WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION INFORMAL PLANNING MEETING ON THE VOLUNTARY CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME (VCP) AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES Melbourne, Australia, 26 February-1 March 2001 FINAL REPORT 1 GENERAL SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE MEETING 1. OPENING OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 1) 1.1 The 2001 Informal Planning Meeting (IPM) on the Voluntary Co-operation Programme (VCP) and related Technical Co-operation Programmes was held in Melbourne, Australia from 26 February to 1 March 2001, at the kind invitation of Australia. The meeting was attended by 17 participants representing 14 WMO Members and three collaborating technical co-operation organizations. The list of participants is given in Annex I to this report. 1.2 The meeting was opened at 09.30 a.m. on 26 February 2001. On behalf of Prof. G.O.P. Obasi, Secretary-General of WMO, Mr H. Diallo, Director of the Technical Co-operation Department, welcomed the participants to the meeting and thanked Dr Zillman, Permanent Representative of Australia with WMO, for inviting the meeting and for the excellent arrangements made and the hospitality extended to the participants. He also thanked the representatives of Members and partner institutions for their attendance. He highlighted the importance of the WMO VCP in the Technical Co-operation Programme and noted that substantial contributions had been made in cash and in kind by several Members during the past year. He noted that despite commendable efforts from donor Members, a large number of VCP projects for both equipment and fellowships remain unsatisfied each year. In this regard, he informed that the WMO Secretariat continued to devote considerable efforts towards the mobilization of resources from the World Bank, regional development banks, other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies such as the European Commission, and the private sector. He referred in particular to the conclusion of Memoranda of Understanding between WMO and the banks to enhance existing collaboration in areas such as climate change, disaster prevention and mitigation and integrated water-resources management. In addition, negotiations with bilateral funding sources and UNDP have led to the approval of new national and regional projects such as the Small Island Developing States - Caribbean regional project, known as SIDS – Caribbean. In view of the limited resources available and the increasing needs of Members, he invited the meeting to reflect on several new measures, such as the pooling of VCP resources to address major deficiencies in the WWW facilities which may hamper the implementation of WMO priority programmes and the funding of priority components defined in the strategic plans developed by Regional Associations. He finally encouraged all Members to continue to support national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) in their endeavour to contribute to the implementation of WMO Programmes for the benefit of the global community. He wished the meeting success. 1.3 Dr J. Zillman, Permanent Representative of Australia with WMO, welcomed all participants to the IPM especially those who had come a long way to this first IPM held in the Southern Hemisphere. He remarked that this was a unique kind of gathering to provide input on co-ordinated technical co-operation activities to the WMO EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation. These activities were aimed to assist developing national Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) which were all vulnerable to intense pressures resulting from the globalization, corporatization and commercialization. Success under previous VCP and related technical co-operation activities had clearly demonstrated the importance of NMHSs working closely with the aid agencies. A big challenge to the IPM would be how to match the priority requirements of developing countries with the often limited resources available to donor countries. He made a special welcome to the participation at this meeting of Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). 2 2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 2) 2.1 Election of the chairman (Agenda item 2.1) 2.1.1 Mr B. Angle (Canada) was unanimously elected chairman of the meeting. The meeting expressed its appreciation to Mr D. Lambergeon (France) who had been chairperson of the IPM for the past four years. 2.2 Adoption of the agenda (Agenda item 2.2) 2.2.1 The agenda adopted is given in Annex II to this report. 2.3 Working arrangements (Agenda item 2.3) 2.3.1 The meeting agreed on its working hours and to its work programme during the session. 3. MAJOR ISSUES, TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Agenda item 3) 3.1 Generalities 3.1.1 The meeting reviewed information provided on major issues facing NMHSs and the socio-economic and technological trends and developments that could significantly influence the way WMO and NMHSs will function in the future. The meeting noted that these concerns were both at global and regional levels. 3.2 Global aspects 3.2.1 The meeting noted that major issues facing NMHSs should be cast against relevant developments, especially the identification of the desired outcomes, i.e., the results and/or impacts which WMO and donors want to achieve and for which WMO can play a significant role. These outcomes, which are now being developed within the framework of the Sixth WMO Long-Term Plan, highlight the areas and domains of competence of NMHSs and can be summarized as follows: (a) contribution to improved protection of life and property; (b) increased safety at sea and in the air; (c) enhanced quality of life, especially through contributing to meeting basic human needs in terms of food and water; (d) sustainable economic growth; and (e) protection of the environment, through greater understanding of the climate system and the support to international strategies and conventions such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and UN Convention to Combat Desertification. 3 3.2.2 The meeting reviewed some of the major developments that will significantly influence the way WMO and NMHSs will function in the future and which should be taken into account in developing long-term plans at national and regional levels. Among others, the meeting highlighted the following: (a) rapid technological developments leading to improved observing, telecommunication and data-processing systems, automation, improved modelling capabilities and global communication systems such as Internet; (b) globalization and regionalization in the provision of meteorological services, leading to needs for rationalization and specialization, formation of alliances for cost-effective services; (c) increased competition in a commercial environment, leading NMHSs to developing new approaches in their operations, to changing their status and to becoming more market oriented; (d) increased economic pressure on NMHSs to reduce costs and improve effectiveness; (e) increased demand for new types of services and for better delivery to the users; and (f) demands for international legal agreements to address global problems. 3.2.3 The meeting also noted that WMO and NMHSs had to take into account the evolving needs of the Members and of society as a whole in areas such as warnings of severe events, environmentally sustainable development, co-operation and co-ordination to improve effectiveness and efficiency and the modernization of technical facilities which require adequately trained staff. 3.2.4 The meeting noted the usefulness of the information provided on the major issues facing NMHSs as this serves as very useful background and as a guide in determining the priority areas for the provision of technical assistance. The meeting noted in particular that there was a need in the future to ensure that the VCP projects submitted for funding focus on specific outcomes of relevance to the global community. The meeting was encouraged by the recognition that new technological developments provided a very good opportunity for solving a number of problems of NMHSs in a cost-effective manner. In addition, the meeting agreed that there was a need to encourage Members to take into account the globalization and regionalization trends in developing their strategies for the provision of services at national level. In fact several factors such as commercialization, increased competition from the private sector and the shrinking of resources from stakeholders should guide NMHSs in planning their future operations. 3.3 Regional aspects 3.3.1 The meeting noted that the regional aspects on major issues and trends affecting NMHSs are similar to the global aspects. The meeting also noted that there are common issues for all regions, and that each region has its unique issues. 3.3.2 The meeting noted the common issues as being: (i) availability of human resources is decreasing, and in some regions, non-existence of professional staff; (ii) some observing networks are reducing at an appreciative rate causing the problem of poor data 4 availability; (iii) decreasing support from national governments; and (iv) inadequate telecommunications systems. 3.3.3 The meeting also noted some of the unique issues for various regions as being: (i) rescue of historical data; (ii) rapid development and introduction of new technology; (iii) emergence of commercial competitors; and (iv) increasing concentration of population, development and infrastructure in coastal areas. 3.3.4 The meeting noted that as a start towards addressing the issues, strategic action plans were developed for RA II and the Pacific Island Countries in RA V, aimed at strengthening the capabilities of NMHSs to meet the growing demands for improved weather, climate services and products to meet safety and well-being of people, and to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development. A needs analysis of users and of NMHSs was completed in November 2000 for the Pacific Island Countries of RA V. WMO and IDB have initiated a feasibility study to ameliorate the social and economic impacts of El Niño/La Niña events in RA IV and eventually will provide support to the proposals that will result from the study, if required by countries of the region. Several countries including Canada, Finland, France, the Netherlands, UK and USA have provided support for the restoration of hydrological and meteorological networks damaged by Hurricanes Georges, Mitch and Keith. 3.3.5 The meeting recommended that VCP assistance should focus on (i) human resources development (education and training) at all levels of meteorology and hydrology; and (ii) strengthening efforts and co-operation at the subregional and regional levels. 3.3.6 The representative from Australia provided an overview of the evaluation of international activities conducted at the Bureau of Meteorology followed by a short presentation by Canada and a round-table discussion. The meeting noted the continuing pressures on NMHSs and donors to express clearly the merits of their international activities including VCP. It was stated that every Member of WMO derives benefit from this association. The meeting expressed the need to communicate the positive impacts of VCP activities both in terms of the recipient countries and the donors. Further, it is necessary to develop communication tools that go beyond the meteorological and hydrological communities in order to foster support from external sources. 4. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES (Agenda item 4) 4.1 Generalities 4.1.1 The meeting was informed of the priorities for assistance required to implement the WMO Programmes in the fields of co-operation covered by the VCP as given in the VCP rules: the World Weather Watch Programme, the World Climate Programme, the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, the Education and Training Programme and Applications of Meteorology Programme. A summary of the information is given in Annex III. Information was also provided on the activities undertaken within the framework of the VCP co-ordinated programmes. A summary of the relevant information is given in Annex IV. 4.1.2 The meeting considered that the perception of the priorities may be different for the donors, the recipients and the WMO constituent bodies. The criteria for the selection of the projects supported by the donors include the cost, the availability of expertise in the donor countries and the area of interest for the donor. 5 4.2 World Weather Watch Programme 4.2.1 The meeting reviewed the priorities in the implementation of the World Weather Watch Programme, in particular for: (a) Observing systems (see paragraph 1.1 of Annex III); (b) Telecommunication systems (see paragraph 1.2 of Annex III); (c) Global data-processing systems (see paragraph 1.3 of Annex III); (d) Satellite receiving stations (see paragraph 1.4 of Annex III). 4.2.2 The information given in Annex III helped the donor countries in clarifying the priorities in the WMO Programmes. However, the funds required to support all the projects listed in this Annex greatly exceeded the total VCP contribution. In this respect, the meeting recommended that the presentation of the list of projects submitted for VCP support include projects having the highest priorities and in total better fitting with the possible VCP contribution. The meeting recommended submitting this recommendation for the consideration of the WMO constituent bodies. 4.2.3 The meeting noted that the UK distributes WAFS and OPMET data and products on a channel of the UK Satellite Facilities (UKSF/SADIS). The UK proposed to distribute WWW data and products on another channel (UKSF/WWW) as a contribution to the WWW Programme. The Executive Council requested the CBS to study the possible use of the UKSF/WWW as a component of the GTS. The UKSF/WWW covers Regions I, II and VI. Regions I and VI are already covered by satellite distribution systems. A large part of Region II is not covered by any satellite distribution system. CBS proposed to use the UKSF/WWW to distribute data and products in Region II as an interregional component of the GTS. Regional Association II agreed to carry out a pilot project for the UKSF/WWW. The extension of the UKSF makes it possible to receive WAFS and WWW data and products through the same satellite receiver. It is possible to extend the existing SADIS receiving system for the reception of the UKSF/WWW. There are several countries in Region II which are not equipped to receive and visualize the WWW data and products. The meeting stressed that, when developing projects for the reception of one of the two channels (UKSF/SADIS or UKSF/WWW), the countries should consider the extension of the project for the reception of the second channel. Co-ordination is required between donor countries to join their efforts to support the reception of the two channels. 4.2.4 Satellite receivers are at present primarily used to receive satellite data directly from the satellites. Noting the availability and the rapid evolution of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the meeting felt that alternative solutions, such as the use of Internet, for the reception of satellite data at the WWW centres should be considered when developing projects for the reception of satellite data at centres. 4.3 Applications of Meteorology Programme 4.3.1 The priorities in the assistance required for the implementation of the Aeronautical Meteorology Programme, the Marine Meteorology and Associated Oceanographic Activities Programme and the Public Weather Services Programme are given in paragraphs 1.5 to 1.7 of Annex III, respectively. 4.3.2 The meeting felt that panels like the Data Buoy Co-operation Panel (DBCP) were instrumental in defining the priorities in the development of the relevant observational 6 programmes and in co-ordinating the development and the operation of the relevant programmes in particular with the funding agencies. 4.3.3 The representative from the UK informed the meeting of the development of a new media weather presentation system. This PC-based system is cheaper than the system presently provided by the UK. It will make it possible to support more systems each year than previously. 4.3.4 The meeting noted the availability of cost-effective satellite telecommunication systems for the distribution of data to the users like the RANET, which is in operation in Africa within the framework of an ACMAD programme. Future expansion of Worldspace into Asia and Central America presents opportunity of alternative means to deliver weather and climate information to rural communities. 4.4 Tropical Cyclone Programme 4.4.1 Priority subjects of the Tropical Cyclone Programme are given in paragraph 1.8 of Annex III. 4.5 World Climate Programme 4.5.1 The meeting reviewed priorities in the implementation of the World Climate Programme, in particular, for: (a) CLICOM and DARE projects (see paragraphs 2.1.1-2.1.7 of Annex III); (b) CLIPS (see paragraphs 2.2.1-2.2.5 of Annex III); (c) Agricultural Meteorology (see paragraphs 2.3.1-2.3.7 of Annex III). 4.5.2 Concerning CLICOM and DARE activities, the meeting noted the new strategy to combine data rescue activities with the new Climate Database Management Systems (CDMSs) and supported this initiative. Furthermore, the meeting noted the successful implementation of the drought preparedness project in support of NMHSs in Africa and recommended that similar projects, with DARE components, be prepared and supported for countries in RA I, RA II and RA V. 4.5.3 The meeting noted that the heat/health warning systems projects being carried out within the framework of the CLIPS project were being successfully implemented. 4.6 Hydrology and Water Resources Programme 4.6.1 The meeting noted that the main priority activities which should be considered for VCP support related to hydrological observing systems, data acquisition and processing systems and training in operational hydrology, especially at technician level. The meeting agreed that efforts should be continued to address the VCP requests for hydrological activities, especially through national and regional water resources institutions and agencies. 7 4.7 Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme 4.7.1 The meeting noted that Thirteenth Congress had requested WMO Members to give all possible support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a high priority to the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research Programme. Congress had also agreed that measurements of the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere should be given similar attention to that received by classical meteorological parameters. 4.7.2 Within the framework of the VCP, several donors agreed to continue offering support through “twinning” arrangements. The meeting noted that in this context, the recently established GAW stations of global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset (Algeria), Ushuasia (Argentina), Arembepe (Brazil), Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia) and Mount Kenya (Kenya) have been successfully twinned with countries or groups of countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Germany and USA. The Kenya/Switzerland twinning arrangement of a specific activity is exemplary. Switzerland is providing funding for the training of personnel. The meeting encouraged Members to continue supporting twinning arrangements within the framework of the VCP. 4.8 Education and Training Programme 4.8.1 The meeting noted with appreciation that major VCP donor Members continued to provide VCP fellowships and that many other Members continued to provide VCP contributions by waiving tuition fees and providing subsidized accommodation to WMO fellows. 4.8.2 The meeting was informed that the gap between the needs in fellowships and the reduced funding opportunities continues to increase. It noted that the Secretariat continued to seek additional extra-budgetary resources and new potential sources of funding aimed at increasing and complementing the traditional fellowships financial resources. Cost-sharing tripartite fellowship arrangements were also encouraged, in particular in the RMTCs, to optimize the use of limited VCP and regular budget fellowship funds. 4.8.3 The meeting considered that training should continue to be given high priority, especially through: (a) Short-term fellowships; (b) Workshops and seminars on specialized topics; (c) Twinning arrangements with RMTCs in developing countries to organize specialized training courses in the most cost-effective manner; and (d) Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs, particularly in the areas of: - computer-aided learning (CAL); and - distance learning, including the use of the Internet. 4.8.4 The meeting noted that alternative solutions should be found to support long-term fellowships which are becoming more and more costly and encouraged donors to continue their support to education and training activities. In this connection, the meeting was informed of proposals to conduct ”Business Orientation Workshops” and a planned workshop on the “Operation of NMHSs in Developing Countries” by Israel. The meeting 8 noted the need for such capacity building and suggested that the EC Advisory Group on Role and Operation of NMHSs consider its merits. 4.9 Regional programme 4.9.1 The meeting was informed of the outcomes of the 6th Technical Conference on the Management for Development of Meteorological Services in Africa, November 2000; the 12th session of RA II, Seoul, September 2000; and the Pacific Meteorological Services Needs Analysis Project (PMSNAP) for the Pacific Island Countries in RA V, completed November 2000. All RAs emphasized the need to address the problem of poor data availability, increasing NMHSs status and visibility, improving telecommunication systems, mitigation of and preparedness for natural disasters, human resources development, and regional technical co-operation. 4.9.2 The meeting noted the requests from RAs for VCP to assist in: (i) rehabilitation, strengthening, and improving the RBSN in all regions; (ii) preparing a Strategic Action Plan for the Enhancement of National Hydrological Services (NHSs) in RA II; (iii) carrying out a study on the development and the implementation of a regional telecommunication strategy in RA I; (iv) improvement of current telecommunication arrangements for six Caribbean Meteorological Services; (v) further implementation of EMWIN systems and DCPs particularly for the Pacific Island Countries in RA V; and (vi) implementation of telecommunication connections to RMDCN in RA IV. 5. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO- OPERATION PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2001 (Agenda item 5) 5.1 Review of the expected contribution to the VCP in 2001 (Agenda items 5.1 and 5.4) 5.1.1 The meeting reviewed the various projects approved for circulation during the last five years for which no full offer of support has so far been received. The meeting was informed of the plans of donor Members to support some of these VCP projects in the near future and expressed the views that these plans could not be considered as firm commitments on the part of the donor Members as conditions could change and result in re- adjustment of their plans. 5.1.2 The statements related to the co-operation activities of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, China, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Spain, United Kingdom and USA, including their contributions to the VCP(ES) and VCP(F) and information on bilateral activities, are given in the following paragraphs. 5.1.3 It was agreed that the country reports are a very useful means of communicating objectives and expressing constraints of individual donors. It was also noted that embedded in these reports is the seeds of interesting ideas and potential collaborative activities. It was recommended that countries submit their reports well enough in advance so that the Secretariat can distribute them before the meeting as part of the documentation. Argentina 5.1.4 During 2000, Argentina has continued to assist in technical co-operation activities in Region III, through the provision of three fellowships (two fellows from Peru and one from 9 Venezuela) for the satellite image interpretation course, and five fellowships (four fellows from Ecuador and one from Peru) for the operational aeronautical meteorology course (cost estimated at US $4,000). 5.1.5 In 2001 the support to the VCP is expected to achieve the level of 1999 (approximately US $45,000) through the provision of fellowships, equipment and services. Australia 5.1.6 Australia contributed US $25,000 to the VCP(F) in 2000. In addition, it provided US $10,000 as partial assistance to Russian Federation to improve its upper-air observation network under VCP(ES) project OB/1/2/1. 5.1.7 During 2000, Australia also participated in the following technical co-operation activities on a bilateral or multilateral basis: (a) Contribution to technical co-operation in the Pacific: Needs Analysis US $60,000; provision of observing equipment to Niue and Solomon Islands US $6,280; partial contribution to the organization of an international meeting in Cook Islands US $1,600; (b) Contribution to training courses/workshops and fellowships for officers from Greece, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, etc, totalling US $68,920; (c) Bilateral technical co-operation especially with Indonesia and Viet Nam. 5.1.8 In 2001, Australia will continue to contribute to the VCP(F) at the current level. Resource mobilization efforts will be enhanced for VCP(ES), including the provision of training fellowships and applications to AusAID for funding: (i) an ASEAN-Australia Development Co-operation Programme (AADCP) project for ASEAN countries through ASMC Singapore; and (ii) a major project on meteorological systems and numerical weather prediction for Viet Nam. AusAID will commence implementing a third phase of a Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project for the Pacific in 2001. AusAID will also finalize its implementation plans as follow-up to the recommendations of the Needs Analysis for the Pacific. Brazil 5.1.9 In 2000, as the government again reduced the meteorological budget the capacity of Brazil to contribute to the VCP activities was reduced, but the following activities were developed: (a) Technical support to develop agrometeorological capacities at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of El Salvador; (b) Technical co-operation agreement for training support in use of numerical forecast products, based on the regional model MBAR (HRM/DWD) for the Meteorological Service of Chile; and (c) Technical co-operation agreement for training support in wave numerical forecast modelling for the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Peru. 5.1.10 In 2001, Brazil intends to develop the following activities: 10 (a) To achieve training in co-operation with the FMI in strategic planning for development of an automatic weather station network; (b) To support the technical agrometeorological assistance to El Salvador; (c) To support training activities in numerical forecast products for meteorologists from Chile; (d) To support training activities in wave numerical modelling for hydrographers from Peru; and (e) To support a technical visit of an INMET telecommunication expert at the National Meteorological Institute of Mozambique. Canada 5.1.11 In 2000, Canada entered into the final phase of the shipment of 167 Stevens Stream Gauges to eight countries; total disbursements toward meteorological- and hydrological-related activities amounted to approximately US $740,000. These initiatives were undertaken by the Meteorological Service of Canada within the framework of the VCP. There are several projects in progress such as Data Rescue for RA IV (DARE IV) and the support to the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) project. Canada also assisted several countries with their first national communications to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the International Development Research Council (IDRC) funded a number of projects related to environmental monitoring in Central America, South America, Africa and Asia. These efforts were in support of monitoring flood potential and drought for the mitigation of natural disasters. 5.1.12 In 2001, Canada will continue to work with the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC) on a project designed to, inter alia, gain a better understanding of climate change impacts (e.g., coastal zones, freshwater, sea level rise) and vulnerabilities to climate change (e.g., tourism, agriculture). Efforts shall be continued to ensure a robust early warning system to mitigate the effects of natural disasters in the southern part of RA IV through a project to evaluate, define and refine an Integrated Observing System for the region in partnership with the US National Weather Service, CIDA, and IDRC. It is expected to continue limited programming in drought monitoring, disaster mitigation and the use of remote sensing for environmental monitoring. Canada also noted the Canada Climate Change Development Funds through CIDA with goals to provide funding for emission reductions, sequestration, adaptation and core capacity building in developing countries. It is hoped that some funds may be identified for NMHSs. China 5.1.13 In 2000, China contributed to actively participate in the WMO VCP Programme. Its contribution amounted to US $432,300. A study tour to China’s meteorological services for the directors of NMHSs in RAs III and IV was successful and fruitful. China also continued to provide meteorological instruments, including PCs, weather and agrometeorological stations. The long- and short-term fellowships were provided for graduate students and participants in international training courses in WMO RMTC Nanjing. In addition, China contributed US $8,000 to the RMTC Kenya. Also, China has donated US $120,000 for the headquarters of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), and provided a set of satellite receiving equipment to Vanuatu through bilateral co-operation. 11 5.1.14 In 2001, the budget of the proposed contributions of China to the WMO VCP will increase slightly. The proposed contribution of China in 2001 will be as follows: (a) Donation of instruments and equipment Democratic People’s Republic of Korea OB/1/2/2 Provision of 1000 pieces of 750g balloons for upper-air sounding Georgia DP/1/2/2 Provision of two PCs Guinea Provision of consumables for weather stations Moldova AGM/2/1/1 Provision of 20 soil hygrographs Yugoslavia OB/2/2/1 Provision of instruments for five RBSN stations. (b) Study Tours - China will organize two study tours in 2001. In mid-May, a ten-day study tour will be organized for about 15 directors or senior officials of NMHSs from all regions. In late October or early November, in conjunction with the Regional Seminar on Cost Recovery and Administration in RA II, another study tour will be hosted by China for about 20 directors and senior meteorologists in RA II. (c) Fellowships - An international training course on agrometeorology will be held at RMTC Nanjing from April to May for 25 participants. - A one-month training course on satellite meteorology for 25 participants will also be held in October at RMTC Nanjing. - Provision of long-term scholarship for two graduate students from Viet Nam and one from Yemen. - Provision of short-term scholarship (partial support) for four experts on meteorological instrument from Ethiopia for a three-month training at RMTC Nanjing. (d) VCP(F) - Chinese contribution to the VCP(F) in 2001 will be US $10,000. Finland 5.1.15 During 2000, Finland provided expert services in collaboration with WMO to support the development of a project proposal "Hydrometeorological safety to Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia (TRACECA)". 5.1.16 On a bilateral basis, Finland continued to support the climate change component of the environmental programme 1998-2000 in Nicaragua; the final phase of the regional project 1991-2000 in Central America; and the project 1998-2000 on new developments of upper-air stations in St. Petersburg and Murmansk. These projects were successfully completed in 2000. 5.1.17 At the International Reconstruction Conference on Mozambique (Rome, 3 to 4 May 2000) the Finnish Government pledged FIM 25 million (approximately US $4 million) for the reconstruction programme of the Mozambican Meteorological Service. Phase I "Immediate actions 2000-2001" of the programme started in September 2000. The 12 immediate actions consist of reconstruction of two surface observing stations, establishment of an automatic weather station, message switching systems, PDUS upgrade, hydrogen generator, GTS consumables and project homepages on the web. A detailed project proposal of the second phase 2001-2004 was prepared and finalized in December 2000. The total contribution implemented in 2000 by bilateral arrangements amounted to US $1,017 million. 5.1.18 For 2001, Finland will continue to support the meteorological re-construction programme of Mozambique. Furthermore, Finland, in collaboration with WMO, will support the preparedness to climate variability and global change in Small Island Developing States, Caribbean region, in 2001-2003 (the total budget amounts to US $3.4 million). France 5.1.19 The meeting was informed of the funding sources of France for technical co- operation in the field of meteorology as follows: - VCP(ES) from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (amounting generally to US $300,000 per year); - Bilateral and multilateral actions funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs after consultation with Météo-France and conducted directly by a French agency; - Actions directly funded by the Météo-France budget, such as expert services and training; and - Exceptional actions from other Ministry, such as the CLICOM Drought Preparedness Project financed by the Ministry of Environment. 5.1.20 As regards VCP, the projects financed by France cover a large range of activities and countries. In 2001 a substantial part will be devoted to the upgrading of the RETIM satellite reception systems to RETIM 2000 in various countries. 5.1.21 The bilateral/multilateral funding applies generally to Eastern Europe and North Africa. An important part is devoted to the ALADIN project, which includes the common development and operation of a limited area NWP model. The ALADIN Consortium includes 14 countries in Eastern Europe and Morocco, Tunisia, Portugal and Belgium. 5.1.22 France devotes important resources to support ACMAD activities. An ACMAD staff member is appointed by France, and as in the past years the AMEDIS project on telecommunications in Africa was substantially funded by France. Germany 5.1.23 Germany will continue to provide assistance in education and training and fellowships, mostly on a bilateral basis, and especially for short-term fellowships on a cost- sharing basis in the field of research and development. Relevant plans and recommendations from WMO bodies will be taken into account as far as possible. 5.1.24 As regards training in operational hydrology, Germany concentrated on supporting WMO-sponsored training courses. 5.1.25 In 2000 the International Postgraduate Course on Applied Hydrology and Information Systems for Water Management at the IMTR in Nairobi, Kenya, was supported 13 with a financial contribution of DM 12,000. This amount was paid into the Hydrology and Water Resources Trust Fund of WMO. 5.1.26 Furthermore, a German expert joined this course for a week as lecturer on coastal zone management and interactions of tide and inland water flow. His contribution was fully financed by the German IHP/OHP National Committee. Similar financial assistance and contribution in kind for the course in Nairobi will be provided in 2001. 5.1.27 Following the flood catastrophe in Mozambique, Germany contributed a further amount of DM 8,000 for the inclusion of the subject "flood forecasting/flood mitigation" in the Nairobi course and for facilitating the attendance of a participant from Mozambique. 5.1.28 The VCP co-ordinated project ASMET (African Satellite Meteorological Education and Training) was completed in early 2000 with a further contribution of DM 50,000 by GTZ. 5.1.29 The meeting was informed that Germany would continue to provide technical assistance, mostly on a bilateral basis, and taking into consideration the relevant recommendations of WMO bodies. Continued emphasis is placed on support to WWW System Support Activities by means of seconded experts, training, etc. Hong Kong, China 5.1.30 Hong Kong, China contributed for the first time to the VCP(ES) in 2000 in the form of training fellowship given to Oman to attend a workshop on Port and Marine Meteorology conducted in Hong Kong, China (US $19,000). 5.1.31 In 2001 and beyond, Hong Kong, China will continue to contribute to VCP(ES) by offering short-term training fellowships to Members to undertake training to be conducted in Hong Kong, China. The subjects of the workshops will include: - Weather service; - Service delivery via the Internet; - Design and operation of automated observing systems; - Design and operation of meteorological warning systems as part of a public Aviation meteorological systems; and - Port and marine meteorology. India 5.1.32 Within the framework of the WMO VCP, training fellowships for five short-term fellows were underway in 2000 in the fields of general meteorology and agrometeorology (approximately US $7,000). In addition, eight fellowships were being implemented under bilateral/multilateral technical co-operation in 2000. In 2001 about ten short-term fellowships are expected to be supported under the VCP and a similar number is expected under bilateral/multilateral arrangements. Israel 5.1.33 Israel contributed US $388,100 to the VCP for 2000 through the provision of 105 fellowships for four training courses in Israel at the RMTC, three on-the-spot courses with 82 participants in Kenya, Myanmar and Poland, short-term missions for Lithuania and Papua New Guinea, as well as support to Turkish-Israel joint projects. In 2001, Israel will continue to provide fellowships for participation in the four international post-graduate courses on 14 applied meteorology to be held in RMTC Bet Dagan, and on-the-spot courses abroad, within the framework of the VCP. 5.1.34 Under the Turkish-Israel joint project, a data bank was established to integrate the knowledge of the impact of climate, agricultural technology, soil and socio-economic conditions on variability of the wheat yields in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Japan 5.1.35 In 2000, Japan contributed US $200,000 to the VCP(F) and US $20,000 to support the development of a Regional Strategic Plan in RA II, and US $25,000 to support the improvement of the upper-air observation network in the Russian Federation. An amount of US $250,000 was paid for training/fellowships. 5.1.36 The training courses which Japan hosted and financially supported in 2000 were as follows: (a) A four-month group training course in meteorology aimed at enhancement of capability of basic and operational meteorology was offered to nine participants from nine Member countries from 21 August to 15 December 2000; and (b) A training course on advanced weather observation was offered to four participants from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 28 February to 16 March 2000. 5.1.37 Japan will continue to contribute to the VCP(F) and VCP(ES) in priority areas of WMO Programmes including marine meteorology and associated oceanographical activities and GCOS workshop in RA II. It will continue to host a four-month group training course in meteorology which will consist of about ten participants from various regions. 5.1.38 The prospects of the bilateral/multilateral technical co-operation activities are as follows: (a) The project for the strengthening of weather warning services related to natural disaster in Bangladesh and the project for natural disaster reduction in Mongolia were completed in 2000; (b) A technical co-operation project in Cambodia recently commenced in February 2001 as a three-year project. The purpose of the project is an improvement of the weather forecast system and its application to agrometeorology in Cambodia. Two long-term experts in the field of meteorology and agrometeorology respectively will be seconded to the Department of Meteorology (DOM) in Cambodia. In addition, several short-term experts will be seconded, and several staff members of DOM will visit Japan for training. The provision of certain instruments such as a MTSAT image receiver, a SADIS system and an automatic weather station will be considered. New Zealand 5.1.39 During 2000, New Zealand provided varying assistance in public sector reform advice, institutional strengthening, commercial approaches, quality assurance and technical advice and support to a variety of countries. The countries assisted included Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Samoa, South Africa, Tokelau Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu. In addition, New Zealand provided expert advice to a Meteorological Needs Analysis conducted in the Pacific region by a multilateral aid co-ordinating organization. 15 5.1.40 New Zealand’s historical programme management’s involvement in the WWW programmes at Kiribati, Tuvalu and Penrhyn Island (Northern Group of the Cook Islands) continues. Under the 1990 multilateral accords, Penrhyn Island may close in May 2001 after 22 years of operation if alternative arrangements cannot be found. The radar is obsolete and the facility, initially only planned for a 12-month project, requires a complete refurbishment if it is to continue. 5.1.41 New Zealand will continue its support, especially in the Pacific, in 2001. Philippines 5.1.42 The Philippine contribution to the VCP is in the form of partial support to training/fellowships. During 2000, it supported two WMO long-term fellows enrolled at the University of Philippines (approximately US $1,500). Portugal 5.1.43 The activities of Portugal in 2000 included the Tropical Desk, short-term missions and conferences, training course on Meteorological Satellites and support to RMTC of Nairobi. 5.1.44 Further to the installation of the "Tropical Desk" at the Institute for Meteorology (IM), a course on Numerical Weather Forecast and Climate Modelling began in November 2000. At present, six meteorologists from Angola, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and Sao Tome and Principe participated in this course. Unfortunately, one meteorologist from Cape Verde has not yet been able to attend the course. 5.1.45 There were bilateral actions involving Cape Verde (short-mission on the assessment of the costs of meteorological data and products), Guinea-Bissau (joint CRIA/IM/WMO short-mission on the assessment of the difficulties of the Meteorological Service), Sao Tome and Principe (on-the-job weather forecast training course) and Special Administrative Region of Macao (installation and putting into operation a sea state forecasting model). Lectures and technical conferences were also held in Luanda, Angola (Climatic Evolution and Warning and Alert Systems) and Sao Tome and Principe (Impacts of the New Technologies on the Area of Meteorology and Human Resources). Jointly with the Chinese Meteorological Administration and Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Services, a Technical Conference on Meteorology was held in Macao in March 2000. 5.1.46 A very successful course on Meteorological Satellites co-sponsored by EUMETSAT, IM and CRIA was held in Lisbon. Although the course was designed especially for meteorologists from the Portuguese-speaking African countries (PALOP), meteorologists from Brazil, Macao and IM also attended. 5.1.47 Further to the request from WMO regarding the support to the RMTC Nairobi, to enable Mozambique officers to attend a postgraduate hydrology course in flood forecasting, the Portuguese Government has contributed an amount of PTE 3,000,000, approximately US $14,000. 5.1.48 The expected activities concerning training/fellowships under the VCP in 2001 refer to the continuation of the course on Numerical Weather Forecast and Climate Modelling (up to April 2001) and the realization of a three-month course on Marine Meteorology for two meteorologists from each of the PALOP countries. 5.1.49 The following actions are expected to be achieved in 2001: 16 (a) Preparation of MSG Applications in Africa (MApA) project to develop satellite applications in the African Portuguese-speaking countries; (b) Complementary short mission on Weather Forecast Training in Sao Tome and Principe; (c) Short mission in Sao Tome and Principe on Seismological Assessment; (d) Short mission in Mozambique to prepare a project on a system for alerting natural disasters; (e) Short mission in East Timor in order to assess the needs concerning the links between a civil protection service and natural disasters; (f) Second Symposium of Climate and Applications in the Portuguese-speaking countries (in Brazil); (g) Provision of computer equipment and graphic material for instruments for Guinea-Bissau and Sao Tome and Principe. Note: In some of these co-operation actions, the following entities were, and hopefully will further be, involved: Portuguese Agency for Development Support (APAD), Institute for International Scientific and Technological Co-operation (ICCTI), Portuguese Institute for Co- operation (ICP), Agency of the Portuguese-Speaking Countries for the Climate and Related Environmental Issues (CRIA), EUMETSAT, institutions from Brazil and WMO. Republic of Korea 5.1.50 The meeting was informed that the third ”Training Course on Weather Forecasting for Operational Meteorologists” for Member countries in Asia and the Pacific region was held in Seoul, Korea from 10 to 30 April 2000. A total of 21 participants from NMSs in the region attended the course. All expenses for their participation including international travel and accommodation in Seoul were fully borne by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) through the sponsorship of the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). It amounted to approximately US $120,000 5.1.51 The fourth “Training Course on Weather Forecasting for Operational Meteorologists” for Member countries in Asia and the Pacific region will be held in May 2001. It is expected that almost the same number of participants will be invited as in 2000 for four weeks, one week longer than last year. 5.1.52 In 2001, the KMA is planning to organize a “Course on Meteorological Technology Policy”, which will be conducted in the form of a study visit to KMA for a group of directors of NMSs in the WMO region. As with the above two training courses, the course is expected to be sponsored by KOICA. 5.1.53 Consequently, the total amount to be expended on VCP by the Republic of Korea in 2001 will be approximately US $200,000. Spain 5.1.54 The total contribution of Spain to the VCP amounted to US $314,503 in 2000. The meeting was informed of the Spanish activities of multilateral co-operation in 2000-2001 as follows. 17 5.1.55 Recognizing the importance of ACMAD project to reinforce the NMHSs in the region, Spain contributed to ACMAD in 2000 US $85,300. Taking into consideration the Spanish interest in this regional project, the voluntary contribution to ACMAD for the Year 2001 will be at the same level. 5.1.56 Considering also the importance of the participation of experts from developing countries in the activities of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Spain’s contribution to IPCC in 2000 was increased to US $31,000. United Kingdom VCP(F) 5.1.57 In 2000 the UK contributed US $50,000 (£37,000) to the WMO VCP Fund (VCP(F)). The level of contribution will remain the same in 2001. VCP(ES) 5.1.58 In 2000/2001, the UK contributed to the VCP(ES) to the value of approximately £455,000. (Figures refer to the UK Financial Year April – March.) The primary expenditure was on supporting: On-going VCP projects which were completed during the year: Congo and Zambia TE/5/3/1 - Provision of Internet connection; Ghana, Rwanda AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a satellite-based distribution system for and Mozambique WAFS data and products; Ghana and Senegal PWS/1/1/1 - Upgrading/Provision of a media presentation system; Seychelles OB/1/3/1 - Replacement of the hydrogen generator for the radiosonde station; Zambia AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a Year 2000 compliant WAFS display system. VCP Projects fully or partially supported and reported as completed in 2000: Armenia PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a Weather Forecast Presentation System for television and newspapers; Costa Rica OB/1/2/10 - Provision of upper-air consumables; Jordan TE/6/2/2 - Upgrading of the MDD receiving system to be Year 2000 compliant; Madagascar PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a media system; Namibia PWS/1/1/1 - Upgrading of the television weather broadcast equipment; Uganda OB/1/2/5 - Provision of radiosondes and DCP for Entebbe Upper-air Station. [In 2001/2002 the UK aims to deliver long-term support for key observations from data- sparse areas. However this will be achieved through the UK’s WWW contribution rather than through the VCP. The aim is to sustain this WWW support at about the same level as present (currently four upper-air stations) with replacement of any that become unsustainable.] 18 5.1.59 In 2001/2002, in terms of VCP(ES) support, and excluding the £37K for the VCP(F), the level of contribution is planned to be approximately £418K. The priorities will be focussed on: (a) Support for communications, particularly satellite (Meteosat) reception of meteorological data required for the preparation of adequate forecast and other services. This is mainly focussed on disaster mitigation (especially food security and storm warning). The communications anticipated would be MDD/AMEDIS systems totaling approximately £114,000, currently judged to be 3 x £38,000 per site (sites yet to be identified). The systems would be integrated systems structured in such a way as to achieve dissemination of observations; (b) Support for data processing systems (archiving, CLICOM, DARE, etc.) (£20,000); (c) Support for UKSF/SADIS for reception of UKSF/WWW information (£133,000). Initial sites are likely to be in Sri Lanka, Nepal and Macau; further work is required on the technology to be used; (d) Support for media weather presentations systems. This is seen as indirectly encouraging the local observation collection system and also for disaster mitigation - dissemination of warnings and advice (£111,000), made up of 2 x £29,000 installations, plus approximately nine sites with low-cost media systems (£6,000 each). These cheaper systems would meet the demand that cannot be met with the higher cost systems; (e) Support for web site development and operations, with same objectives as (d) above, and miscellaneous small projects (£20,000); and (f) WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (£20,000). [It is assumed that support for MSG systems in North Africa will not fall liable until FY 2002/2003.] VCP (Fellowships) 5.1.60 In 2000/2001, the UK supported fellowships to the value of £188,000. The primary expenditure was on supporting: - Eight students to attend the Statistics In Agricultural Climatology course at the University of Reading, United Kingdom; - Ten students and external consultation for the transfer of the Statistics in Agricultural Climatology course to the Kenya Meteorological Department Institute for Meteorological Training and Research in Nairobi; - Three meteorology MSc students; - Thirteen students to attend a Regional Marketing Seminar hosted by the South African Weather Bureau in Pretoria; - Attendance at the Initial Forecasters course, the Advanced Forecasters course and the Meteorology for Graduates course at the Met Office College, Reading, United Kingdom; 19 - The final part of one student’s PhD study at a UK University; - The WMO Aviation Seminar at the Met Office College, Reading, United Kingdom. Funding was obtained from the United Kingdom Government Climate Change Challenge Fund for one student to attend the MSc in Climate Change at the University of East Anglia, United Kingdom. 5.1.61 In the year 2001/2002 the UK again aims to support fellowships to the value of approximately £188,000 for: - Forecasters to attend the WMO Aviation Seminar to be held at the Met Office College in July; - Training professionals to attend the WMO Training Seminar on Curriculum Development at the Met Office College in Reading, United Kingdom; - Eight students to attend a new and shortened Statistics In Agricultural Climatology course at the University of Reading, United Kingdom; - The second Statistics in Agricultural Meteorology course to be run at the Kenya Meteorological Department Institute for Met Training and Research in Nairobi; - Ten students in Meteorological Instrument Training at RMTC Cairo, Egypt (subject to further exploratory discussions); - Travel assistance for attendance at the Conference of Commonwealth Meteorologists; - Travel assistance for attendance at the European Conference on Applications of Meteorology. 5.1.62 The UK will continue its policy of supporting short-term specialized courses and seminars. The UK will also continue to exploit the facilities at RMTCs for the delivery of training. This will mean a reduction in the amount spent on MSc training for individuals. Where support is requested for national training courses, the UK will be seeking expansion of the proposed training to include students from other countries in the region to ensure the most cost-effective use of the funds. United States of America 5.1.63 The USA reported that its annual contribution to the VCP was US $2 million in 2000 and would likely be the same in 2001. During 2000, the USA funded 16 fellowships at the International Desks at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Four long-term fellowships were also funded. 5.1.64 The USA informed the meeting that training at the new Pacific Desk, located at the NWS Weather Forecast Office in Honolulu, Hawaii, would begin in March 2001. Fellowships will be provided for meteorologists from NMHS’s in RA V that are members of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. Also planned to start in 2001 is a model transfer desk at NCEP which will respond to international requests for numerical weather prediction codes, including model installation and technical assistance. 5.1.65 The USA continued to sponsor, co-sponsor or support attendance to the following workshops: Tropical Meteorology (Miami, Florida), Climate Applications (Norman, 20 Oklahoma), Flood Forecasting (Silver Spring, Maryland), Automatic Stations (Lincoln, Nebraska), Cost Recovery (Mexico), Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques (San Jose, Costa Rica), Research Applications (Mombasa, Kenya), New Technology (Nairobi, Kenya), Port Meteorological Officer Training (Cape Town, South Africa), and WAFS/STAR4 (Mexico). 5.1.66 The USA remained active in data rescue activities in Africa and Central America; further data rescue efforts are expected in 2001 for Indonesia. The USA remains active in data rescue of upper-air data in Africa and of surface/synoptic and hydrological data in Central America. 5.1.67 The USA supported AMDAR pilot projects in the Caribbean, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia; projects with Hong Kong and the Russian Federation are pending for 2001. 5.1.68 The USA will continue to support routine upper-air observations in the Caribbean. A two-year hydrogen generator replacement programme will start in 2001. 5.1.69 The total number of sites in the WAFS/STAR4 network reached 80 in 2000, including 29 two-way and 51 one-way stations. The USA contractor for STAR4 changed in 2000 to Global Science and Technology, Inc. (GST). GST will complete installation of five workstations and carry out required maintenance through 2001. The USA supported a short course in RA IV on the use of products available on WAFS. In the future, the USA will look to off-the-shelf, PC-based satellite workstations to replace the existing STAR4 systems. 5.1.70 In RA IV, the USA continued to support the following projects: - A project that has distributed 50 low-cost automatic weather stations to amateur radio operators in the Caribbean and Central America to provide supplementary observations to local NMHSs and the RSMC Miami during tropical weather events; - Regional maintenance to provide sustainability to observing systems in the Caribbean and Central America; - Regional Internet connectivity to make increased use of the Internet for exchanging data and forecasts. 5.1.71 The USA maintained its on-going assistance with recovery efforts by NMHSs in Central America and the Caribbean which were affected by Hurricanes Georges/Mitch in 1998 and Keith in 2000. 5.2 Review of the VCP Programme and related technical co-operation activities (Agenda items 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7) 5.2.1 The meeting reviewed various issues related to the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme, including support to the VCP projects, support to education and training fellowships, the effectiveness of the VCP Programme, the evaluation of VCP projects, the co-ordinated programmes, utilization of the VCP(F) and the WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund, publicity, and co-operation with other funding/technical co-operation organizations. Support to VCP projects 5.2.2 The meeting reviewed the Members’ contributions to the VCP in 2000 given in Annex V and the evolution of the support to the VCP over the past 20 years given in Annex 21 VI. It noted that the contribution to the VCP(ES) in 2000 was at almost the same level of the largest contributions in 1989-1990, 1997 and in 1999. The contribution to the VCP(F) has decreased to the level in 1998. However, in constant dollars, this would be an overall reduction. 5.2.3 The meeting noted that in 2000, 67 VCP projects for equipment and services were circulated amongst donor Members, and 46 VCP projects obtained partial or full support. The support received for these projects grouped by fields of co-operation during the period 1988-1999, and in 2000 is given in Annex VII. 5.2.4 During 1988-2000, a total of 1,221 VCP projects was circulated amongst donors. About 47% of the VCP projects received support: VCP projects related to surface observing stations, upper-air observing stations, satellite receiving stations, telecommunication systems, data processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and meteorological applications activities (including Aeronautical Meteorology and Public Weather Services Programmes) have received a high level (41-59%) of support, while those for weather radar stations and GAW activities received a lower level (7-19%) of support. Compared with the level of support in the past twelve years, 1988-1999, VCP projects for surface observing stations, data processing systems, research and training centre activities, CLICOM and climatological activities, and hydrological activities received more support in 2000, due to the support given to the upgrading of WWW facilities in connection with the Year 2000 problem and to the upgrading of CLICOM equipment. Four VCP projects related to hydrological activities and three for the Internet connection were supported by Members and with the VCP(F) in 2000. Support to education and training fellowships 5.2.5 The meeting was informed that during 2000, a total of 240 requests for fellowships expected to be supported within the framework of the VCP was received from Member countries, and 108 short-term and five long-term fellowships were awarded under the VCP. 5.2.6 Since January 1996 until December 2000 WMO has awarded 668 fellowships funded under the VCP programme. The great majority (86%) of the fellowships awarded under VCP during this period was for short-term studies. The meeting noted that many short-term fellowships were awarded for study tours to familiarize senior staff of NMHSs with modern techniques in meteorology and operational hydrology as well as modern management techniques and operations in more advanced NMHSs, and that such study tours proved most useful and cost-effective. VCP funds were also utilized to organize group training with great success. Noting the cost-effectiveness of this tripartite cost-sharing scheme, the meeting felt that the group-training scheme should be enhanced in the future. The meeting also requested that the information be presented in terms of total investments versus numbers of short-term and long-term fellowships. 5.2.7 In spite of the substantial offers of support obtained every year, between 140 and 180 requests for fellowships remain unsatisfied each year, meaning that over a half of the fellowship applications received in any one year could not be satisfied (mainly for long-term fellowships). Noting that the VCP has become a major source in supporting WMO fellowships, the meeting encouraged donor Members to maintain and even increase their VCP contributions to education and training fellowships with emphasis on cost-effective programmes and preferably through RMTCs. 22 Effectiveness of the Voluntary Co-operation Programme 5.2.8 The meeting was pleased to note that the Secretariat prepared guidance material on the VCP web page to assist Members in the preparation of requests for assistance under the VCP (for equipment and services, fellowships and the WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund). This would ensure submission of clear requests and a better adaptation of the requests to the likely offers of support and to the priority areas of the WMO Programmes. The Final Report of the IPM/VCP/TCO continues to be distributed on a yearly basis to keep the Members informed of the priority areas of WMO Programmes to be supported under the VCP. The meeting also noted that the Secretariat is providing regular progress reports on the status of VCP projects to Members concerned. 5.2.9 The meeting further noted that various measures have been taken to ensure the cost-effective and efficient management of the VCP Programme. These measures served for the regular and speedy circulation of the VCP requests and quicker implementation of the projects. 5.2.10 The meeting noted with appreciation that in 2000 the VCP and TCO Home Pages were updated and further enhanced with improved presentation of the web pages. As requested at the last IPM, links were established between the TCO Home Page and the technical co-operation-related pages of NMHSs web sites. The latest information on the UNDP- and Trust Fund-supported projects (on-going and pipe-line) is now available on the TCO Home Page. The distribution of VCP-related documents and publications in Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format) was made in 2000. Documents and Final Reports of the IPM and the third session of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation became available on the web. In addition to the guidance materials for Members’ preparation of VCP requests, annual VCP publications including the Consolidated Report on the VCP, the Consolidated Lists of VCP Projects and Status of Implementation and its supplements are now accessible from the VCP Home Page. In addition to the lists of approved VCP projects for equipment for circulation, full information on VCP project requests circulated in 2000 and thereafter will also be available on the VCP Home Page. In view of the usefulness of the on-line information for donors, the meeting encouraged the Secretariat to continue to increase the availability of on-line information on the VCP. Evaluation of VCP projects 5.2.11 The Secretariat presented a summary of statistics on the 138 valid evaluation reports carried out in 2000 as given in Annex VIII. During the life span of the project (defined as the time between the date of completion of the implementation of the project and the date of preparation of the evaluation report), and during the three months preceding the date of the preparation of the report, approximately 82% and 85%, respectively, of expected services or results were available from the VCP project. About 83% of the equipment is now in a satisfactory working condition. On the other hand, during the last three months about 3% of the projects had achieved 20% or less of the expected services or results, and 4% of the equipment is now out of service. The main reasons for possible unavailability of services are: inadequate equipment (hardware, software, documentation, consumables, etc.) and inadequate training; and also breakdown of the equipment after installation, and lack of consumables and spare parts. Seventy-four percent of the reports showed satisfactory in arrangements for the maintenance of the equipment and 65% showed satisfactory in the level of training of maintenance operators on equipment. However, approximately 43% of reports indicated a requirement for complementary equipment as further assistance, and 39% indicated a requirement for complementary training. 5.2.12 The number of answers to the questions in the evaluation reports is given in Tables Q2-Q5 in Annex VIII by fields of co-operation. The meeting noted that more than 23 80% of projects related to upper-air observing stations, telecommunication systems, data processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and aeronautical meteorology activities have achieved successful services or results (more than 85%), while four projects related to upper-air observing stations, satellite receiving stations and aeronautical meteorological activities have realized low-level services or results (less than 20%) during the last three months. Further assistance for equipment including spare parts and consumables is requested, in particular, for the projects related to satellite receiving stations, CLICOM and climatological activities and public weather services activities. More training at the time of the installation is needed especially for satellite receiving stations and data processing systems, and post implementation training is also requested for the projects related to data processing systems, CLICOM and climatological activities, and public weather services activities. Most of the projects related to public weather services activities, in particular, require further assistance in expert services. 5.2.13 The meeting reviewed examples of the information and comments on the status of the projects given in Annex VIII. Several reports indicated problems with computer equipment which have not been upgraded to be Y2K compliant. Most of the reports showed achievement of available expected services thanks to elaborated arrangements and efforts of recipient countries for operation and maintenance of the equipment under improved local infrastructure. 5.2.14 In reviewing the process of the evaluation of projects, the meeting felt that the questionnaire should be modified to identify the outcomes of the projects. The information on the outcomes of the project could also be reflected on the VCP request. VCP co-ordinated programmes 5.2.15 The meeting reviewed the list of the approved VCP co-ordinated programmes and expressed the views that efforts be made to reformulate these programmes taking into account the following: • Noting the development of upper-air observation systems such as the AMDAR programmes, it would be worthwhile to enlarge the co-ordinated programme entitled “Improvement of the global network of upper-air stations with special emphasis on GCOS upper-air network” and to consider the development of a composite observing system, including the GCOS upper-air network; • Noting the development of the WWW Information systems and services, the two co-ordinated VCP programmes entitled “Improvement of the GTS” and “Support to Internet capabilities at NMHSs” could be integrated into one co-ordinated programme for the support to the telecommunication systems, including the use of Internet technology; • The scope of the co-ordinated programme entitled “Automation of NMCs” should be redefined. In the context of VCP support, it would be better defined as the support for improvement in performance of NMCs; this would include such processes as telecommunication, visualization and elaboration of products tailored to end-users. Utilization of the Voluntary Co-operation Fund (VCP(F)) 5.2.16 The meeting was informed of the status of the VCP(F) in 2000. In 2000, nine Members made cash contributions amounting to about US $290,000 to the VCP(F). The meeting noted with appreciation that Dr S.E. Moon, Former Administrator of the Korean Meteorological Administration, made a personal contribution to the VCP(F). The expenditure 24 and obligations for approved projects amounted to about US $470,000. The funds were used mainly for expert services, short-term fellowships, TCDC activities and high priority programmes, in particular for support to upper-air stations, operational hydrology activities, Y2K problem, Internet capability, climatological activities and mitigation of natural disasters, in accordance with the guidelines approved by EC-XLVIII. 5.2.17 The meeting reviewed the proposals for the allocations of VCP(F) for 2001 amounting to approximately US $290,000, and considered that these proposals are in line with the priority areas of WMO Programmes. WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund 5.2.18 The meeting noted that since the establishment of the WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund in 1985, 27 loans were granted to 21 countries for temporary assistance to purchase spare parts and consumables for continued operation of existing vital WWW key elements. In 2000-2001 Malawi utilized the Revolving Fund scheme for the purchase of meteorological instruments and consumables and Yugoslavia has indicated its wish to utilize the Revolving Fund for computer equipment for Montenegro Republic Hydrometeorological Institute. It also noted with pleasure that, through the utilization of the diplomatic channels and with assistance of Regional and Subregional Offices, three Members took action for reimbursement of their loans in 2000. Publicity of the VCP 5.2.19 The meeting was informed that efforts have been made for publicizing the accomplishments of the VCP in order to attract new donor Members and to mobilize external resources including International Funding Institutions. Further to a special issue of the WMO Bulletin focusing on the WMO VCP published in July 1996, the TCO/VCP web pages have been developed and enhanced for publicity purposes. A presentation material (MS- PowerPoint file) is being developed for use in publicity and resource mobilization activities by the Secretariat and Members. A further enhancement of the Internet web pages (with new looks) and preparation of a VCP brochure for publicity are underway in 2001. In this respect, donor Members were invited to contribute articles on their activities in terms of the VCP to the brochure. The meeting strongly endorsed the need to communicate the goals and successes of the VCP and Technical Co-operation more broadly to assist in mobilizing resources both internal and external. The meeting considered the brochure to be an excellent means of accomplishing this. Australia indicated its willingness to assist with some funds for this initiative. Co-operation with other technical co-operation partners 5.2.20 As agreed at the last IPM, representatives of several funding institutions and technical co-operation organizations based in Asia and the Pacific were invited to the meeting in order to foster close co-operation with these agencies and exchange information on relevant activities. In this context, a special session was dedicated to presentations by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) regional office in Perth, following the presentations by the WMO Secretariat, the President of WMO and the President of CBS. 5.2.21 The meeting was given a brief introduction by Ms J. Laurence, Programme Officer, Environment and Natural Resources, Pacific Regional Section, AusAID, of its activities and on-going projects supported by AusAID. AusAID is the agency responsible for the Australian Government aid programme to developing countries. It focuses its activities in 25 the Asia and Pacific region and provides assistance through bilateral, multilateral and regional programmes. 5.2.22 Regional projects are undertaken simultaneously across a number of countries in areas that are more appropriately dealt with from a regional perspective as they are not confined by country boundaries. Meteorology falls into this category. Regional projects can also be undertaken to address gaps in bilateral programmes. Though most governments of developing countries would recognize the important contribution of meteorology to the economic and social well-being of their country, in bilateral consultations it is often not considered as high a priority as other issues. As Australia recognizes the importance of meteorological services and wishes still to be involved in this area it considers it appropriate for inclusion in the regional programme. Regional projects may also operate in sensitive areas, such as child abuse or HIV/AIDS. 5.2.23 The AusAID regional programme has been involved in meteorological activities for some years. Recent projects related to these activities in the Pacific include the Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project and the Disaster Management Unit at the South Pacific Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). Phases I and II of the Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project saw the installation of tide gauges in twelve Pacific islands. The specific goal of Phase III is to provide an accurate long-term record of sea levels in the South Pacific for partner countries and the international scientific community that enables them to respond to and manage related impacts. The Disaster Management Unit at SOPAC is aimed at assisting Pacific Island National Governments to develop the capacity to formulate and administer effective Disaster Management Plans specifically relevant to their own country’s needs. 5.2.24 The AusAID project most directly relevant to the meteorological community is the Pacific National Meteorological Services Needs Analysis. At the Regional Meteorological Directors meeting in 1999 the Directors finalized a Strategic Plan for the development of Meteorological Services in the Pacific. The first step identified in the implementation of the plan was to conduct a needs analysis. AusAID was asked to be involved in the analysis and agreed to fund travel and administrative costs. SPREP, WMO, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), US NOAA/NWS, Météo-France and the Fiji Meteorological Service provided in-kind assistance to develop the report. The Needs Analysis emerged in three parts: • The context of meteorology in the Pacific; • A country by country description of capability and needs; and • Development project proposals. 5.2.25 The meeting noted that Australia is keen to be further involved in the results of the Needs Analysis and is planning, subject to specific approvals, to take up one of the development projects outlined in the study. Considering that East Timor will be a future Member of WMO, Portugal expressed its availability to co-operate in the assessment of the needs of this country and also in the planning of its own Meteorological Service. 5.2.26 The meeting was informed by Mr G. Miles, Head, Environmental Management and Planning Division, SPREP of its recent activities. The South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, as the region’s intergovernmental agency responsible for the environment, has been assisting Pacific Island countries strengthen their meteorological services since 1993. Working closely with WMO, Météo-France, Bureau of Meteorology 26 (Australia), MetService (NZ), and National Weather Service (USA), SPREP has focused on specific training, technical advice and equipment to ensure the validity and maintenance of the observational network and the co-ordination among Directors of Meteorology. Through annual meetings of region’s Directors of Meteorology it has been possible to prepare a clear picture of needs and an effective framework for the provision of regional assistance. Through this approach over US $6 million has been secured to assist Meteorological Services over the past decade. 5.2.27 In 1997, SPREP offered to host the WMO Subregional Office for the South-West Pacific. This has improved co-operation between WMO and SPREP and provides the basis for joint programming and well co-ordinated assistance to all Pacific Island countries. 5.2.28 In response to the Strategic Plan for the Development of Meteorological Services in the Pacific Region adopted in 1999, SPREP commissioned a report on the needs of the region. The Pacific Meteorological Needs Analysis Project, made possible through the financial assistance of Australia (AusAID), was a team effort involving WMO, Météo-France, Bureau of Meteorology (Australia), MetService (NZ), and National Weather Service (USA) and all NMSs and has provided a region-wide framework for the provision of assistance. 5.2.29 The Needs Analysis highlights the significant challenges for this region from basic observational needs and limited human resources through to building infrastructure. The analysis contains a range of possible projects that could usefully guide investment in the region. For the effective implementation of the outcomes of the Needs Analysis at the regional level it will be essential to invest in: - dedicated human resources within SPREP and WMO; - continued meetings of Directors of Meteorology; - rapid response to maintenance of the observational network; and - provision of climate information through the Island Climate Update. The WMO VCP was encouraged to use the Needs Analysis in allocating resources for use in this region and to use the Needs Analysis as a possible model for other regions. 5.2.30 Mr W. Erb, Director of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Perth Regional Programme Office presented the regional capacity building activities of the IOC Regional Office. The Office is primarily charged with developing the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean regions. Since the GOOS Programme is highly focused on capacity and awareness building, the regional GOOS activities look to the capacity building panel for policy guidance. WMO and IOC jointly sponsor the capacity building programme of the Joint Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). The programme must co-operate with other programmes, such as WWW and GCOS, and seek partnerships with funding agencies to pursue mutual objectives. 5.2.31 The IOC components of the GOOS capacity building programme contributed to the implementation of 35 meetings with capacity building content hosted by 26 Member states. There were 21 training events plus 14 other meetings covering the Mediterranean, Western and North Indian Ocean, Latin America and the Caribbean, South and North- western Pacific, as well as some with global scope. IOC co-sponsors a programme known as Training Through Research with UNESCO and the Russian Ministries of Natural Resources and Science and Technology. In 1991-2000 Russian research vessels conducted ten major cruises, five workshops and eight post-cruise conferences. IOC also 27 supported various international conferences during 2000 that had capacity building objectives. IOC supports with UNESCO a Chair in Coastal Oceanography in Chile and a programme on Marine Education for Central America, designed for primary and secondary school teachers. In summary, IOC’s year 2000 activities involved more than 800 participants from 80 Member states. 5.2.32 The meeting expressed appreciation to the representatives of the above organizations for their valuable contributions and recommended that further dialogue be maintained with these institutions, including during future meetings. 6. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP AND/OR RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES (Agenda item 5) 6.1 Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) 6.1.1 The meeting reviewed the development of the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) System in comparison with the radiosonde observing system (see paragraph 6.2.5). The AMDAR Panel was established with an aim to enhance the upper-air component of the WWW GOS through co-operation with Members in the acquisition, exchange and quality control of automated meteorological observations from aircraft. AMDAR has proved to be a cost-effective data source that responds to the needs of WMO and WMO-sponsored programmes such as WWW, WCRP, GCOS and GOOS and that brings benefits to end- users beyond the aviation community. 6.1.2 Priority AMDAR projects include the co-ordination of national and regional programmes, promotion of standardization in formats and reporting intervals, improvement of data exchange and quality control and two pilot projects respectively for Southern Africa and the Middle East. The objective of the pilot projects is to enhance the quantity of automated meteorological reports from aircraft in these areas to meet the goal of improving forecast accuracy. Three successful operational AMDAR programmes are already in existence in Australasia, USA and Europe. Since the commencement of these programmes, relevant AMDAR data are being made freely available and disseminated globally through the GTS. In the USA, a first-generation operational water vapour sensor has resulted in the installation of the first sensors on almost 50 aircraft and a second-generation sensor is almost complete and is expected to become operational by 2002. The European AMDAR programme is a very successful co-ordinated regional programme under EUMETNET known as E-AMDAR. One of the most important tasks of E-AMDAR is the avoidance of duplication of effort and resources. 6.1.3 The southern Africa and Middle East high-priority projects are expected to be developed into regional programmes following their impact studies. There is a need for targeted observations from foreign carriers and in this regard assistance for the cost of transmission of AMDAR data is required. Several other countries have commenced the development of AMDAR programmes including Canada, Hong Kong, China and Japan with an expansion of the programme expected in Canada in spring 2001. 6.1.4 The USA provided financial assistance to the Panel with the planning and development of a new AMDAR programme in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and Central America. AMDAR data are expected to be provided through targeted observations mainly from US and European aircraft. Chile is beginning to take initial steps towards approving the development of a national AMDAR programme. China already has the appropriate infrastructure in place and is working to co-ordinate a large national programme in the near 28 future. Other countries that have indicated an interest in the possible development of AMDAR programmes include Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. 6.1.5 The major expenses incurred from an operational AMDAR programme arise from data transmission costs. The cost per AMDAR observation varies from 1 to 11 US cents with the median being 4 cents. A fully automated AMDAR profile of temperature, wind, turbulence and possibly humidity up to cruise levels at 200 hPa (compared to 5 hPa for radiosonde) typically consists of up to 30 observations costing approximately US $1.20. Compared with the costs of the consumables and staff time of a conventional GPS radiosonde sounding of at least US $300, AMDAR is a remarkable cost-effective data source. With two soundings per day, an annual minimum AMDAR programme would cost less than US $1,000 versus about US $220,000 for GPS-based radiosonde soundings. An AMDAR profile every three hours would only cost about US $7,000 per year. 6.1.6 The daily volume of AMDAR data disseminated through the GTS has increased rapidly in recent years with a maximum of approximately 50,000 observations per day in February 1998. At the end of 2000, the number has been more than doubled. Africa is producing a few hundred observations daily during the pilot project phase but this will expand to about 4,000 in the latter part of 2001 when the programme reaches full operational status. It is anticipated that Canada and Saudi Arabia will be producing up to 5,000 observations daily by the end of 2001. 6.1.7 EC-LII in May 2000 expressed concern that the activities of the Panel could be curtailed unless adequate contributions to the AMDAR Trust Fund were forthcoming. In this regard, AMDAR Panel members were invited to encourage their administrations to continue to contribute to the AMDAR Trust Fund to ensure that the existing technical support is not disrupted and the positive results achieved so far by the Panel were not compromised. In this regard, the meeting invited donor Members to consider providing support to this important programme through financial contribution to the AMDAR Trust Fund. 6.2 Co-ordinated support to the Upper-Air Network and consideration of new technologies 6.2.1 The 2000 IPM meeting, noting a deterioration in the operation of the upper-air network in the Russian Federation, considered that assistance be given for the improvement of the Russian Federation upper-air network. In collaboration with the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom prepared a report entitled "The necessity of supporting the world upper- air network” for consideration. Following the discussions at the side meeting during EC-LII, a VCP project request for short-term requirements was submitted and circulated in November 2000, and Australia, Japan and UK indicated their willingness to support the project. In 1998-2000 Finland supported the upgrading of three upper-air stations in the north-western region of Russian Federation, and the monitoring results of the ECMWF showed a better quality of the observations from these stations. Negotiations are underway between the Russian Federation and the World Bank for long-term requirements. 6.2.2 Recognizing the existence of similar problems in other regions, RA I and RA III in particular, EC-LII endorsed the proposal that similar project proposals should be developed for these regions. 6.2.3 Since the widely applied OMEGA-Navaid system ceased its operation in September 1997, some 250 upper-air stations had to be equipped with a new windfinding system. In areas where no reliable LORAN-C or VLF coverage was available, Members have mainly chosen the GPS windfinding system for this replacement. Given that within the first years of the GPS implementation significant problems related to the reliability of the 29 wind measurements arose, this issue could now be widely solved by the application of an improved system solution by all providers of this kind of equipment. 6.2.4 The information contained in Annex IX provides a rough overview on the performance and costs of all presently applied radiosonde systems related to wind observations. 6.2.5 In addition, limited upper-air profiles are being obtained by using aircraft equipped with AMDAR systems. AMDAR reports are limited to special airports and are not normally available at night due to restrictions imposed for night flights (in most European countries) and humidity can not yet be measured. Although AMDAR reports cannot replace radiosonde observations for climatological purposes, the low cost of the operation of AMDAR reports in comparison with that of radiosonde (see above paragraph 6.1.5), the meeting felt that the development of AMDAR programmes would ensure sustainable source of upper-air data in areas where the radiosonde observations are sporadic or missing. Therefore donors showed particular interests in the support of the development of AMDAR programmes. However, noting the above-mentioned limitation of AMDAR observations, the meeting felt that the radiosonde observations should continue to be made and supported as required. 6.2.6 Although it was noted that upper-air observations can be derived from satellite, wind profilers and other remotely sensed data, a robust surface-based upper-air system is required to ground-truth these data. Furthermore, there are limitations in remotely sensed data (e.g., humidity, lower-resolution, height) for which the surface-based network continues to serve a vital need. 6.2.7 In addition to this, there is research on-going in deriving profiles of the precipitable moisture in the atmosphere by using the available GPS signals. However, its operational application cannot be expected in the near future. 6.3 Internet capabilities in NMHSs 6.3.1 The Internet provides a cost-effective means to exchange information amongst NMHSs and with end-users, complementing the GTS. Several WWW centres, and in particular RTHs, have implemented and operate Internet servers (Web or FTP) to post information that NMHSs/NMCs could download. Internet access enables Members to actively participate in WMO Constituent Bodies (e.g., CBS, Regional Associations), WMO programmes and with external Organizations. Furthermore, creative use of the Internet is a powerful means to increase the visibility of the NMHS in its country, improve the quality of end-user oriented services and to raise the level of scientific knowledge and public awareness of meteorological matters. 6.3.2 Full access to the Internet includes e-mail services, access to HTML web services (browser) and provision of a Web server normally through an Internet service provider as an initial step. The support for implementation of Internet capabilities at NMHSs of developing countries should preferably be associated with the initial automation of NMCs. Several NMHSs in developing countries would require assistance for implementing a full Internet connectivity. Special equipment (e.g., wireless communications) is required for NMCs of some developing countries, for alleviating the unreliable and low-quality local connections with Internet providers. 6.3.3 The number of NMHSs with Internet access has grown from 34% in 1997 to just over 70% in 1999 and is still increasing. In 1999, about one-third of the NMHSs were using the Internet for dissemination of warnings. However, for several reasons it is difficult to 30 guarantee delivery, timeliness, authenticity or accuracy of network information. At this stage of its evolution, the Internet cannot truly be a viable operational system for the NMHS, and should not be depended solely upon to support forecast and warning operations for purposes where data attribution must be guaranteed. 6.3.4 The Internet has limitations as a medium for dissemination of urgent warnings and enables the public to have access to many more sources of information, some of questionable quality, authenticity and origin, with the potential for public confusion. But at the same time, it complements the GTS and allows NMHSs to access information to support their public weather services, and to provide information directly to users and the public. In addition, the Internet can serve as an effective medium for NMHS staff education, programmes of public education and awareness, service promotion and user feedback. 6.3.5 Numerous NMHSs have web sites but the process is slower to develop in small and developing countries mainly due to the inadequacy of resources, staff and training. Weather sites are some of the most popular sites on the Internet and with modest resources an NMHS can establish a web page either on its own server, its service provider's server, or on a sister agency's web page. The best option for NMHSs that do not as yet have a web site is to develop their own simple site and provide links to more specialized information at other institutions. 6.3.6 CBS has developed the WMO Guide on Internet Practices to provide guidance to NMHSs. The meeting encouraged all Members to use this information to create or improve their presence on the World Wide Web. Noting all the above-mentioned benefits for the NMHSs, the meeting agreed to promote the assistance to the projects related to the access of the NMHSs to the Internet. 6.4 Co-ordination of assistance in response to natural disasters and countries emerging from conflict 6.4.1 A proposal for the mechanism for timely and co-ordinated assistance in response to disasters was presented to the meeting with emphasis on the concept and activities of the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART), given in Annex X. 6.4.2 The meeting was pleased to note that during the period 1991-2000, assistance was provided to Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mozambique, Sudan, Yemen and Viet Nam as well as countries in Central America and the Caribbean within the framework of the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (officially entitled WMO Disaster Assistance Fund for Meteorological and Hydrological Services) and the VCP by donations of Member countries and private companies, for rehabilitating networks of stations and associated facilities destroyed by natural disasters. Contributions in cash and in kind were received from Australia, China, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, UK and USA, and also from French and UK instrument manufacturers. 6.4.3 The meeting also noted that further to the EC-LII’s endorsement of the concept of the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART), within the framework of the implementation of Secretariat review, a WMO Secretariat Task Force on Natural Disasters called “Emergency and Disaster Response Group“ (EDRG) was established in August 2000. The EDRG, chaired by the Deputy Secretary-General with membership comprising Director Co-ordinators and relevant Directors including those from WWW and TCO Departments, will, among others: (a) assess the preliminary information on the emergency or disaster; (b) determine the need to assemble an Emergency and Disaster Response Team (EDRT) and, as appropriate, activate an Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART); and (c) provide policy advice to EDRT and EART. The EDRG will contribute to the work of the EART. An EDRT will be assembled within the WMO Secretariat for a particular disaster or emergency 31 and would assume tasks including: (a) ensuring effective lines of communication to be established between WMO Headquarters, relevant Regional and Subregional Offices, NMHSs and Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) for the duration of the event; (b) establishing contact with other relevant agencies and authorities within the UN system and as necessary NGOs; (c) arranging for the preparation of bulletins for distribution through NMHSs, Regional Centres and to other international organizations; (d) media interactions (e.g., preparing and arranging press releases, briefings, and interviews); and (e) arranging briefing sessions for Geneva missions. 6.4.4 In reviewing the proposed EART activities, including its membership, terms of reference, co-ordination and funding mechanisms, its procedures and promotion, given in Annex X, the meeting fully endorsed the implementation of proposed EART activities. It considered that the presented PowerPoint proposal material would be greatly useful and valuable to demonstrate and promote the EART concept to the government and external donors and encouraged participants to utilize the material in their activities in support of EART activities in respective countries. It expressed the views that regional meteorological organizations, such as the Caribbean Meteorological Organization (CMO) and SPREP could be a member(s) of the EART. 6.4.5 The meeting noted that there is also a need for co-ordinated support to the countries emerging from conflict, such as Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone and Yugoslavia and potentially East Timor which is not, as yet, a Member of WMO. 6.5 Implementation of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) 6.5.1 The meeting recalled that the mission of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) is to ensure the availability and quality of the atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial data critical to a wide variety of climate users and to promote improvements in climate observing systems where needed. Gaps and deficiencies in observing system networks are especially significant in developing countries. Aware of these deficiencies, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in its Decision 5/CP.5, invited GCOS, in consultation with relevant regional and international bodies, to launch a regional workshop programme to facilitate improvements in observing systems. 6.5.2 The GCOS Secretariat initiated a Regional Workshop Programme in mid-2000 in response to the COP invitation. The first workshop in this programme was organized for Pacific Island countries in August 2000. The second workshop, planned for the countries of eastern and southern Africa, will take place in April 2001. Pending availability of resources, eight additional workshops in developing regions are anticipated before the end of 2003. GCOS is relying heavily on working closely with regional partners, both to help with the organization of workshops and to take the lead in developing post-workshop action plans and proposals for improving observing systems in each region. 6.5.3 Funding for the first workshop was secured from WMO and UNEP and from several individual donor countries, including Australia, New Zealand and USA. Subsequently, the GCOS Secretariat submitted a proposal to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to fund approximately 50 percent of the Regional Workshop Programme. GCOS will still need additional resources, approximately a further US $1.5 million for the full ten workshops and related follow-up activities. Given the funding required, the meeting encouraged donor countries to support GCOS efforts in this regard. 32 7. FUNDING OF PROJECTS (Agenda item 7) 7.1 The meeting noted that since 1997 necessary guidance and materials (annual VCP Publications, web pages, presentation materials and VCP brochure) were/are being prepared to assist Members in the resource mobilization activities in terms of the VCP to explore possible support from other governmental institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. In 2000, some firms were contacted for possible support to the Programme. It further noted with satisfaction that Hong Kong, China and Saudi Arabia reported its initial contribution to the VCP(ES) in 2000 in the form of providing fellowships to WMO Members. 7.2 The meeting, in view of the limited resources available and the increasing needs of Members, considered several new measures, such as: (1) the concentration of the VCP support on priority areas of WMO Programmes so as to resolve urgent problems; (2) the funding of priority components defined in the strategic plans developed by RA II and V and those being developed by RA I and III, to resolve increasing major gaps concerning observing and telecommunication facilities; and (3) the mobilization of resources at national level from governmental and non-governmental organizations and the private sector for meteorological and hydrological projects. 8. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING (Agenda item 8) 8.1 Date and place of the next meeting (Agenda item 8.1) 8.1.1 The meeting expressed its appreciation to Australia for having hosted this meeting and noted that holding the meeting in Melbourne, Australia offered a very good opportunity for representatives from partner organizations in Asia and the South Pacific to participate. 8.1.2 The meeting agreed that the Chairman-designate act between meetings to assist in preparation for the next meeting. It was agreed that Mr B. Angle would act as Chairman- designate for the period up to the next meeting. 8.1.3 The meeting agreed that the IPM 2002 meeting be held in Geneva in conjunction with the fourth meeting of the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation in February-March 2002. External organizations to be invited to the next IPM could include the Geneva/Europe-based funding institutions and technical co-operation organizations including the European Commission (EC), UNDP, World Bank (WB), UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS), UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNESCO. Brazil and Canada offered to host subsequent meetings. 8.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting (Agenda item 8.2) 8.2.1 The meeting noted that it was time to more clearly define the role of the IPM. It was decided that an internal review be conducted over the next year with the goal to report to the EC Advisory Group of Experts on Technical Co-operation in 2002. The Chairman agreed to develop the scope of this review in consultation with the WMO Secretariat and a sub-group will meet at EC-LIII in June 2001. It was generally felt that this review would include: 33 • Terms of reference; • Links to the Long-Term Plan objectives; • Improved evaluation of VCP projects; • How best to communicate and co-ordinate between meetings; • Review of the documentation required by the group to reach conclusions; • Setting reasonable targets and outcomes; and • Strengthening the role of regional and subregional offices in the process. 9. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING (Agenda item 9) 9.1 The meeting reviewed the draft Report and requested the Chairman-designate to approve the Final Report on its behalf. 9.2 The Chairman expressed appreciation on behalf of the meeting to the work done by the Secretariat staff and staff of the Bureau of Meteorology in support of the meeting. 9.3 The meeting was closed at 13:23 on 1 March 2001. __________ ANNEX 1 LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN IPM/VCP/TCO(2001) Name Country Official position Address/Tel/Fax/E-mail TSUI, Dr Venantius K. Australia Superintendent, Bureau of Meteorology International and Public GPO Box 1289K Affairs Melbourne, Victoria 3001 Australia Tel: 613 9669 4219 Fax: 613 9669 4473 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org DALL’ANTONIA Jr., Mr Brazil General Coordinator of Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia Alaor Moacyr Agrometeorology (INMET) Eixo Monumental - Via S1 70610-400 Brasília - DF Tel: +55 61 344 3333 Fax: +55 61 344 0700 E-mail: email@example.com ANGLE, Mr Bruce Canada Senior Advisor, Meteorological Service of Canada International Affairs Atmospheric Environment Service North Tower, Fourth Floor Les Terrasses de la Chaudiere 10 Wellington Street Hull, Quebec K1A 0H3, Canada Tel: 1-819-997-3844 Fax: 1-819-994-8854 E-mail: Bruce.Angle@ec.gc.ca WANG, Mr Caifang China Director-General, China Meteorological Administration International 46 Baishiqiao Road Cooperation Department Western Suburb BEIJING 100081 China Tel: 86 10 62173417 Fax: 86 10 62173417 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org SAGBOM, Mrs Finland Chief, International Finnish Meteorological Institute Marianne Development P.O. Box 503 Cooperation FIN-00101 Helsinki Finland Tel: +358-9-19292210 Fax: +358-9-19292203 E-mail: email@example.com DUVERNET, Mr France International Relations D21/INT – Meteo-France François Manager 1 quai Branly 75340 Paris Cedex 07 France Tel: (+331) 45 56 70 50 Fax: (+331) 45 56 70 05 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org BAUER, Mr Hans Germany International Affairs Deutscher Wetterdienst Officer Frankfurterstr. 135 D-60367 Offenbach Germany Tel: +49-69-8062-4308 Fax: +49-69-8062-4128 E-mail: Hans.Bauer@dwd.de LAM, Dr Hung-Kwan Hong Director Hong Kong Observatory Kong, 134A Nathan Road China Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: +852-2926-8221 Fax: +852-2721-6557 E-mail: email@example.com ALPERSON, Mr Zvi Israel Director Israel Meteorological Service P.O. Box 25 Il-50250 Bet Dagen Israel Tel: +972-3-9682116 Fax: +972-3-9604065 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org SASAKI, Mr Hideyuki Japan Head, Office of Planning Division International Affairs Japan Meteorological Agency 1-3-4 Otemachi Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100 Japan Tel: +81 3 3211 4966 Fax: +81 3 3211 2032 E-mail: email@example.com VEITCH, Mr Tony New Manager, International Meteorological Service of New Zealand Development and Zealand Services 30 Salamanca Road P.O. Box 722 Wellington New Zealand Tel: +64-44-700818 Fax: +64-44-735231 E-mail: Tony.Veitch@met.co.nz RASQUINHO, Mr Olavo Portugal Head, External Relations Instituto de Meteorologia Rue C-Aeroporto de Lisboa 1749-077 Lisbon Portugal Tel: +351-21-848-39-61 Fax: +351-21-840-23-70 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org SHAW, Mr David UK Head, The Met. Office International Relations London Road Bracknell Berks. RG12 2SZ United Kingdom Tel: +44 1344 856633 Fax: +44 1344 854543 E-mail: email@example.com PAREIN, Mr Jon International Activities NOAA/NWS Office W/IA Room 13426 1325 East-West Highway Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA Tel: +1-301-713-1784 Fax: +1-301-587-4524 E-mail: Jon.Parein@noaa.gov LAURENCE, Ms AusAID Pacific Regional Section Australian Agency for International Joanne Development (AusAID) 62 Northbourne Avenue G.P.O. Box 887 Canberra ACT 2601 Australia Tel: +61-2-6206-4360 Fax: +61-2-6206-4880 E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org ERB, Mr William IOC Director Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Perth Regional Office P.O. Box 1370 West Perth WA 6872 Australia Tel: +618-9226-2899 Fax: +618-9226-0599 E-mail: email@example.com MILES, Mr Gerald SPREP Head, Environmental South Pacific Regional Environment Management and Programme (SPREP) Planning Division P.O. Box 240 Apia Samoa Tel: +685-21-929 Fax: +685-20-231 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com WMO SECRETARIAT DIALLO, Mr Harouna M. Director, Technical Co-operation Department TOYA, Dr Tokiyoshi SPM/VCP, Technical Co-operation Department KERHERVE, Mr Pierre World Weather Watch Department TAIKI, Mr H.K.T. Subregional Office for the South-West Pacific LOCAL SECRETARIAT KRISHNA, Mr Ram PHILLIPS, Ms Sarah ANNEX II AGENDA 1. OPENING OF THE MEETING 2. ORGANIZATION OF THE MEETING 2.1 Election of the chairman 2.2 Adoption of the agenda 2.3 Working arrangements 3. MAJOR ISSUES, TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS 4. REVIEW OF THE PRIORITY REQUIREMENTS FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE IN SUPPORT OF WMO PROGRAMMES 5. REVIEW OF THE STATUS OF VCP AND RELATED TECHNICAL CO- OPERATION PROGRAMMES AND OUTLOOK FOR 2001 5.1 VCP(ES) for 2000 and prospects for 2001 5.2 VCP(F) for 2000 and prospects for 2001 5.3 WWW Implementation Support Revolving Fund of the VCP 5.4 General perspectives of VCP donors’ actions 5.5 VCP-related bilateral projects for 2000 and prospects for 2001 5.6 Information on other VCP-related technical co-operation activities 5.7 Training and fellowships related to the VCP 6. CONSIDERATION OF SPECIAL ITEMS REQUIRING ACTION UNDER VCP AND/OR RELATED TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROGRAMMES 6.1 Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) 6.2 Co-ordinated support to the Upper-Air Network and consideration of new technologies 6.3 Internet capabilities in NMHSs 6.4 Co-ordination of assistance in response to natural disasters and countries emerging from conflict 6.5 Implementation of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) 7. FUNDING OF PROJECTS 8. PREPARATION FOR THE NEXT MEETING 8.1 Date and place of the next meeting 8.2 Topics to be taken up during the next meeting 9. ADOPTION OF REPORT AND CLOSURE OF THE MEETING ANNEX III PRIORITIES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WMO PROGRAMMES 1. World Weather Watch Programme 1.1 Observing systems Surface Observing Stations 1.1.1 The results of the October 2000 annual global monitoring indicate that the number of SYNOP reports actually received at Main Telecommunication Network (MTN) centres remained unchanged globally, compared to 1999, at 75%. The percentages of reports received daily at MTN centres of the GTS increased slightly from 59% (in 1999) to 64% in Region III, from 83% to 85% in Region IV and from 92% to 93% in Region VI. Some decrease in the availability of reports was noted in Region I (from 52% (1999) to 49%) and in Region II (from 82% to 81%). The monitoring shows that in some regions a considerable percentage of reports are still missing due to absence of observations or telecommunication problems. In this connection, Regional Association II at its twelfth session (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 2000) appealed to donor countries and the Secretary-General to give high priority to efforts for providing support and technical assistance to help developing countries sustain and improve their observing networks and to implement the necessary telecommunication means for exchanging the observations. Upper-air Observing Stations 1.1.2 The October 2000 global monitoring also shows that the number of upper-air reports actually received at MTN centres increased in all regions giving a global average of 61%, compared to 57% in 1999. In particular, the percentage of reports required by the Regional Basic Synoptic Network (RBSN) in Region I amounted to 31% (29% in 1999), 59% in Region II (52%), 39% in Region III (35%), 86% in Region IV (84%), 58% in Region V (57%) and 73% in Region VI (70%). This positive trend is due primarily to the successful replacement of obsolete OMEGA-based observing technology in certain regions and continued individual and multilateral efforts of Members to re-activate and improve RBSN stations performance. However, monitoring results confirm that large gaps in data coverage still persist in South America, Africa, and Asia. These deficiencies in upper-air networks were caused to a large degree by a high cost of consumables and financial and technical problems in certain countries. The twelfth session of RA II also stressed that all possible measures be taken, including assistance provided through VCP projects, to increase the availability of upper-air data. VCP priorities 1.1.3 In accordance with decisions of the Thirteenth Congress, the VCP Programme should be continued along similar lines as in previous years. In the light of this decision, the improvement of the global upper-air network should have the highest priority within VCP projects related to observing systems. This approach was reiterated by the twelfth session of RA II, which recommended that highest priority be given to realization of projects which would have the greatest impact on the WWW implementation on regional and global scales. The Association also felt that based on the analysis of proposals solicited from Members concerned, priority activities should be aimed at remedying deficiencies in the RBSN through co-ordinated support projects, new joint funding mechanisms, contributions of potential donors, and the VCP. 1.1.4 Support is urgently required in several countries in Africa, particularly to Angola, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Tanzania; in Asia to Yemen; in South America to Bolivia and ANNEX III, P. 2 Venezuela; and in Central America particularly to Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, to assist them with provision of essential consumables, spare parts and replacement of damaged and/or obsolete equipment. 1.1.5 Support is also necessary in the Newly Independent States and in Yugoslavia in provision of core observational equipment, consumables and spare parts. 1.2 Telecommunication systems Region I 1.2.1 The further development and upgrade of the Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RMTN), as endorsed by XII-RA I (1998), includes in particular: - Strengthening GTS implementation, especially at national level; - Further development of the satellite-based telecommunication network covering the Western and Central African area, called SATCOM, which includes the capacity to support upgraded GTS links. Members concerned need support for installing the necessary local connection and terminal equipment to join and benefit from the SATCOM network; XII-RA I also invited Members concerned to solicit the support of donor Members or Organizations with a view to assisting in the implementation of DCPs in critical areas. 1.2.2 The Co-ordination Meeting on the GTS Strategy in Africa (October 2000) identified the following rehabilitation and capacity-building projects required to urgently address the most significant implementation shortcomings: - Implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems and establishment of the most cost-effective connection to RTH Nairobi for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Rwanda, and Somalia when the local situation would be appropriate, and to RTH Pretoria for Angola; - In non-ASECNA countries benefiting from SATCOM facilities (Western and Central Africa), implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems at the NMC and interconnection to the SATCOM earth station facilities. The highest priority should be given to Guinea (Conakry) and Ghana in this respect; - In ASECNA countries, implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems at the NMC/DMN (Direction de la Météorologie Nationale) and interconnection with the NMC/ASECNA; - Implementation of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems for Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe, and upgrading the GTS circuit to RTH Pretoria; - Upgrading or rehabilitating the NMTN for national data collection in Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, and also in Sierra Leone and Liberia when the local situation would be appropriate; - Implementation of Internet access at all NMCs, and implementation of Internet server at RTHs; ANNEX III, P. 3 - Upgrading the GTS circuit for Sudan and Zambia and the GTS circuits Cairo-Algiers, Algiers- Dakar, Nairobi-Pretoria; - Training activities on GTS procedures and basic ICT for the GTS and WWW development. In this respect, a training seminar on the use of new technology, similar to the training seminar held in Nairobi in May 2000, is planned for 2001 in Niamey to facilitate and support the effective introduction and operation of information and communication technology for the WWW systems at NMCs. Support for the provision of PCs and basic application software (data-communications, data/products handling and display) is required. Region II 1.2.3 The twelfth session of Regional Association II (Seoul, September 2000) agreed that highest priority in the RMTN should be given to efforts to establish GTS connections in those NMCs that are still not connected (Baghdad, Phnom Penh, Sanaa, Vientiane). It urged Members concerned, and in particular donor countries, to pay attention to the important requirements of providing for system redundancy when planning GTS support projects. Region III New RA III Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network 1.2.4 The plan for the design and implementation of the new RA III RMTN using the concept of Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN) services has been agreed upon. The international Invitation to Tender (ITT) is being prepared and is planned for 2001. Co-operation support is likely to be required for the procurement and implementation, and for some RA III countries for implementing the necessary computer-based equipment at NMCs to benefit from the new RMTN. Region IV 1.2.5 The Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in Region IV, at its third session (Santo Domingo, April 2000), agreed that the highest priority for VCP projects should be given to the projects related to the improvement of the upper-air network, with respect to both implementation and sustained operation (e.g., GPS radiosondes). The session also gave a high priority to the implementation of automatic weather stations, which are playing an increasing role in the framework of the WWW Programme as well as for climatic research purposes. It reiterated the importance of training activities and fellowships. It also agreed that the improvement of the current telecommunication arrangements for the six Caribbean meteorological offices not equipped with a VSAT was of highest priority, on the understanding that the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) project for the Caribbean, supported by Finland, could be a source for funding this project with a view to an early implementation. Region V 1.2.6 The Implementation Co-ordination Meeting on the GTS in Region V (December 1999) agreed upon the following priorities for co-operation activities, including in particular VCP projects: - Further implementation of EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network through the GOES satellites) receiving systems, in particular in South Pacific islands; - Further implementation of DCPs for upgrading observational data collection; ANNEX III, P. 4 - Implementation of computer-based systems (e.g., PC-based) at small NMCs for GTS function as well as handling and display of data and products. Region VI 1.2.7 The twelfth session of Regional Association VI (Tel Aviv, May 1998) agreed to allocate the highest priority within the framework of the technical co-operation activities related to the WWW in Region VI to the co-ordinated project to assist the countries in implementing their connection to the Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN). RA VI Members that are not yet connected to the RMDCN are located in the eastern part of the region. There is also a requirement for the rehabilitation of GTS systems in Yugoslavia. 1.3 Global Data-processing System 1.3.1 It is now widely accepted that international actions, including those by WMO required to bridge the digital divide, include among others: - Support national actions aimed at harnessing the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) through providing assistance to developing countries, and strengthen their capacity in building infrastructure and generating content; - Encourage research and development in ICT and related applications adapted to specific requirements in developing NMHSs; - Commit the necessary resources to bridge the digital divide and promote measures to increase the number of computers and other Internet access devices in developing NMHSs. 1.3.2 Follow-up action in respect of human resources capacity building is for provision, on request, through technical co-operation and regular training programmes, short-term and long-term NWP fellowships to NMCs in Africa wishing to establish a critical mass of scientists in NWP field. This was also emphasized by EC-LII. In particular support will be required for cost of the attachment to the advanced centres of the ACMAD selected RA I research and development experts in NWP. 1.3.3 NWP research and development facilities equivalent to those required for running Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) will need to be made available to the NMCs of the selected experts for the experts' use. 1.3.4 Provision of hardware and software facilities will be required for NMCs/RSMCs/Emerging Centres with critical mass of scientists in the NWP field with potential to run operational Regional/Limited Area Model (LAM) such as NCEP ETA model, RAMS or public domain MM5 model. Potential centres include ACMAD, RSMCs Dakar and Nairobi, DMCs Nairobi and Harare, NMCs Dar-Es-Salaam, Addis Ababa, Antananarivo and Lagos. 1.3.5 Provision of data-processing and forecasting, related telecommunications interface facilities for data collection, quality control of data and post processing of imported products will also be required to produce value added products. Potential centres are all NMCs except those already with NWP facilities or handling post-processing functions. Where only data handling and display facilities are available upgrade facilities to post-processing facilities of imported NWP products to generate value- added products would be required. ANNEX III, P. 5 1.3.6 Requirements for the high priority co-ordinated projects are as follows: (1) ACMAD, RSMC Nairobi, DMC Nairobi Requirements: (i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships; (ii) Attachment to advanced centres; (iii) Research and development facilities for running RAMS; (iv) Facilities to operationally run Regional/Limited Area Model; • high-end workstation as computer server; • pre-processing server; • data server for on-line database and devices for archiving; • software as indicated under RSMC/Large NMC in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 5; (v) Interface with existing telecommunications facilities. (2) RSMC Dakar and DMC Harare Requirements: (i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships; (ii) Attachment to advanced centres; (iii) Research and development facilities for running RAMS; (iv) Facilities to operationally run Regional/Limited Area Model; • high-end workstation as computer server; • pre-processing server; • data server for on-line database and devices for archiving; • data management server to distribute files including full Internet functions; • workstations, X-terminals, PCs and other peripherals (plotters, etc.); • LAN; • Software as indicated under RSMC/Large NMC in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 5; (v) Interface with existing telecommunication facilities. (3) National Meteorological Centres (NMCs) (a) NMCs Addis Ababa, Antananarivo, Dar-Es-Salaam and Lagos Requirements: (i) Short-term and long-term NWP fellowships; (ii) Attachment to operational centres; (iii) High-end workstation as computer server; (iv) NWP model code and related pre- and post-processing facilities; (v) Hardware and software as indicated under the recommended and minimum computer system for an NMC. (b) With the exception of the centres dealt with above in projects 1 to 3(a), and the following centres which run operational NWP models (RSMCs Algiers, Cairo, Pretoria and NMCs Tunis and Casablanca), other NMCs in Africa and other developing regions have the following ANNEX III, P. 6 requirements: (i) Hardware and software as indicated under the recommended minimum computer system for an NMC specified below. NWP capacity building 1.3.7 Capacity building should focus on provision, on request, of hardware and software facilities to NMCs in Africa and elsewhere, with critical mass of scientists in the NWP field. These will be NMCs with potential to run operational Regional/Limited Area Model such as NCEP ETA model, RAMS, or those available in the public domain such as MM5 model. Developing RSMCs are encouraged to commence with implementation and operation of similar or more sophisticated NWP regional models. For this purpose centres requesting relevant high-end workstation/PC facilities to run such models should be supported through a co-ordinated assistance programme. 1.3.8 To facilitate real-time data management, a co-ordinated programme should be developed and supported for the provision of encoding and decoding software for WMO table driven codes (BUFR and CREX) and GRIB from advanced GDPS centres. 1.3.9 A data-processing sub-system at an RSMC or a large NMC should consist of: - A computer server (a mainframe machine or high-end workstation with a high computing speed and large memory) for the production of numerical analyses and forecasts, research work and other tasks requiring considerable computer power; the server should be capable of running operational Regional/Limited Area Model with imported boundary data and with limited local data assimilation; - A pre- and post-processing server for other data-processing tasks, which must be handled in real-time (for example, graphical presentation of the NWP products for the forecasters within the NMC or other weather services); - A data server for keeping a central on-line database, with additional devices for archiving; - A data management server to distribute files (observational data, grid-point data, graphics, pictures, etc.) within the office, to other remote offices or customers within the country; this communication server also provides other services (for example, file transfer via e-mail and access to the World Wide Web); - Workstations, X-terminals, PCs, all other peripheral devices (plotters, printers, etc.) installed in the various departments of the RSMC or NMC; they communicate with the above-mentioned servers with the help of local area networks (LANs); - Adequate interface between the data server and the telecommunication system. 1.3.10 The software for meteorological applications should be capable of the following: • Organization and procedures for data collection; • Data recognition and decoding procedures; • Data storage and retrieval procedures; • Processing of data prior to analysis; • Quality control of data; ANNEX III, P. 7 • Procedure for numerical analysis; • Numerical weather prediction methods; • Procedures for deriving and presenting output products; • Utilization of numerical products. 1.3.11 The minimum requirements for an NMC to computerize both its communications and applications include: - For telecommunication and basic data handling and presentation facilities - dual unit PCs with Ethernet/communication cards, modem and relevant communication, data handling and presentation software; - For data-processing component - workstation units (256 MB RAM or more), with peripherals as digitizer, streamer tapes, laser printers, scanner, LAN and suitable PCs, and relevant data- processing software. 1.3.12 Follow-up essential actions on NWP and ICT training events involve provision of a set of minimum PC-based automation of NMC functions, telecommunications, data handling, and post-processing and presentation facilities to the countries concerned. Training events on NWP and ICT with co-ordinated support for provision of equipment and facilities need to be continued as a means of capacity building and addressing the digital divide. 1.4 Satellite receiving stations 1.4.1 The space-based sub-system of the Global Observing System is composed of two segments, the space segment and the ground segment. A portion of the ground segment, ground stations receiving the direct broadcast service, has been continuously evaluated. Four categories of satellite receiving equipment in WMO regions have been surveyed: low-resolution polar-orbiting data (APT); high-resolution polar-orbiting data (HRPT); low-resolution geostationary data (WEFAX); and high- resolution geostationary data (HR). Since the 1995 survey, there has been an increase of 351 receiving stations in the total number of satellite receiving equipment reported to be operating within NMHSs. 1.4.2 The WMO goals for Members equipped with satellite receiving equipment are 100% for polar- orbiting satellite data receivers (either APT or HRPT) and 100% for geostationary satellite data receivers (either WEFAX or HR). This means that each WMO Member should be equipped with at least one polar-orbiting satellite data receiver and one geostationary satellite data receiver. In 2000, the level of implementation of both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite receivers was 86%. With regard to each category, WMO Members have achieved an overall implementation of 88% and 90% for polar- orbiting and geostationary satellite receivers, respectively. 1.4.3 The expected change from analogue to digital low-resolution imagery coupled with improved capability to utilize satellite data within all WMO Members indicates that a strategy towards implementation of low- and high-resolution digital receivers should be pursued by WMO Members as well as through assistance programmes. Due to several delays in the satellite operator, the commencement of the new broadcast services has been delayed. VCP priorities 1.4.4 As regards VCP priorities, the following guidelines should be used, in priority order: ANNEX III, P. 8 1st Satellite receivers should be provided for those Members without any receivers; 2nd Satellite receivers for those Members without a polar-orbiting receiver or a geostationary receiver; 3rd Satellite high-resolution receivers for those Members with only low-resolution polar- orbiting receivers or only low-resolution geostationary receivers; 4th Satellite receivers for those Members already exceeding the WWW goal. Based on the latest information available contained in the WMO Secretariat database, WMO Member lists have been prepared for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th priority and are available on request. 1.5 Aeronautical Meteorology Programme 1.5.1 The views of Thirteenth Congress regarding the World Area Forecast System (WAFS) satellite broadcasts were summarized in paragraph 18.104.22.168 of the Report of the work of the Congress session: "Congress expressed satisfaction with progress achieved on the implementation of the WAFS, particularly with the achievement of global satellite coverage of WAFS satellite broadcasts in 1996 and the installation of 165 WAFS satellite reception systems in 120 countries with further installation planned. Congress expressed its appreciation to Members, in particular the United Kingdom and United States for having provided other Members with very small aperture terminal (VSAT) equipment and STAR4 workstations to access and use the WAFS satellite broadcast data and products." 1.5.2 Although 153 countries have now installed about 200 satellite broadcast and display terminals to access the WAFS data and products, 14 additional VCP requests are awaiting consideration by donors. It is expected that, in the future, additional requests for continued installation of terminals in countries that still have the satellite terminals or for upgrading existing terminal equipment would be submitted to WMO. Relevant VCP projects concerning WAFS satellite broadcasts terminal equipment are given in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 6, Appendix L.1 (VCP projects related to meteorological applications activities - Aeronautical Meteorology Programme). 1.5.3 In addition to the installation of satellite terminal equipment, the full implementation of the WAFS by 2002 would require SIGWX forecast charts to be replaced by digital coded SIGWX forecasts. In this regard, there will be a pressing need for training operational forecasters on the use of BUFR coded SIGWX forecasts to enable them to convert these coded SIGWX forecasts into SIGWX charts at the local level when required by the airlines. In addition, by learning how to apply the US software PCGRIDDS to WAFS products, such training would also provide the opportunity to enable forecasters to be able to develop tailored aviation products to meet the specific needs of the airline industry. Support for training, the highest priority for the Aeronautical Meteorology Programme, such as the UK/WMO annual training seminar and the previous US NWS/WMO WAFS seminar, is also requested from the Informal Planning Meeting. ANNEX III, P. 9 1.6 Marine Meteorology and Associated Oceanographical Activities Programme Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and coastal surface observations 1.6.1 Large parts of the world's oceans and coastal waters are seriously data deficient, for both surface meteorological and oceanographic observations. Many of these data deficient sea areas (e.g., Indian Ocean, RA I waters, South Pacific Ocean) are adjacent to developing countries, which could thus contribute substantially to overcoming the deficiencies, but lack the technical means to do so. Specifically, their contributions would be directed towards satisfying requirements for marine surface data given in the WWW Programme, for surface oceanographic data for global climate studies specified in the GOOS/GCOS Implementation Action Plan, and for local/regional marine services. 1.6.2 Detailed specifications for shipboard equipment (for the VOS and ships of opportunity) are given in the Guide to Marine Meteorological Services and the CIMO Guide. Specifications for coastal observing stations are also given in both guides, and have been further elaborated by CMM (now JCOMM). The assistance required involves not just the equipment but also training of local technical personnel in installation and maintenance. Steps towards such training have already been taken through the organization of three regional workshops for Port Meteorological Officers (PMOs). The training imparted through these workshops needs to be backed up now through the provision of appropriate shipboard equipment, which will serve to enhance the global availability of ship meteorological reports. Ocean data buoys and sub-surface measurements 1.6.3 Drifting ocean data buoys are a proven and very cost-effective technology for the observation and transmission of ocean surface variables, both meteorological and oceanographic, from data sparse areas, in support of operational meteorology and oceanography and global climate studies. As such, the data from these buoys, distributed globally, benefit all Members. The Data Buoy Co-operation Panel (DBCP), working in particular through its regional action groups and technical co-ordinator, co- ordinates support for agencies and institutions in developing countries to participate in the work of the panel, in the operation of buoy programmes and in the use of their data. 1.6.4 Similarly, upper ocean thermal structure is an important variable in ocean circulation and in seasonal to interannual climate variability. The JCOMM Ship-Of-Opportunity Programme (SOOP), co- ordinated through the SOOP Implementation Panel (SOOPIP), provides a network of ship lines deploying XBTs which is fully complementary to the new Argo programme of profiling sub-surface floats. SOOPIP works directly (in particular through its technical co-ordinator) with agencies in developing countries to facilitate their participation in the programme as well as in the application of the data generated. 1.6.5 Both these observation areas are crucial to global programmes such as the WWW, WCP, GOOS and GCOS, as well as to individual Members. They would benefit directly from VCP support in the provision of hardware, technical assistance and training. Such support would be most effective if directed through and co-ordinated by the DBCP and SOOPIP. 1.7 Public Weather Services Programme 1.7.1 WMO Members, especially those in small and developing countries, need to acquire, or replace and upgrade computing and communications systems in an effort to meet the substantial increase in demand for meteorological data and products, as well as to keep pace with the rapid advances in ANNEX III, P. 10 technology. VCP priorities in the PWS Programme would therefore include, but not be limited to: (a) Computer systems at meteorological work stations that allow forecaster interaction and enable the creation of new or enhanced products; these will include systems to access satellite imagery (inputs) and the preparation of processed products (outputs) for users; (b) Media weather presentation systems comprising computing and communications hardware, peripherals and software, video equipment, and assorted relevant accessories, e.g., equipment to produce crawlers on TV broadcasts with the latest warnings; also, training in the use of hardware; (c) Increased Internet access for NMHSs so they can use it as a fundamental communications tool to improve their data access, as well as expand the dissemination methods of their public weather services through NMHS’s web pages; (d) Fixed and mobile communication systems including modern telephone services preferably utilizing digital processes, mobile telephones, pagers/short message system (SMS) and fax- on-demand; (e) VHF radios to provide simple radio broadcast and warning alert systems; (f) Training related to national PWS plans; this includes training in media skills (writing and presentation), product design, and public education and awareness among other things. 1.7.2 The high priorities listed above can be succinctly integrated into the following two foci: (a) Modern computing and communication systems (hardware and software) to improve data access and to facilitate design and delivery of public weather services; (b) Requisite training in the management, maintenance and use of the systems and in support of the provision of efficient and effective public weather services. 1.8 Tropical Cyclone Programme 1.8.1 Emphasis will be placed on the following subjects: (a) Training support for meteorologists from Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) to study the institute's storm surge simulation model and how it can be adapted to Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka (US $7,500; two weeks per person). (b) Upgrading of the telecommunication equipment in Cambodia, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The Members mentioned currently do not have the financial resources to purchase the required equipment. This project will help improve the tropical cyclone warning dissemination system of the three Members (US $30,000). ANNEX III, P. 11 2. World Climate Programme 2.1 Climate Computing (CLICOM) and Data Rescue (DARE) projects 2.1.1 The Drought Preparedness Project for 12 African countries has been implemented successfully with CLICOM systems (equipment and software) installed in each country and training sessions organized for the local staff, including a two-week regional climate applications workshop. 2.1.2 With the new Climate Database Management Systems (CDMSs) being offered to WMO (all systems will be Windows compatible), a new strategy will be to combine Data Rescue activities with the new CDMSs. The development of technology allows the use of scanners and/or digital cameras for data preservation and possibly digitizing. 2.1.3 It is planned that each country will be able to choose the database management system it prefers but it is expected that groups of countries in a particular region will choose the same CDMS. All new systems being offered to countries will include equipment for Data Rescue: scanners, OCR software, etc. At a regional level (CLICOM Area Support Centres), digital cameras will be used in roving missions for data preservation. 2.1.4 Based on the success of the Drought Preparedness Project, two new projects with a DARE component are proposed: • The beneficiary countries in Region I will be : Cameroon, Congo, Gambia, Madagascar, Rwanda, Uganda, Sao Tome and Principe, Tanzania and Zambia; • In Regions II and V: Cambodia, Myanmar, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Viet Nam. 2.1.5 Following the VCP requests received from Region I and the results of the WMO survey mission in April 2000 in Regions II and V, it is suggested that these two projects be considered with a high priority. 2.1.6 In Region VI, there is a need to upgrade the database management system in some of the Newly Independent States (NIS) such as Azerbaijan and Kazakstan. 2.1.7 A CDMS implementation in a group of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in Region V is another possibility. Many countries involved in the Finnish Meteorological Institute project in the Caribbean are requesting Microsoft Access-based CDMS for their climate database management. It is expected that by July 2001, it will be possible to make available to SIDS in the Caribbean and South-West Pacific, the system being developed in Zimbabwe with the support of UK. 2.2 Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS) CLIPS Showcase Projects: Heat/Health Warning Systems 2.2.1 WMO, together with a number of major partner organizations in the Climate Agenda and national and municipal agencies, is collaborating in a series of Showcase Projects begun in 1999 to demonstrate the application of climate information and weather forecasts to the reduction of human deaths related to extreme heat waves. Although the Rome and Shanghai projects are drawing heavily from the successful experiences of similar climate applications that were instituted in USA, they are also ANNEX III, P. 12 incorporating knowledge gained throughout the network of climate and health applications that are overseen by the WMO’s Commission for Climatology (CCl). 2.2.2 The identifying features of the projects are that they involve a multidisciplinary team from the outset, they depend on proven climate applications that correlate historical climate and health information with dangerous air masses, they result in an integrated warning system that gives city dwellers concrete information to mitigate the life-threatening effects of extreme heat waves, and the ongoing responsibility for the resulting system lies wholly within the local organizations. 2.2.3 The WMO’s participation in the Showcase Projects is a product of the CCl’s priority on "Development of climate services in support of human health". The projects follow guidelines that were proposed by a group of experts convened by the WMO, which met in Freiburg, Germany in 1997. The group included health and meteorology specialists from WMO, UNEP and WHO. The WMO activities are cross-co-ordinated through its CCl, Commission for Basic Systems (CBS), and Commission for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). 2.2.4 The first phase of the projects involves focused study and development of a warning algorithm specifically for individual cities - ideally, one in each region. VCP support during 2001 could provide for the travel of climatological experts and the travel of NMHS partners to assist in the development of the correlations and the warning algorithm, and to cover the costs of retrieving the archived meteorological data. 2.2.5 The second phase will comprise the preparation of generalized guidance for NMHSs to use in developing similar systems. Other climate/health relationships will be considered and appropriate applications developed during this phase. The second phase will commence in 2001. VCP support will be sought for the development of generalized guidance and the conducting of a workshop on climate and health that would use the Showcase Project as its main example. 2.3 Agricultural meteorology 2.3.1 In the Agricultural Meteorology Programme, the main priority activities, which should be considered for VCP support, are: • Improving agrometeorological bulletins and advisories; • Training in Agricultural Meteorology with emphasis on new methodologies and building new skills; • Expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility studies. 2.3.2 There are increasing demands for timely and effective agrometeorological information for on-farm applications. The growing interest in the possible impact of natural and human-induced climate variability and long-term climate change on agriculture and forestry has created new demands for information from, and assessments by agrometeorologists. Also the growing demands for food and concerns with the need for achieving greater efficiency in natural resource use while conserving the environment are placing a much greater emphasis on understanding and exploiting climatic resources for the benefit of agriculture and forestry. The need for reorienting and recasting meteorological information, fine tuning of climatic analysis and presentation in forms suitable for agricultural decision making and insulation of marginal farmers with small holdings from the adverse impacts of weather vagaries has become more ANNEX III, P. 13 pressing. 2.3.3 Developments in communications and electronic media, in particular the ever-expanding cyberspace linkages through the Internet and the World Wide Web are changing the way people view information dissemination and exchange. The potential to enhance the international exchange of ideas, concepts, data and information at the global level is expanding rapidly. The enhanced computing power that is available today is making data manipulation much easier than ever before. Revolutionary changes in audio-video media make it easy to take the information to users. Geographical Information Systems and other spatial modelling tools make it possible to integrate biological, physical and socio- economic factors in a holistic manner. Hence the opportunity exists, more than ever before, to obtain and provide information to users through a variety of sources. Also it is now possible to reach a larger audience using cost-effective means that were just not available even a few years ago. 2.3.4 NMHSs, or other departments providing agrometeorological services, can contribute to the national economy, and best obtain recognition and remuneration for the investments made in agricultural meteorology, through the effective use of the information by the agricultural community in the widest sense by making the best use of the current advances in the audio-video media and the communications technology. 2.3.5 The Twelfth Session of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM-XII) considered the need to enhance agrometeorological services to improve agricultural production and to conserve the environment. It emphasized the importance of timely provision of agrometeorological information in a user-friendly format. 2.3.6 In order to improve agrometeorological bulletins that are routinely supplied to the users, WMO is organizing an Inter-Regional Workshop on Improving Agrometeorological Bulletins in October 2001. Following this workshop, it is proposed to organize a number of training workshops in different regions to train the staff in NMHSs to use the improved methodologies and tools for the preparation of agrometeorological bulletins and advisories. VCP support is being requested for the organization of the training workshops in different regions. Estimated funding needed is US $10,000 for each training seminar and potential donors are invited to indicate their preference for the region. 2.3.7 Members from developing countries often request WMO for expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility studies. VCP support is being requested for the provision of such expert services. 3. Hydrology and Water Resources Programme 3.1 In the Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, the main priority activities, which should be considered for VCP support, are: - hydrological observing systems (in particular, automatic stations, satellite transmission equipment for automatic stations, gauging equipment); - data acquisition and processing systems (software and hardware for data base management, with particular emphasis on those countries which still maintain, partly or totally, their data bank on paper support; Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) application to hydrology); - training in operational hydrology with emphasis at the technician level; and ANNEX III, P. 14 - expert services for the formulation of technical assistance projects and feasibility studies. 3.2 Progress has been achieved in the hydrological data rescue pilot project in Africa to convert the stored data from paper to electronic form. At present, seven countries are currently participating. The VCP(F) support was provided for this purpose and work in three countries was accomplished during the year 2000. The other four countries are at different stages of implementation. 3.3 Canada and USA provided substantial support to countries in Central America and the Caribbean in equipment and training for restoration of the hydrological network destroyed by Hurricanes Georges and Mitch. 3.4 Many requests for VCP support in hydrology have been received. It is possible that some projects have not been supported because of the high cost involved. In such cases it might be recommended that Members scale down their request to a maximum value of US $50,000. 4. Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme 4.1 Thirteenth Congress in its Resolution 3.3/1 had requested WMO Members to give all possible support to the Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme, with a high priority to the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP). Congress agreed that measurements of the chemical composition and related physical characteristics of the atmosphere should be given similar attention to that received by classical meteorological parameters. 4.2 While GAW requests for VCP support are considerable, donors agreed to consider offering support through "twinning" arrangements. It is in this context that the established GAW stations of global importance located at Assekrem/Tamanrasset (Algeria), Ushuaia (Argentina), Arembepe (Brazil), Mount Waliguan (China), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia) and Mount Kenya (Kenya) have been successfully twinned with countries or groups of countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Germany and USA. Specialists from South Africa and Switzerland have also provided technical and scientific expertise to Kenya. The Kenya/Switzerland twinning arrangement of a specific activity is exemplary. Facilitated through WMO GAW, Switzerland has provided ozonesonde tracking equipment for the Nairobi GAW station. Switzerland is providing funding, has trained personnel and the project is participating fully in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) data project, an endeavour to improve ground-based balloon sonde data in the tropics and subtropics for satellite data validation. Donor countries should be encouraged to enter into twinning agreements as a contribution to the Voluntary Co-operation Programme. 5. Education and Training Programme Education and training fellowships 5.1 Major VCP donor Members continue to provide VCP fellowships and many other Members continue to provide VCP contributions by waiving fees and providing subsidized accommodation to VCP fellows. 5.2 The gap between the ever-increasing Members’ fellowships needs and the reduced funding opportunities for WMO fellowships continues to increase. In view of the rising costs of fellowships, the ANNEX III, P. 15 diminishing financial resources (particularly under UNDP) and the increasing needs for fellowships, the IPM meeting may wish to consider maintaining, and even increasing, the present annual allocation for short-term fellowships. The meeting may also wish to encourage donors to continue and hopefully expand their contribution to this highly appreciated programme. 5.3 The Secretariat continued its exploration of additional extra-budgetary resources and new potential sources of funding aimed at increasing and complementing the traditional fellowships financial resources. It also continued the cost-sharing tripartite fellowship arrangements; in particular in the RMTCs, aimed at optimizing the use of limited VCP and regular budget fellowship funds. Priority activities 5.4 The main priority activities requiring VCP support are: - Long-term fellowships; - Introduction of modern teaching techniques and technologies at WMO RMTCs, particularly in the area of: - Computer-aided learning (CAL); and - Distance learning, including the use of the Internet. 6. Regional Programme Region I 6.1 Lack of data and products remains the most serious problem faced by many Member countries in RA I. The Sixth Technical Conference on the Management for Development of Meteorological Services in Africa (November 2000) encouraged NMHSs to have strategies to implement and operate as a matter of urgency relevant new technologies and appropriate facilities such as the Internet, automatic weather stations, AMDAR Aircraft reports, remote sensing data including those from the new generation satellites. Thanks to the contributions made by France, UK and USA, two important training seminars on the use of new technology for the exchange, processing and applications of meteorological data and products were successfully organized for English- and French-speaking participants respectively in Nairobi (May 2000) and Niamey (February 2001). The training programme included computer basics, operating systems, telecommunication technology, networking and TCP/IP Web site building, Internet basics, PC-based applications and AMEDIS system and all trainees were given relevant equipment to take back to their respective NMHSs. 6.2 Based on this experience and its positive impact on NMHSs, VCP donors should continue to make contributions to the following relevant actions: - Extend training activities in the use of IT to other needy Members ($50,000); - Carry out a study on the development and the implementation of a regional telecommunication strategy ($30,000 for expert services); - Assist African countries not covered by the E.U. funding to ensure sustained reception and use of MSG satellite products; ANNEX III, P. 16 - Connect NMHSs to the Internet, where it is required; - Upgrading and automation of NMHSs in Africa; - Upgrading some RA I Members’ upper-air systems (VCP projects already formulated). Region II 6.3 Regional Association II (Asia), at its twelfth session (Seoul, September 2000), recommended that the highest priority of the VCP projects be given to the realization of projects which would have the greatest impact on the WWW implementation on regional and global levels. 6.4 The reasons for the low availability of the observation data from RBSN stations in the region are due to deficiencies in the operation of both observing and telecommunication networks, which are caused by technical and economic problems. All possible measures should be taken including assistance provided though VCP projects to increase the availability of the data. 6.5 XII-RA II showed deep concern over the deterioration of upper-air networks in certain areas of the region, in particular in Central Asia and its near-polar region. The need for the rehabilitation and strengthening of these networks through VCP and bilateral assistance was emphasized. 6.6 The establishment of the GTS connection of NMCs not yet implemented for the exchange of data and products should be given a high priority. In this connection, the remaining technical problem of the implementation of a 9600 bit/s circuit Bangkok-Vientiane should be solved urgently. 6.7 As regards the training of meteorological and hydrological staff, the effort to secure more funding under the VCP should be continued in order to meet the increasing demand of Members for training of staff for the development of their Services. 6.8 In order to implement the Strategic Plan for the Enhancement of NMSs in RA II (2001-2004), a need analysis should be carried out to identify the requirements of NMSs at national, subregional and regional levels for the enhancement of their Services. Region III 6.9 Priority areas in RA III (South America) are given below: (i) Implementation of the new Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RA III RMDCN); (ii) Improvement of the Regional Synoptic Observation Network for surface and upper-air observations; (iii) Automation of the Data Processing Systems of the NMHSs; (iv) Strengthening education and training activities in the region, since most of the countries suffer from a serious lack of trained personnel for the prediction and operation of the NMHSs; (v) Development by the Members of CLIPS implementation plans for NMHSs to obtain tendency forecasts of 90 and 180 days in the region; ANNEX III, P. 17 (vi) Pilot Project for In-Service Training Programme on Numerical Weather Prediction between the NMHSs of the region; (vii) Actions in relation to WMO, the Inter-American Development Bank, NOAA, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) for the countries involved in the project in the region; (viii) Development of risk maps for the countries in the region in order to provide this service to the different types of users; (ix) Assistance in the implementation of hydrological projects; (x) Prevention and mitigation of hazards related to weather and climate (e.g., floods and droughts); (xi) Implementation of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme in the region. Region IV 6.10 Regarding the priority area in relation to the World Weather Watch Programme, Hurricanes Georges and Mitch in 1998 and Hurricane Keith in 2000 seriously affected the Central American and Caribbean region. Before the impacts of such severe storms the national observing networks were already in very critical operational conditions. After the storms the observing networks in some countries practically vanished. In spite of the important and generous assistance provided by donors, especially Canada and the USA, for restoration of hydrological and meteorological networks, additional assistance is required for equipment and training. 6.11 Referring to natural disaster reduction, the region is very sensitive and vulnerable for flooding and is prone to flash flooding occurrence. However, the hydrological monitoring networks, satellite image receivers, radar coverage, the use of hydrological forecast models and other prevention and warning systems are inefficient. Assistance is required to install and put into operation an efficient flood warning system in the most populated river basins, with a wide dissemination network of information to the vulnerable communities. 6.12 Activities of the Education and Training Programme in the region must be strengthened since some of the countries suffer from serious deficit of trained personnel and in many of them most of the existing professionals are near retiring age. Education and training is needed at all levels in meteorology and hydrology, from specific training courses to graduate degrees, to replace retiring personnel, increase the number of professionals and upgrade the skills of the local staff. In most of the countries training on new technologies is also required. 6.13 Data rescue activities, carried out within the priority area of the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme and supported by the USA, have been initiated in Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. Canada has supported similar activities in Costa Rica. The SIDS-CARIBBEAN project, supported by Finland, has a DARE component to help the small island states. In some countries (El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras), these activities had covered only the river basin of the Lempa river, but it will be necessary to mobilize resources to cover the total amount of information that needs to be rescued, not only in Central America but also in the Caribbean. 6.14 With the participation of WMO, the Inter-American Development Bank, NOAA, the International Food Policy Research Institute and the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, a feasibility study is being carried out to ameliorate the socioeconomic impacts of El Niño/La Niña in Latin America and the Caribbean. During 2001, case studies for RA IV Member countries, Jamaica, Mexico and Panama, will be developed. Workshops in Santa Fe (Argentina) and San Jose (Costa Rica) will be ANNEX III, P. 18 organized to promote interaction between the users and the forecasters. It is suggested that the governments of the countries of the region support this initiative and, eventually, the proposals that will result from the study. Region V 6.15 Some of the priority areas frequently expressed in RA V (South-West Pacific) are given below for VCP donors' consideration of support: (i) Reducing the deficiency in the Global Observing System (GOS) and Global Data- processing System (GDPS); (ii) Improvement of the operation of the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) in the region by taking into account new telecommunication techniques and means available, such as the Internet, DCPs and EMWIN; (iii) Natural disaster reduction through the provision of more reliable and effective warning of tropical cyclones, monsoon depression and other extreme weather events, including associated storm surges and flash floods; (iv) Seasonal and inter-annual climate prediction; (v) Public awareness; (vi) Training and education of meteorological and hydrological staff to meet the increasing demand of Members for training of staff for the development of their Services; (vii) WHYCOS; (viii) Capacity building; (ix) Management of NMHSs. Region VI 6.16 The Association agreed to continue giving the highest priority to the WWW as well as to the following activities: (i) Enhancement of the worldwide cost-effective and optimum observational network including upper-air particularly over ocean areas for in situ observation; (ii) Attention should be given to the reduction of the deficiency in the Regional Basic Synoptic Network (RBSN) in the eastern and southern part of the region, mainly: (a) Both upper-air and surface stations near nuclear power plants or other highly important stations, which require assistance in order to support emergency prevention and response activities in case of nuclear accident. Availability of timely atmospheric observations, from the ground right up through the atmosphere, from the affected regions are prerequisite for the quality of the transport model to predict the track and dispersion of the radioactive particles throughout the atmosphere and the location where they are likely to reach the ground. Only in the eastern part of the region, in nine countries, there are more than 100 reactors in 21 nuclear power plants; (b) Rehabilitation of data transmission links from those stations; (iii) Continuous improvement of the performance and reliability of the GTS through cost- effective monitoring arrangements. In that respect, the full implementation of the RMDCN has a paramount importance; ANNEX III, P. 19 (iv) Improvement of the quality of local weather forecasts with special emphasis on warnings of floods and severe weather; (v) Promotions of the introduction and performance assessment of appropriate observing technology, taking into account the new systems and their suitability; (vi) Promotion of the introduction of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for collecting, transmitting, processing and managing meteorological, hydrological and related data and products; (vii) Enhancement of services provided by NMHSs through the intensive use of weather radars, satellites and weather prediction models in addressing environmental issues and those associated with nuclear accidents; (viii) Strengthening NMHSs of the less-developed countries in the region by providing training, capacity building, assistance in the acquisition of new technology and in management and bridging the gap between developed and less-developed countries in the region. ANNEX IV ACTIVITIES OF VCP CO-ORDINATED PROGRAMMES IN 2000 1. Improvement of the global network of upper-air stations with special emphasis on GCOS upper-air network 1.1 Members concerned together with the Secretariat continued to undertake joint efforts to upgrade GUAN stations in accordance with the recommendations of CBS Task Team. Since the previous IPM on the VCP and related Technical Co-operation Programmes (Washington, D.C., January 2000), five upper-air stations have been put in full operational mode in Guinea, Mozambique, Panama, Papua New Guinea and Zambia. The above replacement VCP projects have been supported through substantial contributions provided by Australia, UK and USA. 1.2 CBS at its twelfth session (Geneva, 29 November-8 December 2000) reviewed the issue of replacement of obsolete observing systems. In particular, it noted that following the request of Cg-XIII, in close collaboration with CIMO, the matter regarding reliability of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based radiosondes was kept under permanent review. The results of a survey conducted in 1999 among Members concerned, which indicated that about every fifth launch of GPS-based radiosondes had been faulty, were submitted to CIMO, which has been working with relevant manufactures to improve the situation. Improvements achieved through these joint activities showed that the windfinding performance would soon be returned to at least the same level as it was with OMEGA-based radiosondes before its termination. 1.3 Following the recommendation of the RA I Advisory Working Group (Arusha, April 2000) to alleviate the situation and provide an improved basis for rehabilitation and sustainable development of WWW components including observing systems in Region I, the Secretariat has prepared and disseminated among countries of the region a questionnaire aimed to assess the status of operation of WWW basic systems especially where the most serious deficiencies are experienced. The results of this survey are being analyzed and will serve as a basis for the development of a Rehabilitation and Capacity Building Plan and other relevant documents to be further reviewed and developed by RA I Working Group on Planning and Implementation of the WWW in Region I. 2. Improvement of the GTS Region I 2.1 Various expert missions were carried out with WWW technical support to facilitate installation or upgrade of PC-based GTS/GDPS systems and related telecommunication equipment at NMCs, as well as for upgrades of Message Switching and Telecommunications Systems and GTS facilities of RTHs. A training seminar on the use of new technology (Nairobi, May 2000) was held to facilitate and support the effective introduction and operation of information and communication technology for the WWW systems at NMCs. A similar training seminar, in French, is planned for 2001 in Niamey. 2.2 A regional meteorological data-communication strategy and a rehabilitation and capacity-building plan was under development with a view to addressing WWW shortcomings in a co-ordinated manner, and will be reviewed by the RA I Working Group on WWW (March 2001). Region II 2.3 The technical specifications for the VCP projects for the GTS connection of Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic were developed, and Japan offered support to the project for Lao People’s ANNEX IV, p. 2 Democratic Republic. The specifications of a project for the use of satellite systems to connect NMC Sanaa (Yemen) to the GTS are being prepared. 2.4 The replacement of HF broadcast systems by satellite distribution systems is being considered in Region II. UK offered to use the spare capacity of the UK Satellite Facility (UKSF) to broadcast data and products for WWW purposes, and proposed to carry out a pilot project with the participation of RA II Members, preferably equipped with a SADIS receiving system. The pilot project is being developed. Region III New RA III Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network (RMTN) 2.5 Directors of NMHSs of South America agreed upon a plan for the design and implementation of the new RA III RMTN using the concept of Managed Data Communication Network Services. The technical and administrative documentation in view of the international Invitation to Tender (ITT) was prepared. The ITT is planned for launch during 2001. Region IV Satellite-based RMTN 2.6 VSAT and STAR4 equipment installation and upgrade were completed (except Haiti). An upgrade of the NMC terminal equipment and telecommunication arrangements is planned for meteorological offices of small islands in the Caribbean with a view to improving meteorological data exchange. Region V 2.7 The implementation plan fulfilling the special requirements for communications in the South Pacific, in particular for South Pacific islands, continued to make progress through the implementation of DCPs for observational data collection and EMWIN (Emergency Management Weather Information Network (through the GOES satellites)) systems (Papua New Guinea and Tonga). This plan was also co-ordinated with the South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Upgrade Project (1997-2000), funded by the European Union (EU). Region VI 2.8 The Initial Deployment of the Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network (RMDCN) in Region VI was completed in 2000. The formal Service Commencement Date of the RMDCN was 15 March 2000. The RMDCN ensures the transport service for the connection to the GTS of 31 Member countries in Region VI. Three meetings of the RMDCN Operations Committee were held in 2000. 3. Automation of NMCs 3.1 Automation of small NMCs using available, affordable and maintainable technologies based on PCs and TCP/IP protocols, and off-the-shelf hardware and software components, is now available from several manufacturers. Its implementation in several NMCs and some RTHs demonstrated its feasibility and performance, providing a considerable upgrade of GTS and basic GDPS operation. 3.2 Standard data-communication techniques, protocols and applications that are adopted for the GTS provide better opportunities for improving the cost effectiveness of GTS facilities and systems and ANNEX IV, p. 3 benefit from new telecommunication means, services and equipment which are widely supported by telecommunication providers and manufacturers. These benefits equated to direct savings in financial and human resource to Members by reduced costs for communications equipment purchase and maintenance, as well as reduced software development work through use of industry standard software systems. NWP capacity building 3.3 A workshop on NWP was held in Nairobi in December 1999. The workshop contributed to capacity building of the RMTC Institute Laboratory through upgrade of PCs with LINUX facilities and installation and running the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) model. Kenya Meteorological Department also subsequently received a PC system configured and installed with RAMS model, which will run in quasi-operational mode as part of a capacity building measure for the RSMC. Another workshop will be considered for implementation in the second biennium. 3.4 WMO co-sponsored the ACMAD NWP workshop held in Niamey from 20 March to 9 June 2000. The workshop contributed to human resources capacity building. As one of the objectives, the workshop would also lead to selection of a team of experts to be sent for attachment to advanced centres. Upon their return to their services they would act as a pool of NWP research and development experts for the African region, co-ordinated through ACMAD to develop/adapt modes for implementation in the NMCs of the region. 3.5 Prior to the training seminar on the use of new technology held in Nairobi in May 2000 further capacity building of the RMTC Institute Laboratory was enhanced with relevant PC training facilities. 4. Support to transition to low-rate picture/image transmission satellite receivers 4.1 In anticipating the transition and its corresponding impact on its Members, WMO initiated an LRPT/LRIT project within the Secretariat that will address three specific aspects of the conversion. The first aspect to be covered will be the transition period, its duration and regional application. The second aspect will address the modification or replacement of the existing ground receiving stations. This aspect will be accomplished in concert with CGMS satellite operators and equipment manufacturers. Finally, improved capabilities through increased awareness of the potentialities for the new data will be presented to potential users in the form of a new WMO Satellite Activities Technical Document. 4.2 In February 1998, the Secretary-General of WMO wrote to all WMO Members to inform them of the LRPT/LRIT activities to be undertaken by the WMO Secretariat to assist during and after the conversion period. The letter also noted that extensive use of the WMO Home Page would facilitate further notifications. The latest tables are available on the Internet through the WMO Satellite Activities home pages at http://www.wmo.ch/hinsman/APT_WEFAXstatus.html. The tables were reviewed at the twenty-eighth session (October 2000) of CGMS where the satellite operators discussed the dates when the new digital services would commence for their satellite systems and the duration of a transition period when both analogue and digital services would be available. 4.3 An analysis of the table for LRPT conversion shows that the morning (AM) satellite will start LRPT in 2005 while the afternoon (PM) satellite will start LRPT in 2009. Since there will be no transition period for the AM orbit or PM orbit separately, but rather a six-year period when both APT (PM) and LRPT (AM) will be available, it will be necessary to maintain a dual capability (APT and LRPT) during the period 2005-2009 if it is deemed necessary to have information from AM and PM satellites. ANNEX IV, p. 4 4.4 As for the LRIT conversion in Regions III and IV (South, Central and North America including the Caribbean), a test signal will be provided for a few weeks through a GOES spacecraft other than the operational GOES-East or GOES-West in the January 2002 time frame. During that period, GOES-East and GOES-West will continue to provide routine WEFAX data. This LRIT test signal will allow users to test new or modified receiver equipment without disrupting normal WEFAX transmissions. Around November 2002, GOES-East will be converted from WEFAX to LRIT transmission and will cease transmitting WEFAX data. The conversion of GOES-West to LRIT will be based on the needs of the users. The date for GOES-West conversion will be announced as soon as practical. In Regions I (Africa) and VI (Europe), the transition period with parallel operations of Meteosat-7 and MSG-1, starting from the commissioning of MSG-1 in 2002, extends until the end of 2003. It is technically possible to further extend the overlap until 2004 assuming continued nominal operations of Meteosat-7. Regions II (Asia) and V (Southwest Pacific) will also have one-and-a-half-year overlap starting in 2003 when MTSAT-1R becomes operational. 4.5 The CBS Open Programme Area Group (OPAG) Integrated Observing System (IOS) Expert Team Meeting on Satellite System Utilization and Products held in Locarno, Switzerland, 2-4 June 1999 discussed a new WMO Satellite Activities Technical Document that would provide guidance to WMO Members on how to exploit the new LRPT/LRIT services. The meeting noted that the new technical document should be available prior to the commencement of the new digital services. 4.6 The third session of the OPAG IOS Expert Team Meeting on Satellite System Utilization and Products was held on 3-7 July 2000 in Lannion, France. The session noted that the Technical Document on the migration from analogue (APT/WEFAX) to digital (LRPT/LRIT) broadcast services will be distributed to WMO Members in early 2001. Replacement of current meteorological satellite ground receiving systems in NMHSs in Africa 4.7 The Task Team on the Preparation for the Use of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) in Africa (PUMA), since its establishment in 1996, has developed project proposals for the supply and installation of the new equipment in the five sub-regions, namely, IOC (Indian Ocean Commission), IGAD (Inter Governmental Authority on Development), ECOWAS, (Economic Community of Western African States), SADC (Southern African Development Conference) and CEMAC (Communaute Econornique et Monetaire de I' Afrique Centrale). The project proposals were submitted to the European Commission (EC) for funding, and EC has now agreed to cover the project cost of about 11 million Euro for the period 2001-2005. This will allow each country to benefit from: (a) equipment to assure continuous direct reception of the new data stream from MSG; (b) software to operate the equipment and derive usable products (like weather forecasts, estimates of rainfall, real-time observation of fires or sea-surface temperature; (c) training in making better use of data; and (d) improved ability of NMSs to work in closer partnership with the broader community of users, through the support for useful new products. 4.8 However, the approved project does not cover countries of the Mediterranean basin (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) and South Africa. Other alternatives for funding (approximately US $200,000) are being explored, in particular from bilateral arrangements, trust funds and the VCP. ANNEX IV, p. 5 5. Support to the Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP) 5.1 An RA IV Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting and Warning was held at RSMC Miami - Hurricane Centre from 27 March to 8 April 2000 with funding from the Regular Budget. Financial assistance to the RA IV Workshop on Hurricane Forecasting and Warning in 2003 was not budgeted by Cg-XIII. Participants of the workshop will be mainly from RA IV (English-speaking countries) and a limited number from Typhoon Committee Members. Financial assistance to participants only from the latter will be provided from the Typhoon Committee Trust Fund (US $30,000). 6. Support to Internet capabilities at NMHSs 6.1 The support for implementation of Internet capabilities at NMHSs was, in most cases, associated with the initial automation of NMCs. A rapidly increasing number of NMCs have access to the Internet through relatively low-cost equipment, at least for e-mail services and some NMHSs of developing countries benefited from VCP support (Armenia, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia) in 2000. 7. Support to public weather services activities 7.1. Several Members sought and received assistance through the VCP in developing their national public weather services (PWS) programmes especially in the area of forecasts and warnings, and information. It should be noted that all requests for VCP support with respect to PWS converged on the programme's two foci, the provision of equipment to improve communication standards, and the provision of the necessary training to support high quality services. The report of related activities for 2000 is presented below. 7.2. Currently, there are listed outstanding requests for assistance in acquiring Television/Media Presentation Systems from the following sixteen Members (ref. IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 6, Appendix L.4): Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Guyana, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Mauritania, Mozambique, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Togo and Zimbabwe. In addition, the United Republic of Tanzania requested assistance to replace non-Y2K compliant computers for their TV weather presentation studio. 7.3 In 2000 UK supported three VCP projects for Ethiopia for upgrading and strengthening the weather forecast presentation, for Ghana for upgrading a media presentation system, and for Madagascar for the provision of a media presentation system. Three VCP projects for Armenia, Madagascar and Namibia were completed in 2000, and three projects for Ethiopia, Ghana and Senegal supported by UK are under implementation. 8. Support to climate data management and CLIPS Climate computing (CLICOM) project 8.1 In 2000, four countries have improved their CLICOM systems with financial support from the UK, France and the VCP(F). There are still 27 countries requesting VCP assistance for implementation of the CLICOM project. Ten countries are requesting the provision of a CLICOM system, and the other 17 countries, having CLICOM, presented VCP requests for the upgrading or replacement of their obsolete ANNEX IV, p. 6 hardware and software. 8.2 CLICOM installation and training missions were conducted in 11 African countries as part of the Drought Preparedness Project co-sponsored by France, UK and WMO. Following these installations, a regional training seminar on climate data management focusing on applications for drought preparedness was held at ACMAD, Niamey, Niger in December 2000. Two candidates from each of the six French-speaking countries participated. The UK contributed the expertise from the University of Reading to design and run the workshop. A similar seminar is planned for Nairobi early in 2001 for the five English-speaking countries. 8.3 There was significant progress during the past year to move towards next generation, multi-tier client/server climate data management systems (CDMSs) for the CLICOM project. A CCl Task Group met at the Secretariat in May 2000 to use the results of the December 1999 questionnaires to establish the evaluation criteria for such CDMSs and to determine the strategy for the subsequent evaluation and implementation phases. The Task Group identified 14 WMO Members with systems in operation or under development, who were prepared to share them with other Members. These 14 Members were given the opportunity to answer an evaluation questionnaire and use test data sets to self-test their system and to prepare a standard set of products. The results of this self evaluation will be analyzed by a few selected experts and the outcome made available, beginning in February 2001 for Members to consider. 8.4 The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHI) has installed a new Oracle-based CDMS developed in the Czech Republic in two countries, Ghana and Macedonia; a complete system including one server, two workstations and commercial software such as MS Office, GIS packages, etc. It is planned to install this system in Armenia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Nigeria. Data Rescue (DARE) 8.5 Finland has committed to providing financial support to the Caribbean countries in the upgrading of their database management systems and the implementation of data rescue programmes. This will ensure that the data collection and archiving systems in the region are standardized to such extent that the data could be easily combined for regional analyses. There are a considerable amount of historical observation data stored in inadequate and vulnerable media and these data need to be rescued. 8.6 A survey mission was conducted by the WMO Secretariat in April 2000 in Regions II and V to examine the condition of climate records in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Viet Nam. Taking into account promising results from new techniques (digital cameras) being tried in RA IV, new projects in the area of data rescue activities were recommended for Regions II and V. 8.7 A CLICOM/DARE workshop was held in San José, Costa Rica from 17 – 28 July 2000 and was hosted by the National Meteorological Institute of Costa Rica. An implementation plan and framework for the future DARE IV project were proposed by the participants, which included conducting pilot projects in one English-speaking country and one Spanish-speaking country in order to evaluate the use of digital camera technology for preserving climate data and facilitating its digitization. It was recommended that a report on the pilot projects be presented to a proposed WMO-organized international expert meeting on data rescue in May 2001 in Geneva. 8.8 In the related Archival Climatic History Survey (ARCHISS) Project, initial searches for valuable historical data were conducted in the National Archives of Chile, Ecuador and Peru with follow-up action being planned for 2001. Representatives from the sponsoring agencies of the International Council on Archives, UNESCO and WMO met with relevant Secretariat staff on 17 November 2000 to develop a future strategy for the project which included seeking major funding for joint ARCHISS/DARE projects ANNEX IV, p. 7 aimed at locating and digitizing priority climatological and hydrological data. Climate Information and Prediction Services (CLIPS) 8.9 In July 1999, a VCP request was received from China for the CLIPS Showcase Heat Watch/Warning System in Shanghai. The VCP project was formulated and circulated in September 1999 for climate data, decision-tree model, and expert services for a detailed project plan and system and software development, which was supported by the USA. A project team visited China (Shanghai, 8-10 October 1999) to develop with the CMA a detailed plan for the CLIPS Showcase Project: Heat/Health Warning System for Shanghai. A multidisciplinary team from Shanghai travelled in July 2000 to the Center for Climatic Research in Delaware, USA, to complete the statistical manipulation of the health and mortality data. Those results and correlations are the ones to be utilized within the system. The team also completed the within-offensive category algorithm development, and constructed an algorithm which explains about 40 percent of the variance in mortality within the MT+ air mass. Testing and the development of the public health intervention plan will take place in 2001. 9. Support to training and human resources development for meteorology and operational hydrology 9.1 One of the major VCP activities supporting training and human resources development in meteorology and operational hydrology is the award of short- and long-term fellowships. A detailed account of the status of fellowships under the VCP is given in IPM/VCP/TCO(2001)/Doc. 7, paragraphs 3.1-3.4. 9.2 Under the ASMET (African Satellite Meteorology Education and Training) project, funded by the Government of Germany and implemented by EUMETSAT, two computer-aided learning modules on satellite meteorology adapted to African regions in CD-ROMs have been produced. EUMETSAT plans to assist in the development of a third volume in the near future, dealing with products of the new generation of METEOSAT. A consolidated plan of the third phase of ASMET will be drawn in Darmstadt (in February 2001) where two representatives of RMTCs Niamey and Nairobi will participate. 10. Support for ACMAD activities 10.1 Taking into account that the ACMAD Demonstration Project was completed successfully in 1998, EC-LII agreed that the co-ordinated programme “Support for the ACMAD Demonstration Project” be renamed “Support for ACMAD activities” with a view to further enhancement of overall ACMAD activities. 10.2 In 2000, ACMAD contributed to the organization of several training sessions for capacity building in the field of climate prediction for climatologists, hydrologists and users from food security and water resources management sectors, to enable them to develop, exploit and use the seasonal forecast for the benefit of the socio-economic development and welfare of the population. ACMAD continued to be involved in the organization of regional climate outlook fora and in the development through USAID-funded projects of digital rural radio systems to enhance the distribution of meteorological information to the rural communities in Africa. ANNEX V Members' contributions to the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme in 2000 (US $) Donor VCP(F) VCP(ES)* Total Member Equipment Equipment Training/ VCP(ES) Contribution and Services and Services Fellowships including through by bilateral fellowships (US$) WMO arrangements Sub-total (US$) Argentina 4,000 4,000 4,000 Australia 25,000 10,000 67,880 68,920 146,800 171,800 Brazil 5,000 5,000 5,000 Canada 750,000 45,000 795,000 795,000 China 265,700 166,600 432,300 432,300 Finland 1,005,500 11,500 1,017,000 1,017,000 France 250,500 248,000 79,000 577,500 577,500 Germany 32,200 73,800 16,000 122,000 122,000 Hong Kong, China 19,000 19,000 19,000 India 7,000 7,000 7,000 Ireland 5,491 5,491 Israel 388,100 388,100 388,100 Japan 200,000 45,000 250,000 295,000 495,000 Malaysia 3,000 10,000 10,000 13,000 Mauritius 991 991 Myanmar 500 500 New Zealand 204,080 204,080 204,080 Norway 3,973 3,973 Pakistan 507 507 Philippines 1,500 1,500 1,500 Portugal 13,953 41,332 32,115 87,400 87,400 Republic of Korea 165,000 165,000 165,000 Russian Federation 197,000 197,000 197,000 Saudi Arabia 50,000 3,900 53,900 53,900 Spain 85,303 229,200 314,503 314,503 UK 50,000 775,367 127,245 280,778 1,183,390 1,233,390 USA 1,274,450 725,550 2,000,000 2,000,000 Private 1,000 1,000 Total 290,462 3,562,473 1,812,837 2,650,163 8,025,473 8,315,936 * The data is based on the information provided by donor Members, as of 20 March 2001. ANNEX VI Evolution of Members’ contributions to VCP(ES) and VCP(F) 1981-2000 Total VCP(ES) VCP(F) 5,591,499 5,166,600 424,899 1981 5,307,092 5,002,900 304,192 1982 5,114,086 4,883,400 230,686 1983 5,470,750 5,143,700 327,050 1984 4,773,319 4,603,820 169,499 1985 5,395,270 5,008,780 386,490 1986 6,198,385 5,956,468 241,917 1987 6,895,518 6,604,008 291,510 1988 8,191,805 7,944,969 246,836 1989 V C 8,080,558 7,702,200 378,358 1990 P Year 7,408,845 7,021,500 387,345 1991 ( F 6,214,520 5,695,610 518,910 1992 ) 7,692,204 7,178,600 513,604 1993 6,851,805 6,398,340 453,465 1994 6,003,186 5,518,675 484,511 1995 5,994,740 5,607,216 387,524 1996 8,078,506 7,802,276 276,230 1997 7,411,226 7,118,312 292,914 1998 8,540,655 8,122,382 418,273 1999 8,315,936 8,025,473 290,462 2000 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 (US$) Contributions (US$) ANNEX VII Statistics related to the support received for VCP projects circulated amongst donors during the period 1988-1999, and in 2000 (VCP requests related to fellowships excluded) Number of Total Percentage Number of Total Percentage projects number of projects projects number of of projects having of projects having having projects having Fields of co-operation received having been received received having been received support circulated support support circulated support during during during in in during 1988-1999 1988-1999 1988-1999 2000 2000 1988-2000 Surface observing stations 54 123 44% 11 13 48% Upper-air observing stations 132 233 57% 7 13 57% Satellite receiving stations 36 90 40% 1 0 41% Weather radar stations 3 16 19% 0 0 19% Telecommunication systems 105 230 46% 8 14 46% Data processing systems 28 61 46% 2 3 47% Maintenance workshops 6 21 29% 0 0 29% Research and training centre activities 3 20 15% 2 0 25% CLICOM and climatological activities 73 131 56% 5 4 58% Hydrological activities 18 62 29% 4 5 33% GAW and environment protection activities 3 54 6% 1 2 7% Meteorological applications activities 69 113 61% 5 13 59% Total 530 1154 46% 46 67 47% ANNEX VIII GENERAL SUMMARY OF STATISTICS ON EVALUATION REPORTS Year 2000 Services or Results available 1% 3% 0 - 20% available 1% 2% 16% 10% 20 - 50% available 50 - 85% available 82% 85% 85 - 100% available During life span During last 3 months Reasons for possible unavailability of services Equipment unsatisfactorily installed Inadequate equipment (hardware, software, consumables, etc.) 1. Reasons directly linked to the Inadequate training implementation of the project Inadequate set of spare parts Other reasons Breakdown of the equipment after installation Other complementary equipment not in operation 2. Reasons not directly linked to Lack of consumables the implementation of the project Lack of operators Other reasons 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Present status of operation Out of service Not fully Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Not fully Not fully 4% satisfactory 8% 7% satisfactory satisfactory 13% 18% 28% 83% 74% 65% Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Working status Arrangements for maintenance Training Further assistance required Complementary equipment Complementary training Expert services Other type of assistance 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% ANNEX VIII, p. 2 Statistics on Evaluation Reports Table Q2 Services or Results Number Services or Results available Fields of Co-operation of during life span during last 3 months Reports 0≤ <20% 20≤ <50% 50≤ <85% 85≤ ≤100% 0≤ <20% 20≤ <50% 50≤ <85% 85≤ ≤100% Surface observing stations 9 4 5 4 5 Upper-air observing stations 31 1 1 3 25 2 1 26 Satellite receiving stations 8 3 4 1 1 5 Weather radar stations 0 Telecommunication systems 32 3 28 2 29 Data processing systems 7 1 6 7 Hydrology and water resources activities 0 Research and training centre activities 2 1 1 1 1 CLICOM and climatological activities 17 3 14 2 15 Aeronautical meteorology activities 28 3 25 1 1 1 24 Public weather services activities 4 1 3 1 1 2 Other fields of assistance 0 Total 138 1 1 22 111 4 2 13 114 Table Q3 Reasons for possible unavailability Reasons for possible unavailability of services or results directly linked to the VCP project not directly linked to the VCP project Fields of Co-operation Other Equipm't Inadeq. Inadeq. Inadeq. Other Breakd'n equipm't Lack Lack Other unsatis. equipm't training spares reasons after not in of of reasons installed install'n operation consum's operators Surface observing stations 3 2 5 1 1 Upper-air observing stations 1 9 5 6 6 5 4 7 4 Satellite receiving stations 2 2 1 1 5 Weather radar stations Telecommunication systems 6 5 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 Data processing systems 1 2 1 Hydrology and water resources activities Research and training centre activities 2 1 1 CLICOM and climatological activities 4 2 2 3 1 3 Aeronautical meteorology activities 5 4 1 3 8 2 2 1 2 Public weather services activities 1 2 2 1 Other fields of assistance Total 1 33 20 15 18 24 11 13 2 13 ANNEX VIII, p. 3 Statistics on Evaluation Reports Table Q4 Present status of operation of the VCP project Working status Arrangements for maintenance Training not fully out not fully not fully Fields of Co-operation satisfac. satisfac. of satisfac. satisfac. unsatisfac. satisfac. satisfac. unsatisfac. working working service Surface observing stations 7 2 6 2 1 5 3 1 Upper-air observing stations 21 1 1 16 4 3 13 4 3 Satellite receiving stations 4 3 1 5 1 2 4 3 1 Weather radar stations Telecommunication systems 27 4 27 3 1 22 9 Data processing systems 6 1 5 2 3 3 1 Maintenance workshops Research and training centre activities 2 1 1 1 CLICOM and climatological activities 14 3 13 4 15 2 Aeronautical meteorology activities 23 2 3 20 5 3 17 7 3 Public weather services activities 3 1 3 1 1 3 Other fields of assistance Total 107 17 5 96 23 10 81 34 9 Table Q5 Further assistance required Assistance required Fields of Co-operation Complem. Complem. Expert Other equipm't training services type Surface observing stations 4 3 2 Upper-air observing stations 11 7 4 2 Satellite receiving stations 5 4 2 2 Weather radar stations Telecommunication systems 10 11 7 1 Data processing systems 1 4 3 Maintenance workshops Research and training centre activities 1 1 1 CLICOM and climatological activities 12 10 7 2 Aeronautical meteorology activities 13 11 5 6 Public weather services activities 3 3 3 2 Other fields of assistance Total 60 54 33 16 ANNEX VIII, p. 4 Examples of Information and Comments on the VCP projects OB/1/2/1 - Replacement of two windfinding radars (supported by UK in 1994-1995) Zimbabwe - [Out of service due to lack of spares (sub-modulator and other boards); training of technicians was satisfactory. The radar never performed well from the installation (no low-level winds, difficult to use at night). Radar has now developed a transmitter problem. Drawing too much current and blowing fuses and resistors and then it goes into security.] OB/3/3/1 - Replacement of GOES West or East Weather Facsimile (WEFAX) Satellite Imagery System (supported by USA in 1995-1996) Belize - [Using local resources the computer was replaced. WEFAX freeware was downloaded from the Internet. This enabled local technicians to rehabilitate the system.] Guyana - [Need for the replacement of hardware and software. Hardware is now outdated due to Y2K bug.] TE/6/3/1- Provision of two RETIM/AEROMET stations (supported by France in 1995) Armenia - [The system allows our specialists to draw daily on a broader range of data for Asia, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East, which is essential for weather prediction in Armenia’s complex orographic conditions.] DP/1/1/1 - Provision/Upgrading of AFDOS software (supported by China in 1991/1997) Maldives - [The AFDOS is an indispensable tool for our daily weather forecast. The AFDOS software is maintained by Chinese expert missions. There are no staff with adequate training to maintain and repair the equipment.] DP/2/2/1 - Replacement of the automated systems to be Year 2000 compliant (supported by Germany, Japan, UK, USA and VCP(F) in 1999-2000) Russian Federation - [The hardware and software are in continuous use and maintained to a high standard by supplier-trained personnel. The volume of synoptic data increased from 85% (Nov. 1999) to 87% (May 2000). The hardware and software at 23 telecom stations were modernized to be Y2K compliant. A number of factors assisted the project’s successful implementation: a thorough study of the project by Roshydromet specialists assisted by supplier; preliminary testing at Moscow telecommunication centre of hardware and software; and a high standard training which allowed Roshydromet’s specialists to install and set up the hardware and software at 13 of the 23 centres.] AEM/3/1/1 - Upgrading of the WAFS STAR4 workstation (supported by USA in 1999) Costa Rica - [The new equipment has substantially improved the capacity allowing more info over a longer period of time, due to the increases in memory. The equipment is also now more reliable.] AEM/3/1/1 - Provision of a satellite-based distribution system for WAFS data and products (supported by UK in 1997-1998) Nepal - [Training of operators is quite satisfactory, but training level of the maintenance is not satisfactory. Technical manuals not received from Sofréavia. Repair arrangement is not fully satisfactory. The overall assessment of the project is at the highest level of satisfaction. But problem of maintenance (after expiration of maintenance contract) has to be resolved. Probably Sofréavia could now release the Technical Manual of the equipment.] PWS/1/1/1 - Provision of a media system (supported by UK in 1999-2000) Kenya - [Great need for training on AV production. KMD has gradually acquired Audio and Video through very tight budgetary constraints. The eventual goal is to use the studio for training on weather bulletin production etc. and obtaining training materials for the region.] Madagascar - [Equipment is not fully operational (for development of documentation) with electricity problem and lack of consumables (SVHS video cassettes, batteries): Enhancement of the project is required for dissemination of meteorological, climatological and hydrological information.] WCP/2/1/1 - Upgrading of CLICOM hardware and software (supported by UK in 1998) Sudan - [Advanced training in CLICOM system and networking is needed. The project has achieved its goals.] Windfinding Systems (Note: The table is mainly applicable to fixed land stations) Option Sonde Geographical application Limitations on Typical rms Cost 2 Maintenance frequency 1 accuracy vector requirements (MHz) accuracy (ms -1) Consumables Capital 1 Radiotheodolite 1,680 Not well suited for locations with Errors become large, if 0.5 – 2.5 3 low high High MTBF (mean very strong upper winds balloon elevations low, time between depending on antenna failure) for small design modern antenna 2 Secondary radar 1,680 Cost cannot be sustained by 0.5 - 1.5 low high, but needs High level of many Members to be determined technical support nationally ANNEX IX 3 Primary radar 403 Cost cannot be sustained by 0.5 - 1.5 low high, but needs High level of many Members to be determined technical support nationally 4 GPS navigation 403 Global coverage (at discretion Potentially, the most 0.1 - 0.5 high normal Normal (or 1,680) of military) accurate system4 5 Loran-C 403 Limited regions where Occasional loss of 0.5 - 1.5 normal normal Normal sufficient Loran-C coverage is sensitivity from static still available charge on radiosonde 6 VLF 5 403 Limited to areas where suitable Diurnal variation in 1-2 normal normal Normal signal geometry is available (at signal propagation discretion of military) 1 The system normally uses this radiosonde frequency, but may also be available at an alternative frequency. 2 The costs of the ground equipment and of the consumable “radiosonde” may vary by a significant factor. Competitive tendering for systems appears essential to reduce the costs. 3 The measurement accuracy of radiotheodolites depends on the antenna design and also on the accuracy of alignment of the radiotheodolite system. 4 Some systems still have problems in achieving the required reliability of the observations. 5 This system no longer has significant importance due to limited and unreliable coverage. ANNEX X Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART) Introduction 1. When a disaster occurs, many donors (including Banks, UN Organizations, Governments, and NGOs) would be willing to provide emergency assistance to the affected countries. WMO should play a key role in the co-ordination of donors’ assistance in the fields of meteorology and hydrology. In order to avoid duplication of efforts and resources and to ensure that the urgently needed assistance is provided, Cg-XIII affirmed the necessity of a timely and co-ordinated action among donor Members, funding agencies and Governments of affected countries for emergency assistance to the affected NMHSs. 2. To ensure the immediate and urgent assistance to NMHSs, the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART) concept given below was proposed to EC-LII. The Council endorsed several measures including establishment of an EART and the simplification of procedures for the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund and the WMO VCP. Details of the mechanism and procedures for EART activities are proposed below. 3. It should be noted that natural disaster preparedness activities are primarily under the responsibility of NMHSs (see Annex 1 for some of the natural disaster preparedness activities) within the framework of the WMO Public Weather Services Programme. With regard to the WMO response to emergencies and disasters, an Emergency and Disaster Response Group (EDRG) was established within the Secretariat in August 2000, and with the guidance of EDRG an Emergency and Disaster Response Team (EDRT) will undertake tasks including establishing contact with other relevant UN organizations, interactions with media, etc. Mission of the EART 4. The mission of the Emergency Assistance Response Team (EART) is to assist the meteorological and hydrological infrastructure restoration process by advising and consulting with the NMHS(s), WMO, and other responding organizations, with the following terms of reference: Terms of reference for the EART (a) To assess the most urgent needs and requirements of the NMHS(s) for submission to potential donors, through mission(s), as necessary; (b) To assist Members in the identification of medium- and long-term requirements, through mission(s), as necessary, and in the formulation of project proposals to be submitted to Government authorities and potential donors; (c) To co-ordinate the support offered by donors (through electronic means), and formulation of supported projects; (d) To assist Members in preparing priority project plans. ANNEX X, p. 2 EART Membership and Implementation 5. EART will be activated by the Emergency and Disaster Response Group (EDRG), established within the WMO Secretariat. 6. EART is composed of: - EART co-ordinator; - WMO representatives (Group of the WMO Secretariat: TCO, WWW, HWR, WCP Depts, and Regional Offices); - Subregional (or Regional) representative closest to the scene of disaster; - NMHS Focal Point in each country to work with EART; - Donor representatives (IPM/VCP sub-group under the direction of the Chairman); and - Related experts needed in the NMHS recovery process. 7. The EART co-ordinator should act as a contact point at the WMO Secretariat for the EART activities, in co-operation, as necessary, with the relevant technical Departments: WWW - Basic Systems; Public Weather Services Programme; Tropical Cyclone Programme; Hydrology and Water Resources Programme; World Climate Programme, and Regional and Subregional Offices. The co-ordinator would identify the EART participants including experts who are available to immediately travel to the disaster site as part of the team. This requires a creation of a roster of experts for each sub-region, along with a list of global experts who could be contacted immediately in order to determine their availability to participate in the EART. 8. The Regional or Subregional Offices have a critical role to play in the EART activities as they have the best contact with the NMHS in the area affected. They should be involved in the identification of a realistic minimum network and in risk analysis. It is important to ensure that each Regional and Subregional Office carry out their task efficiently in all parts of the world. 9. The EART could help support development banks, aid agencies and others in providing immediate meteorological/hydrological expertise, assistance and consultation, as part of a coherent or joint mission as soon as a disaster occurs. 10. The EART could work, together with EDRT, closely with the United Nations Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) and the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) in the response process as well as in areas related to improved mitigation practices. Phased Restoration Process 11. During and after the event, EART will work in the three restoration phases, as given below: Phase I (Emergency mode): One or two days before - up to two weeks after the event • An EART is to be activated within the WMO Secretariat; • An EART field mission is to be organized, should it be necessary, immediately after the event to find out the most urgent immediate requirements, including restoring minimum observational and early-warning network. The expert mission team would include the subregional representative for D/TCO, and experts in meteorology, telecommunications, hydrology, as required and donor representatives when available; • The most urgent requirements are to be assessed by EART from this field mission for consideration of timely possible support by donors and with the available funds. ANNEX X, p. 3 Phase II (Emergency Short-term Restoration Process) – Two weeks to three months • During this phase the input from the EART will be used to develop projects and funding proposals for the restoration of the basic NMHS World Weather Watch functions as part of the short-term and medium-term requirements. Phase III (Medium- to Long-term Restoration Process) - more than three months after the event • For medium- to long-term requirements, support should be sought from funding agencies and multilateral organizations to enable and ensure that the NMHS is ready and capable to provide forecast and warning services to respond to the next event or disaster that might impact the country. This phase will help to make the NMHS a more relevant part of the national early warning system involving other parts of the government and local communities. Co-ordination Mechanism 12. Requirements from affected Members will be assessed and the most appropriate schemes to meet the requirements will be suggested by EART. Assessed requirements will be sent by e-mail to potential donors for favourable consideration of support. Co-ordination of donors’ support will be made through discussions via e-mail. 13. Possible schemes to be utilized for emergency assistance are to: For the assessed priority short-term and medium-term requirements • Incorporate requirements into the Aid Package of donor’s Government; • Implement supported projects in a co-ordinated manner under: - the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund scheme, with a more simplified process, or - the WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme, with a more simplified process, as applicable, or - bilateral agreements. For the assessed priority long-term requirements • Adjust the requirement to the external donor’s (WB, Regional Banks, Technical Co-operation Agencies, etc.) aid scheme. Funding Mechanism 14. Initially funds to support EART activities and the urgent emergency requirements would come from the VCP or the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund. For cash contributions, it would be desirable to receive the cash funds prior to the events (for future possible disasters). The Emergency Assistance Fund or VCP co-ordinated project funds could be used for this purpose, similar to Trust Funds. If funds are available at the WMO Secretariat, as soon as the donor’s indication of required support (for specific equipment for (an) affected country(ies)), is received, a purchase order for the necessary equipment could be placed. This will ensure timely emergency assistance for urgent short-term requirements. ANNEX X, p. 4 15. In this regard, it should be noted that UK contributed £20,000 in 2000 and Japan has indicated its willingness to support EART activities. The funding for this initiative will not be met fully from direct donations from VCP donors but should come in conjunction/collaboration with other aid and support organizations. EART Procedures 16. Quick reaction and response is necessary following a disaster. For this purpose, EC-LII endorsed the simplification of the procedures for the WMO Emergency Assistance Fund and the VCP as outlined below. WMO Emergency Assistance Fund (WMO Disaster Assistance Fund for Meteorological and Hydrological Services) 17. The existing WMO Emergency Assistance Fund is to be processed as follows: (i) Assess priority requirement for assistance prepared by EART (2 weeks); (ii) A circular e-mail from the co-ordinator of EART to donor Members’ focal points for consideration of possible support (2-3 days); (iii) Donor Members’ offer(s) of support (1-4 weeks); (iv) Co-ordination of support; (v) Implementation of the project. WMO Voluntary Co-operation Programme (VCP) 18. The WMO VCP Equipment and Services Programme (VCP(ES)) in case of emergency assistance is to be implemented as follows: (i) Official VCP request for the requirement assessed by EART from the PR concerned (2 weeks); (ii) Formulation into a VCP project and comments from Technical Dept., WMO (2 weeks); (iii) Approval for circulation by SG (1-2 days); (iv) Circulation of the project among VCP donors by Internet (1 day); (v) Donor Members’ offer(s) of support by e-mail (1-4 weeks); (vi) Informing PR of the support (not for approval in principle) (1-2 days); (vii) Implementation of the project. 19. VCP donor Members are requested to ensure the quick implementation of the VCP project. Promotion of EART 20. In order to implement and promote EART, NMHSs are to be contacted to identify: - Points of contact at each NMHS in case of disaster; - Status of disaster preparedness activities and current capabilities; - Minimal requirements for observation and communication networks; and - Available experts to participate in EART for the assessment of requirements. 21 Discussions should be held with development banks, aid agencies and non-governmental organizations, in particular with the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, to brief them on EART concept for their feedback. PowerPoint proposal material will be prepared for this purpose. Once the EART concept is workable, resource mobilization activities should be initiated with external donors as well as WMO Members. ANNEX X, p. 5 Annex 1 Natural Disaster Preparedness Activities • Each NMHS should have a strategic emergency response plan. If not, WMO should assist Members in developing such a plan. • Each NMHS should develop guidelines (or receive support to develop guidelines) as part of this emergency response plan for ensuring a continuous flow of weather forecasts and warnings for emergency management officials, citizens of the country and for those organizations (UNOCHA, ISDR, IFRC, etc.) responding to the emergency. • Each NMHS should establish and maintain effective warning systems. • Each NMHS needs to identify a responsible individual to be the point of contact during an emergency. In most cases it would be the Permanent Representative of the country. • The WMO should provide the education and training required in the response process. There is a need to educate providers, responders and citizens regarding natural disasters and the preparedness and response process. ANNEX X, p. 6 ACTION FLOW CHART EVENT Affected Inputs (Info) WMO Secretariat EDRT Country Secretariat PR Task Force for ND Regional/ EDRG Technical assistance EART Mission Subregional Coordinator Composition Team Office DSG, EART Directors Composition Experts Secretariat R/SRO Donors Donors Media Others Others Decisions WMO representative for On-site Info OUTPUTS OF FIELD MISSION Emergency Assistance Fund (1) Assessment of urgent needs Gov. Aid Package (2) Identification of medium- and WMO VCP long-term requirements Bilateral agreements Info to donors Co-ordination Donors Donors’ reaction EART Implementation Offers of support of co-ordinated Secretariat Donors assistance etc.
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