assist in the development of a third volume in the near future, dealing with products of the new generation
of METEOSAT. A consolidated plan of the third phase of ASMET will be drawn in Darmstadt (in February
2001) where two representatives of RMTCs Niamey and Nairobi will participate.
10. Support for ACMAD activities
10.1 Taking into account that the ACMAD Demonstration Project was completed successfully in 1998,
EC-LII agreed that the co-ordinated programme “Support for the ACMAD Demonstration Project” be
renamed “Support for ACMAD activities” with a view to further enhancement of overall ACMAD activities.
10.2 In 2000, ACMAD contributed to the organization of several training sessions for capacity building
in the field of climate prediction for climatologists, hydrologists and users from food security and water
resources management sectors, to enable them to develop, exploit and use the seasonal forecast for the
benefit of the socio-economic development and welfare of the population. ACMAD continued to be
involved in the organization of regional climate outlook fora and in the development through USAID-funded
projects of digital rural radio systems to enhance the distribution of meteorological information to the rural
communities in Africa.
Members' contributions to
the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme
Donor VCP(F) VCP(ES)* Total
Member Equipment Equipment Training/ VCP(ES) Contribution
and Services and Services Fellowships including
through by bilateral fellowships
(US$) WMO arrangements Sub-total (US$)
Argentina 4,000 4,000 4,000
Australia 25,000 10,000 67,880 68,920 146,800 171,800
Brazil 5,000 5,000 5,000
Canada 750,000 45,000 795,000 795,000
China 265,700 166,600 432,300 432,300
Finland 1,005,500 11,500 1,017,000 1,017,000
France 250,500 248,000 79,000 577,500 577,500
Germany 32,200 73,800 16,000 122,000 122,000
Hong Kong, China 19,000 19,000 19,000
India 7,000 7,000 7,000
Ireland 5,491 5,491
Israel 388,100 388,100 388,100
Japan 200,000 45,000 250,000 295,000 495,000
Malaysia 3,000 10,000 10,000 13,000
Mauritius 991 991
Myanmar 500 500
New Zealand 204,080 204,080 204,080
Norway 3,973 3,973
Pakistan 507 507
Philippines 1,500 1,500 1,500
Portugal 13,953 41,332 32,115 87,400 87,400
Republic of Korea 165,000 165,000 165,000
Russian Federation 197,000 197,000 197,000
Saudi Arabia 50,000 3,900 53,900 53,900
Spain 85,303 229,200 314,503 314,503
UK 50,000 775,367 127,245 280,778 1,183,390 1,233,390
USA 1,274,450 725,550 2,000,000 2,000,000
Private 1,000 1,000
Total 290,462 3,562,473 1,812,837 2,650,163 8,025,473 8,315,936
* The data is based on the information provided by donor Members, as of 20 March 2001.
Evolution of Members’ contributions to VCP(ES) and VCP(F) 1981-2000
Total VCP(ES) VCP(F)
5,591,499 5,166,600 424,899
5,307,092 5,002,900 304,192
5,114,086 4,883,400 230,686
5,470,750 5,143,700 327,050
4,773,319 4,603,820 169,499
5,395,270 5,008,780 386,490
6,198,385 5,956,468 241,917
6,895,518 6,604,008 291,510
8,191,805 7,944,969 246,836
C 8,080,558 7,702,200 378,358
7,408,845 7,021,500 387,345
6,214,520 5,695,610 518,910
7,692,204 7,178,600 513,604
6,851,805 6,398,340 453,465
6,003,186 5,518,675 484,511
5,994,740 5,607,216 387,524
8,078,506 7,802,276 276,230
7,411,226 7,118,312 292,914
8,540,655 8,122,382 418,273
8,315,936 8,025,473 290,462
0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 (US$)
Statistics related to the support
received for VCP projects circulated amongst donors
during the period 1988-1999, and in 2000
(VCP requests related to fellowships excluded)
Number of Total Percentage Number of Total Percentage
projects number of projects projects number of of projects
having of projects having having projects having
Fields of co-operation received having been received received having been received
support circulated support support circulated support
during during during in in during
1988-1999 1988-1999 1988-1999 2000 2000 1988-2000
Surface observing stations 54 123 44% 11 13 48%
Upper-air observing stations 132 233 57% 7 13 57%
Satellite receiving stations 36 90 40% 1 0 41%
Weather radar stations 3 16 19% 0 0 19%
Telecommunication systems 105 230 46% 8 14 46%
Data processing systems 28 61 46% 2 3 47%
Maintenance workshops 6 21 29% 0 0 29%
Research and training centre activities 3 20 15% 2 0 25%
CLICOM and climatological activities 73 131 56% 5 4 58%
Hydrological activities 18 62 29% 4 5 33%
GAW and environment protection activities 3 54 6% 1 2 7%
Meteorological applications activities 69 113 61% 5 13 59%
Total 530 1154 46% 46 67 47%
GENERAL SUMMARY OF STATISTICS ON EVALUATION REPORTS
Services or Results available
1% 3% 0 - 20% available
20 - 50% available
50 - 85% available
85 - 100% available
During life span During last 3 months
Reasons for possible unavailability of services
Equipment unsatisfactorily installed
Inadequate equipment (hardware, software, consumables, etc.)
1. Reasons directly linked to the Inadequate training
implementation of the project Inadequate set of spare parts
Breakdown of the equipment after installation
Other complementary equipment not in operation
2. Reasons not directly linked to Lack of consumables
the implementation of the project Lack of operators
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
Present status of operation
Out of service Not fully Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory
4% satisfactory 8% 7%
Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory
Working status Arrangements for maintenance Training
Further assistance required
Other type of assistance
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%
ANNEX VIII, p. 2
Statistics on Evaluation Reports
Table Q2 Services or Results
Number Services or Results available
Fields of Co-operation of during life span during last 3 months
Reports 0≤ <20% 20≤ <50% 50≤ <85% 85≤ ≤100% 0≤ <20% 20≤ <50% 50≤ <85% 85≤ ≤100%
Surface observing stations 9 4 5 4 5
Upper-air observing stations 31 1 1 3 25 2 1 26
Satellite receiving stations 8 3 4 1 1 5
Weather radar stations 0
Telecommunication systems 32 3 28 2 29
Data processing systems 7 1 6 7
Hydrology and water resources activities 0
Research and training centre activities 2 1 1 1 1
CLICOM and climatological activities 17 3 14 2 15
Aeronautical meteorology activities 28 3 25 1 1 1 24
Public weather services activities 4 1 3 1 1 2
Other fields of assistance 0
Total 138 1 1 22 111 4 2 13 114
Table Q3 Reasons for possible unavailability
Reasons for possible unavailability of services or results
directly linked to the VCP project not directly linked to the VCP project
Fields of Co-operation Other
Equipm't Inadeq. Inadeq. Inadeq. Other Breakd'n equipm't Lack Lack Other
unsatis. equipm't training spares reasons after not in of of reasons
installed install'n operation consum's operators
Surface observing stations 3 2 5 1 1
Upper-air observing stations 1 9 5 6 6 5 4 7 4
Satellite receiving stations 2 2 1 1 5
Weather radar stations
Telecommunication systems 6 5 2 1 3 1 3 1 1
Data processing systems 1 2 1
Hydrology and water resources activities
Research and training centre activities 2 1 1
CLICOM and climatological activities 4 2 2 3 1 3
Aeronautical meteorology activities 5 4 1 3 8 2 2 1 2
Public weather services activities 1 2 2 1
Other fields of assistance
Total 1 33 20 15 18 24 11 13 2 13
ANNEX VIII, p. 3
Statistics on Evaluation Reports
Table Q4 Present status of operation of the VCP project
Working status Arrangements for maintenance Training
not fully out not fully not fully
Fields of Co-operation satisfac. satisfac. of satisfac. satisfac. unsatisfac. satisfac. satisfac. unsatisfac.
working working service
Surface observing stations 7 2 6 2 1 5 3 1
Upper-air observing stations 21 1 1 16 4 3 13 4 3
Satellite receiving stations 4 3 1 5 1 2 4 3 1
Weather radar stations
Telecommunication systems 27 4 27 3 1 22 9
Data processing systems 6 1 5 2 3 3 1
Research and training centre activities 2 1 1 1
CLICOM and climatological activities 14 3 13 4 15 2
Aeronautical meteorology activities 23 2 3 20 5 3 17 7 3
Public weather services activities 3 1 3 1 1 3
Other fields of assistance
Total 107 17 5 96 23 10 81 34 9
Table Q5 Further assistance required
Fields of Co-operation
Complem. Complem. Expert Other
equipm't training services type
Surface observing stations 4 3 2
Upper-air observing stations 11 7 4 2
Satellite receiving stations 5 4 2 2
Weather radar stations
Telecommunication systems 10 11 7 1
Data processing systems 1 4 3
Research and training centre activities 1 1 1
CLICOM and climatological activities 12 10 7 2
Aeronautical meteorology activities 13 11 5 6
Public weather services activities 3 3 3 2
Other fields of assistance
Total 60 54 33 16
ANNEX VIII, p. 4
Examples of Information and Comments on the VCP projects
OB/1/2/1 - Replacement of two windfinding radars (supported by UK in 1994-1995)
Zimbabwe - [Out of service due to lack of spares (sub-modulator and other boards); training of technicians
was satisfactory. The radar never performed well from the installation (no low-level winds, difficult to use at
night). Radar has now developed a transmitter problem. Drawing too much current and blowing fuses and
resistors and then it goes into security.]
OB/3/3/1 - Replacement of GOES West or East Weather Facsimile (WEFAX) Satellite Imagery System
(supported by USA in 1995-1996)
Belize - [Using local resources the computer was replaced. WEFAX freeware was downloaded from the
Internet. This enabled local technicians to rehabilitate the system.]
Guyana - [Need for the replacement of hardware and software. Hardware is now outdated due to Y2K
TE/6/3/1- Provision of two RETIM/AEROMET stations (supported by France in 1995)
Armenia - [The system allows our specialists to draw daily on a broader range of data for Asia, the
Mediterranean region and the Middle East, which is essential for weather prediction in Armenia’s complex
DP/1/1/1 - Provision/Upgrading of AFDOS software (supported by China in 1991/1997)
Maldives - [The AFDOS is an indispensable tool for our daily weather forecast. The AFDOS software is
maintained by Chinese expert missions. There are no staff with adequate training to maintain and repair
DP/2/2/1 - Replacement of the automated systems to be Year 2000 compliant (supported by Germany,
Japan, UK, USA and VCP(F) in 1999-2000)
Russian Federation - [The hardware and software are in continuous use and maintained to a high standard
by supplier-trained personnel. The volume of synoptic data increased from 85% (Nov. 1999) to 87% (May
2000). The hardware and software at 23 telecom stations were modernized to be Y2K compliant. A
number of factors assisted the project’s successful implementation: a thorough study of the project by
Roshydromet specialists assisted by supplier; preliminary testing at Moscow telecommunication centre of
hardware and software; and a high standard training which allowed Roshydromet’s specialists to install and
set up the hardware and software at 13 of the 23 centres.]
AEM/3/1/1 - Upgrading of the WAFS STAR4 workstation (supported by USA in 1999)
Costa Rica - [The new equipment has substantially improved the capacity allowing more info over a longer
period of time, due to the increases in memory. The equipment is also now more reliable.]
AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a satellite-based distribution system for WAFS data and products (supported by
UK in 1997-1998)
Nepal - [Training of operators is quite satisfactory, but training level of the maintenance is not satisfactory.
Technical manuals not received from Sofréavia. Repair arrangement is not fully satisfactory. The overall
assessment of the project is at the highest level of satisfaction. But problem of maintenance (after expiration
of maintenance contract) has to be resolved. Probably Sofréavia could now release the Technical Manual
of the equipment.]
PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a media system (supported by UK in 1999-2000)
Kenya - [Great need for training on AV production. KMD has gradually acquired Audio and Video through
very tight budgetary constraints. The eventual goal is to use the studio for training on weather bulletin
production etc. and obtaining training materials for the region.]
Madagascar - [Equipment is not fully operational (for development of documentation) with electricity problem
and lack of consumables (SVHS video cassettes, batteries): Enhancement of the project is required for
dissemination of meteorological, climatological and hydrological information.]
WCP/2/1/1 - Upgrading of CLICOM hardware and software (supported by UK in 1998)
Sudan - [Advanced training in CLICOM system and networking is needed. The project has achieved its
Windfinding Systems (Note: The table is mainly applicable to fixed land stations)
Option Sonde Geographical application Limitations on Typical rms Cost 2 Maintenance
frequency 1 accuracy vector requirements
1 Radiotheodolite 1,680 Not well suited for locations with Errors become large, if 0.5 – 2.5 3 low high High MTBF (mean
very strong upper winds balloon elevations low, time between
depending on antenna failure) for small
design modern antenna
2 Secondary radar 1,680 Cost cannot be sustained by 0.5 - 1.5 low high, but needs High level of
many Members to be determined technical support
3 Primary radar 403 Cost cannot be sustained by 0.5 - 1.5 low high, but needs High level of
many Members to be determined technical support
4 GPS navigation 403 Global coverage (at discretion Potentially, the most 0.1 - 0.5 high normal Normal
(or 1,680) of military) accurate system4
5 Loran-C 403 Limited regions where Occasional loss of 0.5 - 1.5 normal normal Normal
sufficient Loran-C coverage is sensitivity from static
still available charge on radiosonde
6 VLF 5 403 Limited to areas where suitable Diurnal variation in 1-2 normal normal Normal
signal geometry is available (at signal propagation
discretion of military)
1 The system normally uses this radiosonde frequency, but may also be available at an alternative frequency.
2 The costs of the ground equipment and of the consumable “radiosonde” may vary by a significant factor. Competitive tendering for systems appears essential to
reduce the costs.
3 The measurement accuracy of radiotheodolites depends on the antenna design and also on the accuracy of alignment of the radiotheodolite system.
4 Some systems still have problems in achieving the required reliability of the observations.
5 This system no longer has significant importance due to limited and unreliable coverage.
Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART)
1. When a disaster occurs, many donors (including Banks, UN Organizations, Governments, and
NGOs) would be willing to provide emergency assistance to the affected countries. WMO should play
a key role in the co-ordination of donors’ assistance in the fields of meteorology and hydrology. In
order to avoid duplication of efforts and resources and to ensure that the urgently needed assistance
is provided, Cg-XIII affirmed the necessity of a timely and co-ordinated action among donor Members,
funding agencies and Governments of affected countries for emergency assistance to the affected
2. To ensure the immediate and urgent assistance to NMHSs, the Emergency Assistance
Response Team (EART) concept given below was proposed to EC-LII. The Council endorsed several
measures including establishment of an EART and the simplification of procedures for the WMO
Emergency Assistance Fund and the WMO VCP. Details of the mechanism and procedures for EART
activities are proposed below.
3. It should be noted that natural disaster preparedness activities are primarily under the
responsibility of NMHSs (see Annex 1 for some of the natural disaster preparedness activities) within
the framework of the WMO Public Weather Services Programme. With regard to the WMO response
to emergencies and disasters, an Emergency and Disaster Response Group (EDRG) was established
within the Secretariat in August 2000, and with the guidance of EDRG an Emergency and Disaster
Response Team (EDRT) will undertake tasks including establishing contact with other relevant UN
organizations, interactions with media, etc.
Mission of the EART
4. The mission of the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART) is to assist the
meteorological and hydrological infrastructure restoration process by advising and consulting with the
NMHS(s), WMO, and other responding organizations, with the following terms of reference:
Terms of reference for the EART
(a) To assess the most urgent needs and requirements of the NMHS(s) for submission to potential
donors, through mission(s), as necessary;
(b) To assist Members in the identification of medium- and long-term requirements, through
mission(s), as necessary, and in the formulation of project proposals to be submitted to
Government authorities and potential donors;
(c) To co-ordinate the support offered by donors (through electronic means), and formulation of
(d) To assist Members in preparing priority project plans.
ANNEX X, p. 2
EART Membership and Implementation
5. EART will be activated by the Emergency and Disaster Response Group (EDRG), established
within the WMO Secretariat.
6. EART is composed of:
- EART co-ordinator;
- WMO representatives (Group of the WMO Secretariat: TCO, WWW, HWR, WCP Depts,
and Regional Offices);
- Subregional (or Regional) representative closest to the scene of disaster;
- NMHS Focal Point in each country to work with EART;
- Donor representatives (IPM/VCP sub-group under the direction of the Chairman); and
- Related experts needed in the NMHS recovery process.
7. The EART co-ordinator should act as a contact point at the WMO Secretariat for the EART
activities, in co-operation, as necessary, with the relevant technical Departments: WWW - Basic Systems;
Public Weather Services Programme; Tropical Cyclone Programme; Hydrology and Water Resources
Programme; World Climate Programme, and Regional and Subregional Offices. The co-ordinator would
identify the EART participants including experts who are available to immediately travel to the disaster
site as part of the team. This requires a creation of a roster of experts for each sub-region, along with a
list of global experts who could be contacted immediately in order to determine their availability to
participate in the EART.
8. The Regional or Subregional Offices have a critical role to play in the EART activities as they
have the best contact with the NMHS in the area affected. They should be involved in the identification
of a realistic minimum network and in risk analysis. It is important to ensure that each Regional and
Subregional Office carry out their task efficiently in all parts of the world.
9. The EART could help support development banks, aid agencies and others in providing
immediate meteorological/hydrological expertise, assistance and consultation, as part of a coherent or
joint mission as soon as a disaster occurs.
10. The EART could work, together with EDRT, closely with the United Nations Office for the
Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
(ISDR) in the response process as well as in areas related to improved mitigation practices.
Phased Restoration Process
11. During and after the event, EART will work in the three restoration phases, as given below:
Phase I (Emergency mode): One or two days before - up to two weeks after the event
• An EART is to be activated within the WMO Secretariat;
• An EART field mission is to be organized, should it be necessary, immediately after the event
to find out the most urgent immediate requirements, including restoring minimum observational
and early-warning network. The expert mission team would include the subregional
representative for D/TCO, and experts in meteorology, telecommunications, hydrology, as
required and donor representatives when available;
• The most urgent requirements are to be assessed by EART from this field mission for
consideration of timely possible support by donors and with the available funds.
ANNEX X, p. 3
Phase II (Emergency Short-term Restoration Process) – Two weeks to three months
• During this phase the input from the EART will be used to develop projects and funding
proposals for the restoration of the basic NMHS World Weather Watch functions as part of the
short-term and medium-term requirements.
Phase III (Medium- to Long-term Restoration Process) - more than three months after the event
• For medium- to long-term requirements, support should be sought from funding agencies
and multilateral organizations to enable and ensure that the NMHS is ready and capable to
provide forecast and warning services to respond to the next event or disaster that might
impact the country. This phase will help to make the NMHS a more relevant part of the national
early warning system involving other parts of the government and local communities.
12. Requirements from affected Members will be assessed and the most appropriate schemes to
meet the requirements will be suggested by EART. Assessed requirements will be sent by e-mail to
potential donors for favourable consideration of support. Co-ordination of donors’ support will be
made through discussions via e-mail.
13. Possible schemes to be utilized for emergency assistance are to:
For the assessed priority short-term and medium-term requirements
• Incorporate requirements into the Aid Package of donor’s Government;
• Implement supported projects in a co-ordinated manner under:
- the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund scheme, with a more simplified process, or
- the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme, with a more simplified process, as
- bilateral agreements.
For the assessed priority long-term requirements
• Adjust the requirement to the external donor’s (WB, Regional Banks, Technical Co-operation
Agencies, etc.) aid scheme.
14. Initially funds to support EART activities and the urgent emergency requirements would come
from the VCP or the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund. For cash contributions, it would be desirable
to receive the cash funds prior to the events (for future possible disasters). The Emergency Assistance
Fund or VCP co-ordinated project funds could be used for this purpose, similar to Trust Funds. If
funds are available at the WMO Secretariat, as soon as the donor’s indication of required support (for
specific equipment for (an) affected country(ies)), is received, a purchase order for the necessary
equipment could be placed. This will ensure timely emergency assistance for urgent short-term
ANNEX X, p. 4
15. In this regard, it should be noted that UK contributed £20,000 in 2000 and Japan has indicated
its willingness to support EART activities. The funding for this initiative will not be met fully from direct
donations from VCP donors but should come in conjunction/collaboration with other aid and support
16. Quick reaction and response is necessary following a disaster. For this purpose, EC-LII endorsed
the simplification of the procedures for the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund and the VCP as outlined
WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (WMO Disaster Assistance Fund for Meteorological and Hydrological
17. The existing WMO Emergency Assistance Fund is to be processed as follows:
(i) Assess priority requirement for assistance prepared by EART (2 weeks);
(ii) A circular e-mail from the co-ordinator of EART to donor Members’ focal points for
consideration of possible support (2-3 days);
(iii) Donor Members’ offer(s) of support (1-4 weeks);
(iv) Co-ordination of support;
(v) Implementation of the project.
WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme (VCP)
18. The WMO VCP Equipment and Services Programme (VCP(ES)) in case of emergency
assistance is to be implemented as follows:
(i) Official VCP request for the requirement assessed by EART from the PR concerned
(ii) Formulation into a VCP project and comments from Technical Dept., WMO (2 weeks);
(iii) Approval for circulation by SG (1-2 days);
(iv) Circulation of the project among VCP donors by Internet (1 day);
(v) Donor Members’ offer(s) of support by e-mail (1-4 weeks);
(vi) Informing PR of the support (not for approval in principle) (1-2 days);
(vii) Implementation of the project.
19. VCP donor Members are requested to ensure the quick implementation of the VCP project.
Promotion of EART
20. In order to implement and promote EART, NMHSs are to be contacted to identify:
- Points of contact at each NMHS in case of disaster;
- Status of disaster preparedness activities and current capabilities;
- Minimal requirements for observation and communication networks; and
- Available experts to participate in EART for the assessment of requirements.
21 Discussions should be held with development banks, aid agencies and non-governmental
organizations, in particular with the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, to brief
them on EART concept for their feedback. PowerPoint proposal material will be prepared for this
purpose. Once the EART concept is workable, resource mobilization activities should be initiated with
external donors as well as WMO Members.
ANNEX X, p. 5
Natural Disaster Preparedness Activities
• Each NMHS should have a strategic emergency response plan. If not, WMO should assist
Members in developing such a plan.
• Each NMHS should develop guidelines (or receive support to develop guidelines) as part of
this emergency response plan for ensuring a continuous flow of weather forecasts and warnings for
emergency management officials, citizens of the country and for those organizations (UNOCHA, ISDR,
IFRC, etc.) responding to the emergency.
• Each NMHS should establish and maintain effective warning systems.
• Each NMHS needs to identify a responsible individual to be the point of contact during an
emergency. In most cases it would be the Permanent Representative of the country.
• The WMO should provide the education and training required in the response process. There
is a need to educate providers, responders and citizens regarding natural disasters and the
preparedness and response process.
ANNEX X, p. 6
ACTION FLOW CHART
Inputs (Info) WMO Secretariat EDRT Country
PR Task Force for ND
EDRG Technical assistance
Subregional Coordinator Composition Team
Directors Composition Experts
for On-site Info
OUTPUTS OF FIELD MISSION
Emergency Assistance Fund
(1) Assessment of urgent needs Gov. Aid Package
(2) Identification of medium- and WMO VCP
long-term requirements Bilateral agreements
Info to donors
Offers of support of co-ordinated