Obligations for Atmospheric Sciences by Functional Area by StLouisFed



       456                  THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR               1966

          Overall funding for atmospheric research is significantly influenced
       by fluctuations in the costs of satellite development and flight activi-
       ties. These costs totaled $105 million in 1964 and $67 million and
       $68 million in 1965 and 1966 respectively (data excludes cost of launch
       and launch vehicles). Exclusive of satellite programs, funding for
       atmospheric sciences increased an average of 14% per year from 1962
       through 1965. A 17% increase is proposed in 1966.
          Increased funds for the National Science Foundation will permit ex-
       pansion of basic research activities in the universities and at the
       National Center for Atmospheric Research, where the lease of a
       significantly larger computer will enable scientists to attack more
       complex research problems. New facilities and equipment to in-
       crease the reliability of high altitude balloon launches will also be
       financed by the Foundation. The largest new Department of
       Defense project involves development of equipment to launch meteoro-
       logical sounding rockets from airplanes for use over the oceans. * The
       Weather Bureau, Department of Commerce, will augment its work
       in experimental meteorology. The Federal Aviation Agency will
       increase its activities related to the acquisition and processing of data
       having specialized aviation applications.
          Within the atmospheric sciences there are three principal fields of
       interest: (1) meteorology, primarily concerned with phenomena
       occurring within 50 kilometers of the earth's surface; (2) aeronomy or
       upper atmosphere research, concerned with phenomena at greater
       altitudes; and (3) studies of planetary atmospheres. The distribution
       of Federal support is as follows:
                               FUNCTIONAL AREA (in millions of dollars)

                                                                 1964         1965       1966
                                                                actual      estimate   estimate

       Meteorological research and service system development     122.8         93.7       116.3
       Upper atmosphere research                                   98.9         96.8        97.9
       Studies of planetary atmospheres.        _                   3.3          3.9         5.3
             Total                                                225.0        194.4      219.5

         Included in the amounts shown above for meteorological research
       are $42 million in 1965 and $52 million in 1966 for applied research
       and development whose principal purpose is to improve operational
       weather services. Slightly more than half of these amounts is for
       development of components for use in an operational meteorological
       satellite system. Projects to improve operational weather services
       are also reported in the detailed plan prepared by the Federal
          The national oceanographic program represents the coordinated
       research and survey efforts of nine agencies to improve our under-
       standing of the oceans in tfre pursuit of such national interests as
       defense, the exploitation of food and mineral resources, the improve-
       ment of weather forecasting, and the prevention of pollution. To

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