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					                                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



        Robotics, Autonomous Systems, and Control -
                     CSM Capabilities


                                      Kevin L. Moore
              G.A. Dobelman Distinguished Chair and Professor of Engineering
            Director, Center for Automation, Robotics, and Distributed Intelligence


                                            Division of Engineering
                                           Colorado School of Mines
                                              Golden, Colorado


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Outline
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
 Colorado School
 of Mines
                                                                  COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




 Located in Golden, Colorado, USA
 10 miles West of Denver




                                           CSM sits in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains

                                           CSM has about 300 faculty and 4000 students

                                           CSM is a public research institution devoted to
                                            CARDI
                                           engineering and applied science, especially:
                                             • Discovery and recovery
                                            •14 faculty, resources of resources and energy
                                             • Conversion of
                                                              interdisciplinary
                                                                      to materials
                                            •Electrical,advanced processes and products
                                             • Utilization in Mechanical, Civil
                                             • Economic and
                                            •Computer social systemsof resources in a
                                                                          necessary
                                                              Science, Math to ensure
                                               prudent and provident use
                                            •Bio-medicine,society
                                               sustainable global Bio-mechanics
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                                                            COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

    Degrees at CSM
  (Grad and Undergrad)
                                                                Degrees pursued by major
  •     Chemistry                          1200

  •     Chemical Eng                       1000
  •     Economics/Business
                                            800
  •     Engineering
  •     Environmental Science/Eng           600

  •     Geochemistry                        400

  •     Geology and Geological Eng          200
  •     Geophysics and Geophysical Eng
  •     Math/Computer Science                 0
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        Material Science
                                               H
                                              C



  •     Mining and Earth Systems Eng
  •     Metallurgical and Materials Eng
  •     Petroleum Engineering
  •     Physics
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Engineering Division
                                                                                 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

      •     B.S. in Engineering with Specialties in
              –    Civil
              –    Electrical
              –    Environmental
              –    Mechanical
      •     M.S/Ph.D. in Engineering Systems
              –    Civil
              –    Electrical
              –    Environmental
              –    Mechanical
      •     Bioengineering and Life Sciences Minor
              – Includes biomedical engineering, biophysics
              – Pre-Medical & Life Sciences
      •     5-year Programs (BS+MS)
              – Engineering Physics
              – Engineering Systems
              – Environmental Science
      •     Humanitarian Engineering Minor
              – The application of math, science, and engineering to improve the wellbeing of under-
                served populations

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Research (Control-Oriented view)
                                                                   COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

     •     Materials
            – Nuclear
            – Welding
     •     Energy
            – “Traditional” (e.g., Petroleum Institute)
            – Combustion
            – Renewable
                  Colorado Fuel Cell Center
                  Power Electronics for Hybrid Renewable System
                  Solar (PV materials, thermal, systems)
                  Wind
     •     Center for Space Resources
            – Insitu resource utilization
            – Lunar, Martian exploration
     •     Geo-Sciences/Mining
     •     Environmental Sciences/Hydrology
     •     “Intelligent” Geosystems
     •     EE and CARDI Activities

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     EE Research Areas and Applications
                                                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


                                            Power
                                                             Renewable   Signal and
                                           Systems
                                                              Energy       Image
                                                                         Processing


  Power
Electronics                                                                 Robotics



                                                                          Wireless
                                                                          Communications



                                                     Humanitarian
               Control Systems                       Engineering

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
 EE Research Areas and CSM’s Mission
                                                                                     • RoboticCOLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
                                                                                               welding
                                                                                     • Welding process control
  EARTH’S REOURCES                                                                   • Control of plasma processes
                                                                                     • PV manufacturing process control
   • Discovery and
     recovery
                                                                  MATERIALS
                                                                   • Utilization in advanced
     • Robotics for mining                                           processes and products
       - Image processing
     • Mine safety
                                                                  ENERGY
       - Control systems
       - Sensor networks                                           • Generation, conversion,
                                                                     and distribution
           • Power transmission and distribution
           • Renewable energy                                                       ENVIRONMENT
             - Wind power                                                            • Economic and social systems
             - Fuel cell control
             - Hybrid power system coordination                                        necessary to ensure prudent
                                                                                       and provident use of
                                           • Humanitarian engineering                  resources in a sustainable
                                           • Robotics for security applications        global society
                                           • Biomedical engineering
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                             - Image processing
     Center for Robotics, Automation, and
     Distributed Intelligence (CARDI)
                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • CSM research center focused on
        – Control systems, robotics, sensing (especially vision) and
           communication networks, machine learning and intelligence,
           ad hoc mobile networks, sensor networks
     • Applications to problems of concern at CSM, including:
        – Environment, energy, natural resources, materials,
           transportation, structures, geotechnical, information,
           communications, networking, medicine, and data mining
     • Problems requiring multi-disciplinary systems approach to
       integrate technologies from the different disciplines
        – 14 faculty
        – Electrical, mechanical, civil, computer science, mathematics
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CARDI Research Areas and Applications
                                                                                                    COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


                               Environment                                              Biomedical
                              3D Stereo Mapping
                                                                                                Medical
                                                                                                Imaging



                                                                 Robotics
                        Control                                                             Sensor Networks
                                                     Stereo-Vision for
                                                  Welding Automation
        Wind Turbine
          Control




    Communications                                                                             Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
    Reconfigurable
                                           Automation                    Distributed Intelligence
    Wireless Nodes



                       Control of                      Activity
                          Plasma                       Identification
                        Processes

      Manufacturing                                           Data Mining

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Control Systems-Related Research
                                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

     • CSM EE/ME/CE/CARDI faculty conduct both theoretical and applied
       research in control systems:
             – Fault detection and identification (Vincent)
             – Control of material processing (Moore, Vincent)
             – Autonomous systems and robot control (mobile, arms, and mobile arms) (Moore,
               Steele, Vincent, Hoff)
             – Coordinated control for robotics and UAVs (Moore)
             – Vision-based navigation and control (Moore, Vincent, Hoff)
             – Augmented reality (Hoff, Vincent)
             – Intelligent sensing for geo-systems applications (Mooney)
             – Sensor networks (Moore, Weiss, Colagrosso)
             – Welding control (Hoff, Moore, Steele, Vincent)
             – Learning control, intelligent control (Moore, Simoes)
             – Adaptive control (Johnson)
             – Wind energy applications (Johnson)
             – Distributed coordination/control of renewable energy (Johnson, Simoes)
             – Power electronics for hybrid energy control (Simoes)
             – Fuel cell system controllers (Moore, Simoes)
             – System engineering (Moore, Steele)
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Outline
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Robotics
                                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

     • CSM has a long legacy of robotics-related activity
     • CSM faculty and staff have significant robotics-related expertise
        – Mechanism Design
        – Robotic Manipulators
        – Mobile Robots
        – Cooperative robotics
        – UAVs
        – Vision-based robotics; Augmented reality
        – User Interfaces
        – System engineering
        – Applications: mining and lunar exploration
        – Commercialization

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Robots
                                                                        COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

                                            Martin Marietta BatMobile
       NASA Contest
                                                                    Concept design for
                                                                     In-situ resource
                                                                        utilization


    NSF REU Arm                            SAE Walking Machine




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                                  Weederbot III
                                                                                  COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
                                           2005            Senior Design        2006
                                                  (supervised by John Steele)




               Autonomous Mower Project

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Mobile Manipulators (Mobile ARMS)
                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    •     Human-robot interaction
    •     Autonomous Pick-and-Place
    •     Visual Servoing
    •     Based on the
          ODIS Platform
          used in theatre




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
 3D Models for Navigation and Manipulation
                                                                                         COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


                                                                                               Robotics can be
                                                                                               used to
                                                                                               automate
                                                                                               load/haul/dump
                                                                                               vehicles




                                                                 Automation of Load/Haul/Dump
                                                                   • Remove miners from operating area

                                                                 Stereo vision is used for
                                                                   • Guidance
                                                                   • Map building
                                                                   • Collision avoidance
                 50m Long Mine Model
                 (green from laser ranger, yellow from stereo)                 Faculty: Steele and Vincent
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Autonomous Robots built by Kevin Moore’s Team at
     Utah State
                                                              COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

               T1 -1998
                                                  T2 -1998   ODIS I -2000




                                                                T4 -2003




                                           T3 -1999
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines                     (Hydraulic drive/steer)
     Autonomous Tractors and Unique Mobility Robots built
     by Kevin Moore’s Team at Utah State
                                                       COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


        Automated Tractor Projects
        (CSOIS Spin-Off, Autonomous Solutions, Inc.)




           Unique Mobility Robots




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                                                     COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

          “Putting Robots in Harm’s Way So People Aren’t”
           ODIS – the Omni-Directional Inspection System
                                   An ODV Application: Physical Security




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     From Intelligent Behavior to
     Cooperative Autonomy…
                                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
 •     Seek a single machine that can do both of the following tasks via semantic (verbal)
       instruction from a (human) supervisor:


                                     Load a trailer          Cooperatively weld a pipe




 • Humans can do this!
 • How do we make a group of robots that can also do this?

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
    Mote-Based Distributed Robots
                                                COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




                     Prototype
                  plume-tracking
                testbed developed
                 by Moore at USU




                                           Robotic wireless
                                           networks for
                                           remote video
                                           streaming - Weiss


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
Wireless 802.11g Video Streaming through a Robot MANET
                                                                                            COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




        Laptop and Starting Position




                  Laptop

             3
             2
             1       Hallway 1
                      (~6m)

                                                                                                    Robot Monitoring
  ~2m
                                                                                                        Software on
                                   3
                                                                                                          Laptop
                                 Hallway 2                                                           (video feed from
                                  (~20m)
                                             2
                                                                                                       lead robot on
                                                     Hallway 3
                                                      (~10m)                                            upper right)
          Stopping positions of robots
                  (blue dots)
                                                                 Lead Robot with Video Camera
                                                 1                                                Faculty: Weiss
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Outline
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Other Control-Related Research
                                                              COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • Faculty conduct both theoretical and applied research in
       areas related to robotics and control systems:
             –     Welding Control (Moore, Vincent, Steele)
             –     Material Processing (Moore, Vincent)
             –     Intelligent Sensing and Control (Mooney, Steele)
             –     Computer Vision (Hoff, Vincent)
             –     Wireless system design (Weiss)
             –     Sensor networks (Colagrosso, Moore, Weiss)




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
    Robotic Welding
                                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




                                                  Rectified Stereo Image Pair




                                           Faculty: Steele, Vincent, and Hoff
          Derived surface of weld pool
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
         Welding Control and Control of Material
         Processing
                                             COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    • Control of Materials Processing
       – Foundry Cupola
       – Gas Metal Arc Welding
       – PV Material Manufacturing




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Smart Bit Technology: Force Sensing for
  Manipulation (Steele)
                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

       Sensory Goals
       • In-Situ measurements
       • Bit wear indicator
       • Horizon detection
       • Performance indicators
       • Improve Mind-Machine link


                                                         (20-mile Longwall)

                                               Equipment Application
                                               • Radial borers
                                               • Continuous miners
                                               • Longwall shearers
                          (Continuous Miner)

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
              Mike Mooney
              Intelligent
           Soil Compaction
      (funded by NSF & NCHRP)
                                                                    COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



   Objectives:
   (1) Develop the relationships between                 Forward
   vibration properties of roller
   compactor and underlying soil
   properties relevant to design
   (2) Improve our understanding of
                                            eccentric   accelerometer
   how feedback control might improve
   soil compaction
   (3) Improving parameter estimation
   via geolocation data, multiple passes,
   etc.                                                             V = 2-4 m/s

                                                                   200-300 mm soil


                                                                    Layers of previously
                                                                    compacted soil; possible
                                                                    near surface bedrock




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
         Iterative Learning Control (Moore)
                                                                                   COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    • Paradigm for systems that operate repetitively

                                                  Current Trial's                Current Trial's
                                                  Input                          Output

                                                                        Plant




                                       Next Trial's
                                       Input
                                                            Iterative
                                                           Learning             Desired
                                                           Controller           Output



                            uk 1 (t )  uk (t )  f ( yd (t  1)  yk (t  1))
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Iterative Learning Control Applications
                                                                 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    • Iterative Learning Control
       – Paradigm for controlling systems that repeat the same
          operation over and over
    • New applications
       – Develop new approach called multi-pass ILC
       – Vision-based ILC (also for multi-pass problems)
       – nD ILC (e.g., irrigation control)




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Vision/User Interface; Augmented Reality
     (Hoff)
                                              COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



      A system to
  recognize gestures,
   for the purpose of
     robot control




                                              Constructing scene models
                                                 from stereo vision



           Augmented reality system
           developed at CSM                Registration of
                                             range data

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
         Activity Identification and
         Visualization (Hoff)
                                                                            COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

                                                   Problem: Detect and identify unusual or
                                                      suspicious activities in surveillance
                                                      data




                                                                                         Cars and
                                                                                         bicycles are
                                                                                         labeled
                                                                                         green and
                                                                                         yellow


        Statistical measures (eg, chi-square)
            signal how unusual a track is from
            the rest of the scene, and compare                                            Person
            two scenes                                                                    handing
                                                                                          out flyers is
        Interactive visualization tools enable                                            labeled red
            analyst to pick salient features for
            machine learning
                                                                  Faculty: Hoff and Lee
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Outline
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Research in telecommunications focuses
  on mobile computing and networking
                                                                  COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


                                               • Research areas:
                                                   – How to connect mobile
                                                     computers (laptops,
                                                     palmtops, etc) to the Internet
                                                   – How to create ad hoc
                                                     networks on demand
                                                         • one unit may be connected to
                                                           some wired network
                                                         • how to create and maintain
                                                           network connectivity
                                                         • previous infrastructure is
                                                           demolished or non-existent
                                                   – Quality of service
                Faculty: Camp, Navidi, Colagrosso, Liu


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
      Potential Applications of Ad Hoc Networks
                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Autonomously Reconfigurable Systems
                                                                             COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

    • Consider an underground mine




      Legend:              Flows of people, material   Flow of information
                           Flows of air                Fixed radio node
                          Toxic gas                    Mobile radio node

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
Add sensors and flows of people, material, and air




 Legend:    Flows of people, material   Flow of information
            Flows of air                Fixed radio node
           Toxic gas                    Mobile radio node
Suppose a hazardous gas develops




 Legend:    Flows of people, material   Flow of information
            Flows of air                Fixed radio node
           Toxic gas                    Mobile radio node
The system should autonomously-reconfigure to
redirect flows of people, material, and air




 Legend:    Flows of people, material   Flow of information
            Flows of air                Fixed radio node
           Toxic gas                    Mobile radio node
                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                       Sensor node
                       VDSL node

                       Phone cable




              See live demo at
http://ore.mines.edu/~mcolagro/edgarmine/
     Outline
                                             COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Control-Related Energy Research at CSM
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • The Electrical Engineering group at CSM is involved
       in three main areas of electrical energy research

             – Distribution and transmission
             – Control and coordination
             – Power electronics


     • Other faculty in the Engineering Division and other
       CSM departments are also involved in electrical
       energy generation research.

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     The future of electrical energy
                                                                                         COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

  • Energy will be
    introduced to the
    grid from a variety
    of sources
  • Distributed
    generation with
    non-traditional
    resources is less
    predictable and
    more difficult to
    control
  • Could eventually
    see emergence of
    the “smart grid” or
    “Enernet” (energy                      Figure courtesy of Ben Kroposki (National Renewable Energy Laboratory),
                                           and Janet Ginsburg (“Reinventing the Power Grid” in Business Week, February
    network)                               26, 2001 pp.106-107).
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     CSM Electrical Faculty Energy Research
     Interests
                                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • A key factor for clean, efficient energy is management and control
     • Specific CSM EE area of interests include:
        – Control of distributed and conventional generation sources and
          associated manufacturing processes
             Turbine control in wind; balance-of-plant control in fuel cells;
               combined thermal/power management systems in concentrating solar
               power; PV manufacturing
        – Control of power flow in hybrid energy systems
             Coordination of turbines in a wind farm; “smart” inverters/converters
        – Control of power flow into and out of the grid
             Anti-islanding/ prevention of cascading failures/“robust grid”; power
               quality/reliability; grid synchronization
        – Economically-driven grid/resource management
             “Smart grid”; “Ener-net” = Energy + Network

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
               Photovoltaic Solar Collector Field
                                                                                                          The “Grid”


                                                                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

                                                              PV Field
                                                           Sensor Network
                                                            and Controller

                                                                           Switching/Inverter
                                                                    Substation & Power Conditioning
    Thermal Solar Energy
       Collector Field



                                                                                                                       Auxiliary
                                      Power Plant                                                                       Storage
                                 (Steam or Direct-to-H2)




                 Integrated Roof w/
              Thermal/PV Solar Energy                                                                                    Load
                                                                                             Fuel Cells                Balancing
                                                SCADA System




                                                                  Smart Data Bus

                                                                                     Wind and Other Non-Solar     .
                                                                                                                  .       .
                                                                                                                          .
                Control Room                                                        Renewable Energy Generation   .       .
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
               Photovoltaic Solar Collector Field
                                                        • PV Manufacturing
                                                           – Tyrone Vincent
                                                                        COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
                                                           – Bob Kee


                                                    • Fuel Cell Control
                                                       – Marcelo Simoes
                                                       – Kevin Moore


                       • Wind Turbine/Wind
                         Farm Control                                    Fuel Cells

                          – Katie Johnson
                          – Marcelo Simoes
                          – Kevin Moore                           Wind and Other Non-Solar     .
                                                                                               .   .
                                                                                                   .
                                                                 Renewable Energy Generation   .   .
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                           • Substation-to-Grid Transmission SCHOOL OF MINES
                                                                         COLORADO

                                              – P.K. Sen
                                              – Sid Suryanarayanan




                                    • Auxiliary Units-to-Substation
                                      Transmission
                                       – P.K. Sen
                                       – Sid Suryanarayanan




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                               • Microgrids
                                                 – Marcelo SimoesCOLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

                                                 – Sid Suryanarayanan

                                                        Switching/Inverter
                                                 Substation & Power Conditioning
  • Inverter Power
    Electronics
     – Marcelo Simoes                                                                  Auxiliary
                                                                                        Storage


                                           • Auxiliary Storage/Load
                                             Balancing/Coordination
                                                                                         Load
                                              – Marcelo Simoes                         Balancing


                                              – Katie Johnson
                                              – P.K. Sen
                                              – Kevin Moore                        .
                                                                                   .      .
                                                                                          .
                                                                                   .      .
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                                                              • Instrumentation and
                                                                                     COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

                                                         PV Field
                                                      Sensor Network
                                                                                Control: Smart Grids
                                                       and Controller
                                                                                 – Marcelo Simoes
                                                                                 – Kathryn Johnson
                                                                                 – Kevin Moore
                                                                                 – Tyrone Vincent
                                                                                 – P.K. Sen
                                                                                 – Sid Suryanarayanan


                                           SCADA System




                                                             Smart Data Bus




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
    Control applications in PV
    materials processing (Vincent, Kee)
                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



    We have worked with major PV suppliers
     • ITN Energy Systems (Littleton, CO)
     • Global Solar (Tucson, AZ)
     • First Solar (Perrysburg, OH)
     • Ascent Solar (Littleton, CO)
     • PrimeStar Solar (Golden)

    Thin film technologies
     • Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (ITN, Global, Ascent)
     • Cadmium-telluride (First Solar, PrimeStar)

    Modeling and design capabilities
     • Thermal systems
     • Chemically reacting flow
     • Model-based process control
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Theoretical Basis: Structured Nonlinear
     System Identification
                                                                    COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

      •     Goal: Identification of components in an interconnected system




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
        First-Solar’s CdTe process is based on a
        particle-injection CVD process
                                                   COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




                                                   Glass substrate




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
        Modeling and simulation support design and
        control enhancement of the CIGS process
                                                              COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
                                           Plume models
                                             • Direct Simulation Monte Carlo
                                             • Beam shape on web
                                             • Haystacking near nozzles
                                           Transition flow models
                                             • Gas dynamics in nozzles
                                             • Propensity for spit formation
                                           Melt-pool convection
                                            • Buoyancy and surface-tension
                                            • Flow instabilities
                                           Thermal models
                                            • Three-dimensional finite element
                                            • Conduction and radiation
                                           Control strategies
                                            • Model-based control


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
    Identification and modeling play an important role
    in developing advanced control architectures
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
 Hybrid Power Control for Renewable Energy
 ( Kathryn Johnson)
                                                            COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




     • Wind turbine optimization and
       control                                                      Turbine
             – adaptive controller validated both                    Model
               in simulation and field tests
                                                    Wind
             – annual increase in energy of more
               than 5%                              Input
                                                                   Adaptive
     • Control of hybrid renewable energy                          Controller
       systems
             –    solar
             –    wind
             –    fuel cells
             –    batteries
             –    hydrogen



Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Adaptive Torque Control of Variable Speed Wind
  Turbines
                                                                                                           COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



                                                        1000                                               •   Turbine is
                                                                                                               stopped when
                                                        800
                                                                          Wind
                                                                          Turbine: Standard Control
                                                                                                               wind is too slow
                                                                          Turbine: Adaptive Control            or too fast.
                                                                                                           •
                                           Power (kW)
                                                        600                                                    Turbine power is
                                                                                                               limited in
                                                        400
                                                                                                               moderately high
                                                                                                               winds.
                                                        200                                                •   Adaptive control
                                                                                                               can increase
                                                                                                               turbine power in
                                                          0
                                                           0   5      10     15         20            25       lower wind
                                                                   Wind Speed (m/s)                            speeds.




             Energy capture can be increased by 5 – 6%,
             leading to a similar decrease in cost of wind
             energy.
                                                                                          Faculty: Johnson
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
            Non-trivial interconnection
                                                   COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES
            to the distribution grid




                                           Must be fault-tolerant and
                                           refrain from contributing
                                           to grid faults
       Multiple control levels


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                              Grid
 Multi-Resolution
 Wind Farm
 Simulator                                                                     Models of Grid and      Hardware-in-the-loop


                                                                               Grid Interconnection, SCHOOL OF MINES
                                                                                           COLORADO
                       Wind Farm                                               possibly with SCADA
                                           Substation               Storage    Hardware-in-the-
                                                                               Loop using RTDS
                                                                               Dedicated Simulation
                                                                               System



                                                                    Load
                                              SCADA/
                                              Power Electronics
                                                        Models of Turbines, Substation and Power
                                                        Electronics, Storage and Voltage Control,
                                                        and Control Systems Simulated using
                                                        Power-Industry Standard Software such as
                                                        PSCAD and MATLAB




                                           CFD Models of Turbine Blades Simulated for
                                           Realistic Wind Velocity Flow Fields using
                                           Golden Energy Computing Organization’s 10+
                                           teraflop Linux cluster
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
Power Electronics and Control (Marcelo Simoes)
                                                                         COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES



                   Research Theme: Intelligent Control for Energy Conversion
                   and Interconnection of Renewable Energy Systems
                   •     Power electronics for efficient energy conversion
                   •     Intelligent control as applied to energy conversion
                   •     Modeling and control of microgrids
                   •     Methods and systems for maximum photovoltaic energy capturing and
                         conditioning
                   •     Wind turbine variable speed systems
                   •     Energy storage for renewable energy conditioning
                   •     Hybrid renewable energy systems
                   •     Fault tolerant systems for interconnection of renewable energy to the
                         grid


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
Transient Storage Compensation of Fuel
Cells Response with Batteries                                                                 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




Bi-Directional Power Converter:




M. Michon, J.L. Duarte, M. Hendrix and M. Godoy Simões, “A three-port bi-directional converter for hybrid fuel cell systems” 35th
IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC), Aachen, Germany, June 20-25, 2004
 Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Coordinated Balance-of-Plant/ Hybrid Power System
  Components Control for Fuel-Cell Based Systems
                                                  COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • Typical application treats the fuel cell, auxiliary
       components, and load separately:




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
  Coordinated Balance-of-Plant/ Hybrid Power System
  Components Control for Fuel-Cell Based Systems
                                                     COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     • Bi-Directional power converter enables coordinated approach:




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Toward the “EnerNet” of the Future
                                                                                                                COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

    Every home
    a micro-grid                                                                                         Today’s grid evolves
                                Fuel Cell
                                                                                                          to a large(r)-scale
          Wind                                                                                          (than today) complex
                                                                 Power
                                                                                                           adaptive system
         Solar                                                                                                            Fuel Cell
                                                                 Data                                          Wind

                                                                                                               Solar
                                                                                          Central
                  Storage              Gas Gen                                           Generation                 Storage Gas Gen

                                                                                                                                        Wind    Fuel Cell

                                                                                                                                       Solar

                                                                                                            Wind       Fuel Cell          Storage Gas Gen

                                                                                                            Solar
                                                        Wind     Fuel Cell
                                                                                                               Storage Gas Gen
                                                        Solar                             Cooperative                                          Fuel Cell
                                                                                                                                      Wind
                                                            Storage Gas Gen               Generation
                                                                                                                                      Solar

                                            Wind    Fuel Cell                                                                            Storage Gas Gen
                                                                       Wind       Fuel Cell
                                                                                                            Central
                                            Solar
                                                                       Solar                               Generation
                                               Storage Gas Gen
                                                                             Storage Gas Gen


Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
                                                            COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES




                     Credit: Damon Dougherty – Industry Manager, Intergraph

Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     Outline
                                               COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


     •     Introduction
     •     Robotics
     •     Other Control-Related Research
     •     Sensor Networks
     •     Renewable Energy-Related Control Research




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     New Directions -1
                                                             COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

       Robotic Material Handling and Processes
       in Mining Applications
      • Processes Characterized by Force Interaction
        Between Actuators and Materials                Automated LHD system
      • Automated load-haul-dump (LHD) vehicles          developed at CSM
      • Automated shoveling in open-pit mining
      • Downstream operations that are dirty,
        difficult, dull, or dangerous
               – Material loading to/from rail cars
               – Robotic search and rescue
                        Rubble clearing
                        Airhole boring

        Robotic Applications in Oil and Gas
         • Robotic roustabout
         • Automated maintenance of oil derricks
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     New Directions -2
                                                             COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

       Robotic Welding Systems

  • Mobile (or portable) robotic welding systems
           – Service and repair industry focus
           – Shipbuilding and construction
  • On-line fault detection and diagnostics      Robotic welding system at CSM
  • Focus on infrastucture applications
           – Outdoors
           – Hazardous
           – Heavy industry
  • Robotic pipefitting applications




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
     New Directions -3
                                                                COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

           Mobile manipulation and mobile robots integrated with
           building automation infrastructure and other data bases
    • Medical facility and security applications
    • Virtual presense for quarantined patients (idea from
      National Institues for Medical Infomatics Media
      Lab (http://www.imedi.org/docs/references/mr.htm)       • Patient manipulation:
       – Sterilizing floors (an enhanced Roomba)                RIMAN Robot (Japan)
       – Delivering lab specimens (like the little robots
          zipping around the DeathStar in Star Wars)
       – Pulling patients on stretchers to rooms
       – Performing perfect CPR
       – Performing basic aspects of the physical exam
          (looking at pupils, listening to lungs and heart)
       – Etc.
Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines
 New Directions -4
                                                      COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES


    Patient-specific rehabilitation and therapeutic robotics

                                           Patient           Model-based
                                           specific         patient-specific
            Interrogation and               model        therapy prescription
           characterization of
                  injury


                                                         Therapeutic program
                                                            specification for
                                                          rehabilitation robot




Kevin L. Moore, Colorado School of Mines

				
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