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					National Centre for Remote Sensing - TUNISIA




                            OPTIMA
                  Optimisation for Sustainable
                  Water Resources Management


                                                 Tunisian case study




                                               Malta kick-off meeting
                                                    October 28, 29th 2004
                                                                                           1/2

                        Water resources state




• Water resources are unevenly distributed in geographic and seasonal terms
                        (Over 77% of the volume of dam water is stored in the North)




• Population growth and socio-economic development: growth in water need



• Increasing pressure on the country capacity to provide this scarce resource



• Renewable groundwater is estimated to be about 1319 million m3/ year



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Connections (overall)
Drinkable water (provision)…………………………….96,4%
Drinkable water (household connection)………….79,1%



Annual water Demand per sector and per inhabitant:


  Irrigation:      425 m3/year                       • North: satisfying
  Domestic:        55 m3/year                        • South: lack of resources
  Industry :       35 m3/year



 Sanitation (urban)
Connection rate………………………………………….81%


Water consumption :
Water consumption in urban environment…….109 L/day/Inh

                                                                                  3
                                          Water & waste water pricing:
 Price range
  m3/term
                                                                                                                            Fixed
               0,135/DT/m3              Water cost                Exemple:                                                Fees/term
[0 – 20]                                                          0.135 x 10m3 + 0.017   m3 x 10 + 1.310 = 2.830 DT
               0,017/DT/m3              Sanitation fees                         1 DT = 0.65 €                                 1,310

               0           20

                     0,215/DT/m3

[21 – 40]
               0,028            0,170                                                                                     1,310DT
               0           20      40


                    0,215/DT/m3             0,430/DT/m3
[41 – 70]
               0,028            0,170           0,269                                                                     3,860DT
               0           20       40                      70


                                   0,430                                        0,650
[71 – 150]
                   0,170                    0,269                                                                         7,600DT
                                                                                0,445
               0           20                              70                                           150

                                                          0,650                                                 0,790
[> 150]
               0,170                      0,269                           0,445                                 0,497     7,820DT

                           20                                                                                             4
               0                                           70                                          150     [150, …]
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                           Water resources Issues

Exploitation


        Over exploitation of surface and groundwater



         Urban extension generates a conflict between :
             • Water consumption,
             • Water Waste




         Intensive irrigation using different kinds of water:
             • Drinkable water,
               • Treated water
               • Drilled water (superficial and deep wells)

                                                                5
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Quality


High salinity:
  • Salinity ratio < 1.5g/l : reserved for drinking water :                                   83%
  • 1.5g/l < salinity ration <5g/l : can be used for irrigation of resistant crop type        14 %
  • >5g/l : desalinization :                                                                  3%



Capacity



Evaporation: 80 %!!!!!
                                      36 billion m3/year




                                                                2,7 Billion m3/year: surface water
                                4,570 Billion m3 /year



1,870 Billion m3/year: Ground water
                                                                                               6
                          Tunisian Water Policy



• Skill development to satisfy water demand without rationning water




• Diversification of hydraulic infrastructure to retain and manage Water Resources




• Progressive law adaptation




• Water is institutionalised and managed by 3 ministries



                                                                                     7
                                   Key Stakeholders




          Ministry of A.E.H.R             Ministry of E.T.P       Ministry of Public Health



                                                                   Laboratories and units



SONEDE   DGRE    DEGTH     CRDA   ONAS   APAL    DGAT      ANPE




                Regional                        Regional
                Agencies                        Agencies




                                                                                        8
                                    Key End-users



Agriculture


 • The major consumer of Land and Water



• Irrigated lands represent about a third of the hole agricultural areas




• Agriculture now uses about 83% of the country’s water resources




• Constitues a major source of pollution by nitrogen, phosphates and pesticides.



                                                                                   9
Tourism

• The touristic sector water consumption:      4.5 Mm3/year           (30 Mm3 / year)




Householders


•The drinking water supply consumption:      175.1 Mm3/year          (380 Mm3 / year)




Industry

• The industrial sector water consumption:    69.2 Mm3/year          (110 Mm3 / year)




                Wastewater is estimated to be about 275 Mm3 / year
                                                                                 10
Case study




             11
Geographic location




                      12
                                              Case study State



Area:                       1140 km2

Coastline length:           100 km

Extent:                     from Ras Sidi Ali Mekki to Ras Fartas

Coastline Type:             wide and numerous sandy beaches

Marine bottom Type:         Sandy and muddy




                    Area:                       630 km2

                    Coastline length:           53 km


                                                                    13
                             Case study state



• The increase in the economic and human activities terribly affects the coastline



• Two major rivers flow across the Gulf of Tunis

    1. in the north MEDJERDA river (1000Mm3/year)
    2. in the south MELIANE river (230 Mm3/year)


• The Gulf of Tunis undergoes:
    1. an urban development
    2. concentration of socio-economic activities




                        • Domestic wastewater
                        • Industrial wastewater
                        • runoff water
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                                          Data collection




1. Geographic data

 • Maps in 1/25.000 Scale


 • satellite images in different resolution
     (10 m, 2.5 m, and 1 meter)

 • Arial photographs



 • DEM in high resolution 25 meters



 • Coverages



 • View and simulation in 3 Dimensions



 • Land use maps
                                                            15
2. Meteorological data


 • Temperature time-series

 • Rainfall time-series

 • Wind speed and direction




3. socio-economic & bibliographic data




 • Statistics

 • National and regional reports ( state of environment – Land use Master Plans)

 • Studies


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                                 Conclusion




• We carried out many profitable studies about the Tunisian Water Resource
  Management



• The reports and results of much research study are difficult to be obtained
  from other institutions ( Lack of communication )



• Reinforce the relationship between local all partners


                                   
                        Information-holders
                                
                                
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posted:10/20/2011
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