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1. Which of the following are characteristics of the Chordata? a. Notochord at some stage of development. b. Dorsal hollow nerve cord. c. Pharyngeal gill slits present at some stage of development d. Presence of an Endostyle. e. Muscular postanal tail f. Ventral heart with a closed circulatory system. g. Living bony or cartilaginous endoskeleton. 2. What defines a vertebrate? a. Presence of vertebrae b. Presence of sensory capsules. c. Presence of a cranium (hence the original name for the group: Craniata) d. Duplicated Hox gene (homeobox gene) e. Presence of neural crest tissue. f. Presence of a secondary palate. g. Presence of 2 occipital condyles. 3. For each of the hypotheses listed below, provide 2 supporting facts and 1 fact which argues against the hypothesis. a. Annelid Hypothesis i. For: ______________________________________________ ii. For: ______________________________________________ iii. Against: ______________________________________________ b. Arthropod i. For: ______________________________________________ ii. For: ______________________________________________ iii. Against: ______________________________________________ c. Echinoderm i. For: ______________________________________________ ii. For: ______________________________________________ iii. Against: ______________________________________________ iv. 4. Which of the following is not a general trend in the evolution of the vertebrate skeleton? a. Fusion and reduction of elements. b. Loss of indeterminant growth. c. Increased bone mass. d. Increased skeletal strength. e. Improved articulations. 5. What is the sequence of sensory capsules in the vertebrate cranium? a. Otic, Optic, Olfactory. b. Olfactory, Otic, Optic. c. Optic, Olfactory, Otic. d. Olfactory, Optic, Otic. 6. Meckel’s cartilage is a component of what portion of the cranium? a. Palatoquadrate. b. Dermocranium c. Splanchnocranium. d. Neurocranium. 7. What is the significance of the temporal fenestrae? a. Reduces skull weight. b. Provides a new avenue for the conduction of sound. c. Increases skull strength. d. Provides more space for muscle bodies, and muscle attachment. e. Allows the development of a quadrato-jugal jaw articulation. 8. What is the function of the secondary palate? a. Provides surface area for the manipulation of food. b. Enables the animal to eat and breath at the same time. c. Provides a resonating chamber for the amplification of sound. d. Provides surface area for teeth. e. Enables development of heterodonty. 9. Which of the following groups have a secondary palate? a. Turtles j. Sharks b. Crocodilians k. Rays c. Snakes l. Tunicates d. Newts m. Marsupials e. Frogs n. Placental mammals f. Salamanders o. Birds g. Fish p. Penguins h. Placoderms q. Lizards i. Ostracoderms r. Dinosaurs 10. Which of the following does not represent a general trend in the evolution of vertebrate teeth? a. Reduction in the extent of the dentine layer. b. Reduction in the number of bones where teeth are found. c. Change from continuous replacement to unimodal replacement. d. Change from homodonty to heterodonty. 11. Short Essay: Explain the evolution of the Mandibular Suspensorium as it relates to hearing. 12. Give an example of a skeletal element (and organism if necessary) that must accommodate each of the following forces: a. Compression: ____________________________________ b. Torsion: ____________________________________ c. Shear: ____________________________________ d. Tension: ____________________________________ 13. Give an example of each of the following types of joints: a. Synarthrosis: ____________________________________ b. Diarthrosis: ____________________________________ c. Amphiarthrosis: ____________________________________ 14. Consider the lever system drawn below. Label the both the effort arm and load arm for 1) the triceps, and 2) the biceps. 15. Terrestrialization has resulted in major changes in the axial skeleton. Which of the following changes can be attributed to the invasion of land, and increased level of locomotion? a. Regionalization of the vertebral column. b. Development of 2 occipital condyles. c. Loss of the hemal arches d. Loss of the tail. e. Reduction in number of ribs. f. Loss of cervical ribs. g. Change from an intercentrum to a pleurocentrum. h. Reduction in mass and anchoring of pelvic girdle. i. Reduction in mass and anchoring of pectoral girdle. j. Increase in number of sacral vertebrae. 16. Which of the following is not a theory for the evolution of limbs in fish (There may be more than one incorrect answer)? a. Fin-fold theory b. Body-spine theory c. Kniptor theory. d. Lateral undulation theory. 17. Which of the following circulatory systems did I describe as a ‘perfect’ system? a. It had a 2-chambered heart, a single respiratory structure, and no mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood. b. It had a 3-chambered heart, 2 respiratory structures, and minimal mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood. c. It had a 3 ½ -chambered heart, 1 respiratory structure, and virtually no mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood. d. It had a 4-chambered heart, a single respiratory structure, and no mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood. 18. What is the major difficulty with portal systems? a. There is mixing of O2 rich and O2 poor blood. b. There is a significant drop in blood pressure across the system. c. There is an excessive production of lymph. 19. The number of lymph hearts is reduced significantly as we move from salamanders to mammals. Why is this? a. Mammals produce less lymph. b. Mammals have portal systems to handle the lymph. c. Mammals rely on muscular activity to move lymph to the points of entry. d. Salamanders still have a metameric structure to their bodies, while mammals do not. 20. Short Essay: Explain why the 3 ½ chambered heart (and/or) the foramen of Panizi represent a ‘good thing’ for reptiles like crocodiles, turtles, and lizards. (Hint: what does it allow them to do?) 21. Recall our discussion of the evolution of the external glomerulus. Circle the letters of those statements that are true. Consider them in sequence only. a. Initially, the uriniferous tubule drains the splanchnocoele, and empties into the holonephric duct. b. In this system, each uriniferous tubule empties into the bladder via its own holonephric duct. c. In the aglomerular stage, the uriniferous tubule has an enlarged opening to the splanchnocoele called the peritoneal funnel. d. The peritoneal funnel serves to filter lymph from the splanchnoceole. e. Next, the peritoneal funnel is ‘invaginated’ by the early glomerulus, which is itself connected to a renal artery and a renal vein. f. The renal artery and renal vein now drain into the holonephric duct. g. The peritoneal funnel becomes constricted and forms Bowman’s capsule, while still draining the splanchnocoele. h. Finally, the peritoneal funnel becomes completely ‘pinched’ off, and the direct connection with the splanchnoceole is lost. 22. What is the significance of the evolution of the renal portal system? a. It reduces pressure inside the glomerulus. b. It improves the flow of lymph around the kidney. c. It permits the re-absorption of electrolytes and water from the tissue surrounding the loop of henle, the collecting ducts, and the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. d. It prevents the re-absorption of electrolytes and water from the tissue surrounding the loop of henle, the collecting ducts, and the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. 23. Recall our discussion osmotic regulation. Think about a vampire bat. Desmodus feeds strictly on a heavy blood meal (which has a high osmotic concentration), and must take off from the ground to fly (which is tough for a bat anyway). Essentially, even though they are in the tropics, vampire bats live as though they were desert species (diet), and must reduce weight to fly. Explain briefly how vampires might solve this problem. 24. Consider the diagram at right. We discussed this diagram in some detail in class. Notice that the osmotic concentration of the filtrate is 300 mOsm in the proximal convoluted tubule, and 300 mOsm in the distal convoluted tubule. What has been accomplished up to this point? 25. Which of the following represent strategies employed by camels to deal with water and heat? a. Temperature lability b. Torpor. c. Store water in the hump. d. Lipid metabolism. e. Can replace blood fluid from intracellular fluid. f. Able to sweat copiously from the back. g. Can lose 25% of their body weight as water. h. Use urea to metabolize protein. 26. Why did the Allies win the desert war in Africa, and the Axis lose? 27. List 3 ways that kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) are able to achieve water independence in the desert. a. ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________ 28. Why do the activiy patterns of male and female pinyon mice differ during the fall and winter months? (circle all that apply) a. Males are optimizing activity to reduce thermal stress. b. Females are optimizing activity to reduce thermal stress. c. Females must be active longer to repay the energetic debt associated with reproduction. d. Males must be active longer to repay the energetic debt associated with finding females and copulation. e. Males are concerned primarily with gaining access to females. f. Females are concerned primarily with insuring reproductive success. 29. Did the habitat use data for pinyon mice suggest they were selecting habitat carefully? a. Yes b. No. 30. List 2 solutions employed by birds to deal with xeric (dry/desert) conditions. a. _________________________________________________________ b. _________________________________________________________ 31. Paedomorphosis is an example of heterochrony. a. True b. False 32. Paedomorphosis is the retention of juvenile characteristics in an adult. a. True b. False 33. What evidence supports the hypothesis that the first vertebrates were fresh-water species? a. The presence of dermal armor. b. The presence of holonephric kidneys. c. The absence of jaws. d. The presence of fossils in freshwater deposits. 34. What is our definition of evolution? 35. Define the following terms a. Fact: __________________________________________________ b. Truth: __________________________________________________ c. Reality __________________________________________________ d. Belief __________________________________________________ e. Proof __________________________________________________ 36. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is the null hypothesis against which evolution is tested. a. True b. False 37. List the 5 observations of Charles Darwin. a. ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________ d. ________________________________________________________ e. ________________________________________________________ 38. What was Darwin’s conclusion? a. Survival of the fittest. b. Only the strong survive. c. Fitness increases monotonically with time. d. Those organisms with better forms of variation will survive longer and reproduce more often than those with ‘poorer’ forms of variation e. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is impossible. f. All organisms exist in a state of static disequilibrium. 39. What conditions must be met for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to be true? a. ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________ c. ________________________________________________________ d. ________________________________________________________ 40. Selection which favors one extreme of the phenotype distribution over another is refered to as: a. Stabilizing selection b. Directional selection. c. Disruptive selection. d. Kin selection e. Group selection. 41. Do lemmings commit suicide? ______ What does this say about group selection?______ a. True / true b. True / false c. False / true d. False / false 42. The fact that the average human baby weighs about 7 lbs at birth is an example of a. Stabilizing selection b. Directional selection. c. Disruptive selection. d. Kin selection e. Group selection. 43. Match the following terms with its appropriate definition. a. Adaptationism b. Gradualism 1. The idea that evolution proceeds toward a specific goal. 2. The idea that evolution proceeds via acquisition of c. Determinism desired characteristics. d. Progressivism 3. The idea that we are constrained very strictly by our genetic heritage. 4. The idea that modern life forms are better than earlier life forms. 5. The idea that all evolutionary change is slow and stately. 6. The idea that organisms are perfectly adapted. 7. The idea that all evolutionary change requires variation 44. Homology can be defined as a. Similarity in structure resulting from exposure to similar selective environments. b. Similarity in structure resulting from common ancestry. c. Similarity in structure resulting from similar function. d. Similarity in structure resulting from similar design constraints. 45. Give an example of convergent evolution in vertebrates.
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