The 2 International
Symposium on Medicinal
Their Cultivation and
Aspects of Uses
Petra Marriot Hotel
3-4 November, 2010
المملكت األردنيت الهاشميت
رقم اإليداع لدي دائزة المكتبت الىطنيت
يتحمل المؤلف كامل المسؤوليت القانىنيت عن محتىي مصنفه و ال يعبز هذا المصنف
عن رأي دائزة المكتبت الىطنيت أو أي جهت حكىميت أخزي
THE 2nd INTERNATIONAL
SYMPOSIUM ON MEDICINAL PLANTS,
THEIR CULTIVATION AND ASPECTS OF
PETRA MARRIOT HOTEL
3-4 November, 2010
Chairman: Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish
Al-Balqa' Applied University
Chief in Editor:
Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish
Al-Balqa' Applied University
Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh
Dr. Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat
د. محمـد سـند أبو درويش
م. زياد حمدان محمود أبو ديه
د. أحمد حســين الفريحـات
It is a great pleasure to welcome you on my own behalf, and on behalf of
steering, and scientific committees of The 2nd International Symposium on
Medicinal Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses, as you are meeting
here in the Red–Rose city of Petra; which is famous with its history and
civilization. A city that was a commercial as well as a cultural center where
caravans met to continue their ways from east to west. Today, we are here
again for the second time, to meet these elite scientists and researchers,
from different countries of the world. They came from famous universities,
institutes, and research centers to present their result's researches in an
old- renewable science (Plant Science). A science in which agriculture,
pharmacy, medicine, and biology have interfered. By this, we confirm that
humans and humanity are linked to the nature, craving to return to it,
conserving it too. We also confirm that our scientific research will continue,
deeping into the knowledge of medicinal plants -been cultivated, harvested,
used, and studied in the laboratory- until being manufactured to various
forms. It will be away to modernize the originality, and to originate the
This conference will deal with your various, scientific researches in medicinal
plants the following main topics: Using medicinal plants and their extracts in
the pharmacological activities, Ethno-pharmacological studies on it, Using
medicinal plants as food additives in food recipes, Quality control and
standardization of its products, Their conventional and organic cultivation and
Impact of cultivation on their biodiversity, Climate change and ethno-
botanical sources, Ethno-veterinary and animal nutrition practices of
medicinal plants, Using of their extracts as parts of integrated pest
management programs, New approaches in bio-fuel production and their
Keynotes speakers, who came from different scientific institutes, will talk to
us in order to enrich our conference with researches through their long –
year's scientific research. This conference will create a great opportunity to
communicate between participants; it is also a chance to exchange ideas and
experiences, however, this chance will ease their future communication in
order to hold new prospects of scientific co-operation.
This conference is a result of your participation, and the effort of members
of steering, scientific, and executive committees. Not only this, it is also a
result of partnership with private Jordanian institutions that contributed to
success of the conference, like: The Hashemite Fund for Development of
Jordan Badia, Jordan River Foundation, Ministry of Planning, Hikma
Pharmaceuticals PLC, The Housing Bank for Trade & Finance, VAPCO Company
for Veterinary Medicines, DELASS for Natural Products, Altoor Company For
Olive Products, and ICAMP. All thanks and appreciation for you and them.
I would like to extend my thanks to the Presidency of Al- Balqa Applied
University represented by its president Professor Khleif Al-Tarawneh for
supporting this conference. Once again, I welcome you in the Hashemite
Kingdom of Jordan. A country where the Hashemite leadership and its people
want to be full of love, goodness and peace.
We wish you all to enjoy a fruitful and stimulating meeting.
Dr. Mohammad Sanad Abu Darwish
Al-Balqa' Applied University
Chairman of the Symposium
Honorary Prof. Khleif Al-Tarawneh
Chairman: Al-Balqa’ Applied University
Chairman of the Dr.Mohammad Sanad Abu-Darwish
Organizing Committee: Al-Balqa’ Applied University
Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh
Dr. Ahmad Al-Fraihat
Dr. Sati Al-Dalain
Dr. Abed Alrzaq Al-Shqirate
Mohammad Sanad Abu-Darwish (Chairman)/Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan
Alain Meybeck / AM Phyto-Conseil, France.
Carlos Garbisu / Neiker-Tecnalia,Spain.
Caroline Weckerle / University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Fatma Afifi / University of Jordan.
Kyslychenko V.C. / National University of Pharmacy,Ukraine
Kyung-Dong Lee /Dongshin University ,Korea
Mohamed R.A. Rashwan / Assiut University, Egypt
Ziad H.M. Abu-Dieyeh / Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Jordan
Ahmad Al-Fraihat/ Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Jordan
Faisal Awawdah / National Center for Agric. Res. and Exten., NCARE, Jordan.
Kamal Khairallah / Ministry of Planning, Jordan.
Mohammad Khraisha / Jordan Food and Drug Administration, JFDA, Jordan.
Nasri Haddad / Inter. Center for Agric. Res. in the Dry Areas, ICARDA, Jordan.
Nemer Hadadin / Ministry of Agriculture, Jordan.
Omar Al- Rafie / Hashemite Fund for Development of Jordan Badia, Jordan.
Abdelrahman Tawaha / Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan.
Anwar Elhalah / Jordan River Foundation ,JRF, Jordan.
Ezz Al-Dein Al-Ramamneh / Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Jordan.
Hashem Taha / Delass Natural Products, Jordan.
Mufeed Batarseh / Mu'tah University, Jordan.
Rida Shibli / University of Jordan, Jordan.
Mohammed Al-Uwadat / JUST, Jordan
Chairman: Dr. Ahmad Al-fraihat
Mohammed Raja Shkeerat
Mohammad Hassan Al-Bdour
Mohammed Talal Al-Bdour
Mohammed Ahmed Al-Bdour
AFaf Adullah Al-Rafyha
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses
Topic 1: The pharmacological activities of medicinal plants and their extracts.
1.1 Phytomedicines Used by the Santal Tribal People of the District Purulia, West
Bengal, INDIA, for the Purpose of Contraception: an Experimental Approach on
A. Maiti and C.K.Manna
Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, Nadia, West
Abstract: The medicinal plants have been used since ancient times for the treatment of
human ailments. Amongst the various types of tribal people, the Santals of the district
Purulia, still continuing this type of practice from time immemorial. Purulia district of
West Bengal is situated at the eastern part of INDIA. It is provided with a good number of
aboriginal and tribal communities, diversified plant species. One of the key health issues
associated with biodiversity is that of drug discovery and the availability of medicinal
resources. A significant proportion of drugs are derived, directly or indirectly from
biological sources. In order to make an on the spot study of the major folk utilization of
the plants extensive field surveys were conducted time to time and the information were
collected from the interview report of the medicine men. According to their belief (Ojha),
the plant parts are usually collected from the different heights of the small and large hills
during the time of Full moon/ New moon in an extremely clean condition. These parts are
usually dedicated to the God/Goddess and prepare the medicines (Swapnanta medicines)
with other ingredients (Kaviraji or chemicals) in the form of talans. Some are quite
important from the standpoint of contraception. Amongst the various types of
preparations used by the Santal Medicine men of the District Purulia, the root extract of
Achyranthes aspera L. was selected for the present experimental study of antifertility
activity in the male albino mice. Oral administration of 50% methanolic root extract of
Achyranthes aspera ( Apang, common Santal Tribal name ) at the dosage of 1
g/kg.bw./day for 21 days to male albino mice caused perceptible changes on the weight of
the testis and other reproductive organs, the relative percentages of the secondary
spermatocytes and spermatids. On the other hand the relative percentages of the
spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and Sertoli cells were increased. Amongst the
biochemical parameters, significant decrease of acid and alkaline phosphatases and
increase of ascorbic acid and cholesterol level within the testis were observed. The acid
and alkaline phosphatases were decreased and lipid materials were increased
histochemically within the testicular tissue of the treated animals. Gradual recovery in all
the biochemical and histological parameters after withdrawal of the treatment suggest that
the treatment of Achyranthes aspera produced reversible infertility in male albino mice
without inducing any side effect.
Key words: Approach, bengal, purulia, phytomedicines, santal.
1.2 Antimicrobial and Antivectoral Activities of Traditionally Used Indigenous
A. Naresh kumar and K. Murugan
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimabtore – 641 046, Tamil Nadu,
Abstract: Malaria is the worldwide most important parasitic disease with an incidence of
almost 300 millions clinical cases and over one million deaths per year. The increasing
global spread of drug resistance to most of the available and affordable antimalarial drugs
is a major concern and requires innovative strategies to combat and there is an increasing
demand for active compounds with a new mode of action to replace the current ineffective
drugs. In the present in vivo study, different extracts of Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia
occidentalis and Datura metel were tested for the antiplasmodial activity against the
Malarial parasite, Plasmodium berghei and showed significant inhibition of parasitemia
after the post infection period. Among the different solvent extracts methanolic extract of
Datura metel showed greater percentage of parasitemia inhibition and mice survival.
Laboratory studies were also made to evaluate antivectoral activity of Cocculus hirsutus,
Cassia occidentalis and Datura metel against the malarial vector, A. stephensi. The
immature stages of the mosquito were much susceptible against the methanolic extracts of
C. hirsutus. Lethal Concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were calculated using the percentage
mortality rate. The active chemicals in Cocculus hirsutus, Cassia occidentalis and Datura
metel were proved to be much effective against the malarial parasites and vectors.
Key words: Antiplasmodial activity, parasitemia, larvicide, lethal concentration.
1.3 Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Abutilon indicu, Linn on D-
Galactosamine Induced Liver Damage by in Vivo Method
A.R. Srividya, S.P. Dhanabal, J. Alin Bose, and R. Rajesh Kumar
Abstract: The plant Abutilon indicum belongs to the family Malvaceae was screened for
its hepatoprotective activity in D- Galactosamine intoxicated rat model. Ethyl acetate
extract of Abutilon indicum found to possess amino acids, glycosides, protein, saponins,
tannins. Treatment with ethyl acetate fractions at 400 mg/ kg body weight showed
significant decrease in ASAT, ALAT, ALP, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and a
significant elevator in the TGL, total protein and albumin levels in serum when compared
with D- Galactosamine. In ethyl acetate extract treatment group there were reduced
infections, lack of lymphocytes migration and lack of macrophage infiltration,
hepatoprotective activity exhibited by ethyl acetate extract of Abutilon indicum was found
to be equivalent with standard silymarin.
Key words: Abutilon indicu, evaluation, galactosamine, hepatoprotective, liver.
1.4 In Vitro Antioxidant Effects and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor properties of
Peganum harmala Seed Extracts
Abderrahmane BAGHIANI1, Meriem DJERMOUNI1, Djamila AMENI1, Hayet
TRABSA1, Noureddine CHAREF1, Sabah BOUMERFEG2, Seddik KHENNOUF3,
Daoud HARZALLAH1 and Lekhmici ARRAR1
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas of
Setif, 2Department of Biology, University of Bordj Bouariridj, 3 Department of Phytotherapy Applied to
Chronic Diseases, Faculty of Nature ad Life Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas of Setif, Algeria.
Abstract: In this work, the antioxidant activities and the inhibitory effect on xanthine
oxidase (XO) activity of various extracts prepared from Peganum harmala seeds were
estimated. XO was purified from fresh bovine milk with protein / flavine ratio of 5.15, a
single major band on SDS-PAGE, of approximately 150 KDa and a specific activity of
2055.05 nmol / min / mg protein. The analysis of methanol (CrE), chloroform (ChE) and
ethyl acetate (EaE) extracts, showed that ChE contains the highest amount of polyphenols
and flavonoids (66.29 ± 1.57 mg EGA and 13.88 ± 0.13 mg EQ / g dry extract), followed
by EaE (58.1 ± 1.57 mg EGA and 12.18 ± 0.08 mg EQ / g dry extract, respectively), and
CrE with 27.91 ± 0.98 mg EGA and 7.39 ± 0.68 mg EQ / g dry extract. The ChE showed
the highest inhibitory properties on the XO activity (IC50 = 0.055 ± 0.0053 mg / ml) and
on the Cyt c reduction (IC50 = 0.037 ± 0.0008 mg / ml), followed by EaE with IC50 of XO
inhibitory activity and an IC50 of the inhibition of Cyt c reduction of 0.0057±0,0141 and
0.053 ± 0.0141 mg /ml, respectively. Finally, CrE had the lowest inhibitory effect on XO
activity and on Cyt c reduction with 0.252 ± 0.0051 and 0.14 ± 0.0051 mg / ml,
respectively. High DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed with CrE (IC50 = 0,100
± 0.0069 mg / ml), followed by EaE and ChE with IC50 of 0,711 ± 0,0298 and 0,744 ±
0,0198 mg / ml, respectively. The β-carotene / linoleic acid bleaching assay revealed that
the extracts have a very important antioxidant activity. EaE has the highest antioxidant
activity (94.21 ± 0.003 %), followed by CrE and ChE with 86.24 ± 0.027% and 77.35 ±
0.032 %, respectively. Ferrous ion chelating capacity assay showed that CrE, EaE and
ChE are the most active. These results suggest that these natural products could be used to
treat diseases, where inhibitions of XO, free radical scavenging and / or inhibition of lipid
peroxidation are warranted.
Key words: antioxidant, free radical scavenging, medicinal plants, peganum harmala,
1.5 The Phytochimical Study and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of the
Chemical Extracts of the Dog Rose Bush Rosa canina
Ait kaki Sabrina
Laboratory of research: Technologies, valuation, physico-chemical of the biological materials and
biodiversity. Department of Biology. Faculty of Science.University of Boumerdès. Algeria.
Abstract: The Rosaceous constitute an important family both by the number of the
species (more than 3 000) and by the vegetative variety, floral and some fruits. This family
distributed geographically on all the parts of the country of the world, but are especially
plentiful in the moderate regions of the hemisphere the North. Our work it is concerned a
species of this family, known under the naming of the dog rose bush (Rosa canina). This
study has a practice having for objective a phytochemical study which consists of the
identification of the various present active principles in Rosa's leaves followed by the
evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, flavonoïdes and Rosa canina's,
tannins on 05 microbial origins among which 04 bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and 01 reference yeast
Candida albicans. And finally determine the anti-oxidizing activity of extracts, hydro-
alcoholic and organic of leaves and Rosa canina's fruits.
Key words: Antimicrobial, essential oil, flavonoides, Rosa canina, tannins, vitamins.
1.6 Cosmetological Activities of Plant Extracts
AM Phyto-Conseil, Courbevoie, France.
Abstract: Cosmetic products are preparations intended to be placed in contact with the
external parts of the human body with a view to clean them, perfume them, change their
appearance and/or protect them or keep them in good conditions. Examples will be given
of how testing extracts, fractions, or purified natural molecules on skin cells in culture can
give information on their potential as new cosmetic active raw materials to meet the
demand of the growing global market for products which protect the skin from ageing.
Anti-aging activity of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E): 20-E or beta-Ecdysone or
Ecdysterone, is the most common member of the ecdysteroid family. It can be found in
insects, in plants such as Cyanotis arachnoidea (C.a.), and even in edible plants like
spinach . A study was undertaken in order to determine the potential anti-photoaging
effects of 20-E extracted from C.a. in a model of dermal aging in vitro.The results show
that 20-Hydroxyecdysone provides human BJ foreskin fibroblasts with some kind of
protection against premature cellular senescence induced by repeated UV insults (UV-
SIPS) as showed by the dramatic decrease by 20-E of the proportion of cells expressing
SA β-gal. Moreover it seems that this “protection” is due to a transient stimulation of p53,
often called the guardian of the genome, which probably prepares cells to face UVB
injuries and induces an efficient repair process of the damages caused by UVB radiations.
Further studies have shown that the mechanism of action of 20E might pass through its
binding to the alternative active site of the Vitamin D receptor responsible for the rapid
Anti-melanogenesis activity of 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP): There is a great
demand worldwide but particularly in Asia for products aimed at controlling skin
pigmentation. This is why Griffonia simplicifolia (G.s.) seed extracts were screened for an
eventual inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in skin cells. An evaluation of the activity
of G.s. extracts and 5-HTP on melanin pigment synthesis was carried out on normal
human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) and murine B16 melanoma cells. In this assay on
B16 stimulated by an MSH analog, 5-HTP induced 31 % melanogenesis inhibition already
at 8 µg/ml, 70 % at 40 µg/ml, and 90 % or nearly complete inhibition at 100 µg/ml. This
performance was better than that of Kojic acid (only 70 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml), and
similar to that of Arbutin (97 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml).The results obtained show that
G.s. seed extracts and their active molecule 5-HTP might be efficient “whitening” or
“brightening” ingredients in cosmetic formulations .
Protection by Notoginseng root saponins (NRS) against UV-induced immuno
suppression:The root of Panax Notoginseng contains up to 10% saponins: ginsenosides
Rg1, Rb1, Rd, Re, and notoginsenoside R1.In a recent study, it was found that NRS have
the effect in human skin fibroblasts , of up-modulating the m-RNA coding for Heme
Oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a very important protecting enzyme since it leads to the formation
of biliverdin which is a powerful natural antioxidant , and of carbon monoxide which has
been shown to protect Langerhans cells from photo-immunosuppression.It has been put in
evidence that NRS are able to protect human skin against Langerhans cells depletion by
UV exposure . The observed protection was up to 63 % (at 1mg/ml of NRS) , and almost
as much as that of a UV filtering commercial formulation of SPF 20 .
Anti-Wrinkle Effect of Extracts of Boswellia serrata: Expression lines are produced by
the mechanical stress exerted on the skin by facial muscles. So relaxing skin can help
prevent their formation. Three extracts of Boswellia serrata were tested on a nerve-muscle
coculture model which makes it possible to recreate a motor arc by innervation of human
striated muscle cells with explants of spinal cord and of spinal ganglia from rat embryos.
The three Boswellia extracts tested induced inhibitions. The most active extract induced
72% of muscle contraction inhibition at the concentration of 0.005%. The four pentacyclic
triterpene acids found in extracts of Boswellia serrata ( beta-boswellic acid, 3-O-
acetylboswellic acid, 11-ketoboswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-ketoboswellic acid) were
tested in a model of calcium flux in order to evaluate their capacity for inhibiting calcium
channels and therefore their ability to relax muscle fibers. The relaxing effect of 3-O-
acetyl-11-ketoboswellic acid was found significantly greater than that obtained for the
other three acids tested. This effect was confirmed with the muscle-nerve coculture test
which showed a contraction-inhibiting effect of 74.7% at 5 microM and of 87% at 10
microM for this compound.
Key words: Activity, anti-aging, anti-melanogenesis, anti-wrinkle, boswellia serrata 5-
hydroxy-tryptophan, 20-hydroxyecdysone, immuno suppression, notoginseng.
1.7 Evaluation of Antioxedent Activities and Phenolic Contents of some Edible and
Medicinal Plants from Kilis, Arabian /Gaziantep Floras
Ali ÖZKAN1., Önder YUMRUTAġ2., Saadet D. SAYGIDEĞER2 and Muhittin
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000, Kilis, 2Department
of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziantep Univ., 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey
Abstract: This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of
methanol extracts of (Tymbra spicata, Gundelia tournefortii, Urtica dioica L., Malva
sylvestris and Mentha pulegium) and to determine their total phenolics and total flavonoids
contents. The extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant potentials by DPPH
free anion radical and ABTS free cation radical scavenging, power reducing and metal
chelating assays. The methanol extracts of these plants exhibited significant antioxidant
activities by different assays and contained significant levels of phenolics and flavanoids.
The methanolic extract of Tymbra spicata exhibited higher DPPH (13,32 ± 0,54 mmol
TE/g db), ABTS (78,35 ± 0,98 mmol TE/g db), reducing power (44,23 ± 1,44 mmol
AAE/g db) and metal chelating activities (3,69 ± 0,24 mmol EDTAE/g db) than the
methanolic extracts of other plants and has the highest total phenolic content with value of
619,09 ± 2,04 mg g-1. The other plants have shown similar activities to that of Tymbra
spicata whereas the methanol extract of Gundelia tournefortii exhibited the lowest
activity. These results show that methanolic extracts of these plants could be considered as
a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.
Key words: Antioxidant activity, kilis, metal chelating, phenolics, turkey.
1.8 Effect of Stinging Nettle Seed Oil on Gastric Tissues in Experimental Colitis
Alturfan EI1 , Yarat A1, Genç Z1, Yenidoğan G1,Tunalı-Akbay T1, ġener G3, ġehirli
Ö3, PiĢiriciler R2, Ak E2, AltıntaĢ A4
Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences: Biochemistry1, Histology
and Embriology2, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology3, Istanbul, Anadolu University,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy4, Eskisehir, Turkey.
Abstract: Urtica dioica (UD) known as stinging nettle which is a member of the
Uticaceae family, may have therapeutic value for colitis. The aims of this study were to
investigate, if the proinflammatory cytokines generated in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid
(TNBS)-induced colitis affect the gastric tissue and to determine the effects of orally
administered UD oil on the gastric tissue. Rats were grouped as control (n=5), UD treated
control (n=5), colitis (n=6) and UD treated colitis (n=6). UD seed oil, containing 83%
unsaturated fatty acids and 16% saturated fatty acids, was given orally (2 mL/kg/day) 5
min after induction of colitis and the treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after
the induction of colitis, all rats were decapitated; gastric tissues were removed and
homogenized. Total sialic acid (SA), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels;
catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the homogenates.
Gastric tissue samples were also examined cytogically. Proinflammatory cytokinesTNF-,
IL-1 and IL-6 and LDH levels were also determined in blood samples. In the UD
treated control group MDA and SA levels and in the colitis group catalase, MDA and SA
levels were found to be decreased in gastric tissues when compared with the control group.
On the other hand UD treatments in the colitis group GSH levels were found to be
increased when compared with the colitis group. Decreased gastric tissue catalase, MDA
and SA levels in the colitis group suggested that inflammation of the colonic tissue
activating immune system through the proinflammatory cytokines which were increased in
the plasma protected the gastric tissue. Furthermore UD treatment positively affected
gastric tissue by increasing GSH levels in the colitis group and by decreasing SA and
MDA levels in the control group. Therefore, stinging nettle oil may have protective effects
on gastric tissue.
Key words: Colitis, nettle, gastric, sialic acid, stinging.
1.9 Effect of Black Cumin Seed Oil on Gastric Tissue in Experimental Conditions
Alturfan EI1 , Yarat A1, Tunalı-Akbay T1, IĢık F1, Yenidoğan G1, ġener G3, ġehirli
Ö3, PiĢiriciler R2, Ak E2, AltıntaĢ A4
Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences: Biochemistry1, Histology
and Embriology2, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology3, Istanbul, Anadolu University,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy4, Eskisehir, Turkey.
Abstract: The black cumin (Nigella sativa) (NS), the member of Ranunculacea family, is
a plant widely used as a spice in our country. Its seed oil contains 21% protein, 35 %
carbohydrate, 35-38 % lipid. The aims of this study were to investigate if the
proinflammatory cytokines generated in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced
colitis affect the gastric tissue and to determine the effects of orally administered NS seed
oil (ORIGO „100 % natural Black Cumin Seed Oil‟ , 2.5 ml/kg; orally) on the gastric
tissue. Rats were grouped as control (n=5), NS treated control (n=5), colitis (n=6) and NS
treated colitis (n=7). NS was given 5 minutes later than the induction of colitis and the
treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after the induction of colitis, all rats were
decapitated and gastric tissues were removed and homogenized 5 min after induction of
colitis and the treatment was continued for 3 days. Three days after the induction of colitis,
all rats were decapitated; gastric tissues were removed and homogenized. Total sialic acid
(SA), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; catalase, super oxide dismutase
(SOD) activities were measured in the homogenates. Gastric tissue samples were also
examined cytologically. TNF-, IL-1 and IL-6 and LDH levels were also determined in
blood samples. In the NS treated control group SA levels were significantly decreased
when compared with the control group. In the colitis group increased plasma
proinflammatory cytokines and decreased tissue catalase, MDA and SA levels suggest that
activation of immune system protects the gastric tissues. On the other hand in the NS
treated colitis group gastric tissue catalase activity was found to be significantly increased
when compared with the colitis group indicate that thymoquinone content of black cumin
has super oxide dismutase like activity. Therefore, black cumin seed oil may have
protective effects on gastric tissue.
Key words: Catalase, cumin, gastric, glutathione, immune.
1.10 The Role of Bitter Mellon (Momordica charantia) to Reduce the Incidence of
Abnormalities in Offspring of Diabetic Albino Rats
Amoura M. Abou-El-Naga
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.
Abstract: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a commonly consumed vegetable is used
as an adjunct in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to evaluate
the role of natural extract (Bitter melon) in improving the fetal development of
streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult female albino rats by a single
i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg b. wt.). The experimental animals were
divided into four groups: the first group was left as control and the second group was
treated with bitter melon (300 mg/kg b. wt) through gastric intubation daily form the 6th of
gestation till parturition. Diabetic rats were divided into two subgroups: the first subgroup
was left untreated. The second subgroup was treated with bitter melon (300mg/kg b. wt.)
daily from the 6th of gestation till parturition. The results of diabetic subgroups were
compared with that of non-diabetic control groups. Results indicated that oral
administration of diabetic rats with bitter melon improved the fetal growth retardation and
minimize the percentage of abortion. Also, bitter melon supplementation markedly
reduced the high incidence of resorption and malformation rate as well as retardation of
the skeletal development.
Key words: Abnormalities, bitter mellon, diabetic.
1.11 Determination of Antioxidant Capacity of Asphodelus aestivus Brot Leaves (In
Aysegul Peksel and Sema Imamoglu
Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Chemistry,
Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that delay or prevent the oxidation of cellular
oxidizable substrates. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in finding natural
antioxidants since the synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and
butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are suspected of being responsible for liver damage and
carcinogenesis. Asphodelus aestivus Brot., is a common spring-flowering geophyte
encountered on the Marmara, Aegean and Mediterrenean coasts of Turkey, has been
utilized traditionally for culinary and medicinal purposes. The leaves of A. aestivus Brot.
is commonly consumed cooked as a vegetable dish in Turkey, where it is known as “çiriş
otu”. In traditional medicine, the tuber and roots of this plant is used against, hemorrhoids,
nephritis, burns and wounds 1-3. This study investigates the antioxidant capacity of
ethanolic extract from A. aestivus Brot. leaves using several antioxidant tests. Ethanolic
extract was prepared from leaves of A. aestivus Brot. The extract was then analysed for its
radical scavenging capacity against the radicals superoxide, hydroxyl, N,N-dimethyl-p-
phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD•+), 2,2‟-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-
sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. We also determined
total flavonoid, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents of extract. Those various antioxidant
activities were compared to standart synthetic antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, trolox,
ascorbic acid and -tocopherol. The ethanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activity in all
tests, and the extract could be considered as a source of natural antioxidants.
Key words: Antioxidants, Asphodelus aestivus, carotenoid, flavonoid, radical.
1.12 Effect of Some Medicinal Plants Grown in Turkey on Platelet Aggregation
AyĢen Yarat1, Refiye Yanardag2 and Sevinç Özgür1
Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Biochemistry , 2İstanbul
University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry , Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Plants are important source of active natural products which differ widely in
terms of structure and biological properties. The leaves of some fresh plants grown in
Turkey such as Eruca sativa L (Brassicacae) and Ornithogalum Sigmoideum Freyn Et
Sint (Liliaceae) are consumed as vegetables. Although antioxidant activities have been
examined for most of them, anti-platelet aggregatory properties have not been studied.
Platelets play a key role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in blood. They also play
a major role in initiating thrombus formation which occurrs with various thrombotic
disorders, including hypertension, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases.
Aggregation is one of the most important functions of the platelet, by which it exerts its
hemostatic effectiveness under normal conditions, and which may be crucial for the
development of thrombosis under pathological circumstances. Therefore, agents with
anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects may have wide therapeutic potential for
circulatory diseases. On the other hand, as in many countries of the world, in our country, as folk
medicine, the use of herbal plant is increasing and bringing with its potential hazards. Plants and certain
drugs may interact and cause adverse effects to emerge. For this reason, plant-drug interactions and side
effects should be investigated. Hence plants or drugs that affect platelet aggregation or
secretion could have wide biological implications. In this study, the effect of various
concentrations of water soluble extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Turkey, on
platelet aggregation were evaluated in vitro by modified smear method. The study was
performed on platelet-rich plasma obtained from clinically healthy subjects. The water
extract was added to platelet-rich plasma before platelet aggregating agent. Aspirin,
known inhibitor of platelet aggregation, was also tested as positive control.
Key words: Aggregation, platelet, medicinal, plasma.
1.13 In vitro Study of the Effect of Chinese Green Tea (Reference 0071) on the
Growth of Bacteria from Urinary Tract Infection
Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et Sciences d‟ingénieurs. Université de Mostaganem.
Abstract: The treatment of urinary tract infections is based mainly on the use of antibiotics. The
widespread prescription is often inappropriate of these officers resulted in the selection of strains resistant
to multiple Hence the importance of directing research towards new ways and especially toward herbal
medicine. The art of care by plants when the origin of humanity. Green tea Camellia sinensis, or
Chinese is a shrub widely cultivated in the Far East, mainly for its leaves which are
widely used in Chinese folk medicine because of its multiple therapeutic effects. Our study
aims to evaluate in vitro the efficacy of Chinese green tea (reference 0071) on germs that cause bladder
infections in the region of Mostaganem (Algeria). The tea extracts were prepared by different methods
(infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) at different concentrations (0.6 to 2.6 mg / ml). Bacterial
strains are formed by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis
and Staphylococcus aureus from urine sample analyzed in the laboratory of bacteriology at the hospital in
Ain Tedless the wilaya of Mostaganem (Algeria) during the period February to June 2008. Each sample
was taken with Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 100 mg of extract to 1 ml of DMSO. The discs (paper) 6
mm diameter were impregnated with 6 μl of the solution of 100 mg / ml, corresponding to 600 mg of
extract per disk. The antibacterial activity of extracts of green tea China paper disc was measured, using the
method by disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton (MH). The green tea extracts showed antibacterial
activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus.
The inhibition zones ranged from 9-24 mm. The'inhibition of these strains the tea is 100%. By cons strain
of Klebsiella pneumoniae has shown a great resistance against the tea.
Key words: Antibacterial, aqueous, Camellia sinensis, phytotherapy, urinary infections.
1.14 Study of the Effect of the Green Tea on the Crystallization of Brushite in the
Artificial Urine with pH 6.5
Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et Sciences d‟ingénieurs, Université de Mostaganem.
Abstract: The tea plant, Camellia sinensis cultivated for its sheets whose infusion and decoction
allow the preparation of drink the most consumed in the world. Today, it is almost regarded as a
drug. Some crystalline species are evocative of a urinary supersaturation being able to rise of
very different causes. Thus the brushite of the IVd type is induced by hypercalciuria with
generally hyperphosphaturia and/or hyperparathyroïdie. The description of a possible inhibiting
action of the tea on phosphocalcic crystallization with pH 6.5 can have very positive
repercussions on the public health. The kinetics of phosphocalcic crystallization with pH 6.5
was studied starting from the artificial urine. The crystallizable solutions of the urine artificial,
and three concentrations different from the tea (C1 = 4g.L-1, C2 = 16g.L-1 and C3 = 32g.L-1)
prepared by infusion (t1 = 5mn, t2 = 10mn and t3 = 15mn) and by decoction were maintained
with 37C°, under constant agitation (150rpm) and with the darkness, to remain close to the
physiological conditions. The follow-up of the kinetics of crystallization by optical microscope
with polarized light and the spectral analysis by infra-red transformed of Fourier, reveal that, in
the artificial urine without inhibitor, the formed crystals with pH 6.5 are brushite. The
concentration C1 of the tea has a promoter effect. The addition of the C2 concentration prepared
by infusion during 15mn and decoction caused a reduction in the average size of the crystals and
aggregates. The percentage of inhibition of the average size of the crystals and the aggregates is
63% and 84% for respectively t3 and decoction. The inhibiting effect of C3 concentration on the
crystallization of brushite at pH 6.5 is clearly evident in all cases. Its intensity varies according
to the method of preparation. The percentage of inhibition of the average size of crystals and
aggregates reaches 47%, 69%, 89% and 99% for respectively t1, t2, t3 and decoction.
Key words: Brushite, crystallization, green tea, inhibition, urine artificial, whewellite.
1.15 Prebiotic Antimicrobial Effect of Natural and Synthetic flavonoids
Tir touil Meddah. A; Meddah. B, ain-dzarit. Tiaret, City: 10 logt . Fax: 213/045-80-29-84, Algeria
Abstract: Flavonoids are a group of organic molecule ubiquitously distributed in plant
kingdom. As is typical for phenolic compounds, they can act as potent antioxidants and
metal chelators. They also appear to be effective at influencing the risk of pathologic
diseases such as nosocomial infection; several of these flavonoids appear to be effective
antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural extrate
from: “Anacyclus Valentinus” and synthetic flavonoids on the growth and aggregation of
probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophillus) and pathogenic
bacteria. (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). All tested compounds were
exhibited an antibacterial effect and prebiotic activity; the synthetic flavonoids
(sweetflavonoids) were found to have the most significant activity against S.aureus as
antibacterial agents (particulary P4) and L.rhamnosus as prebiotic substances (the 5
compounds have nearly a similar effect); aggregation tests were shown the stimulatory
effect of natural flavonoid on probiotic aggregation and on pathogenic- probiotic
coaggregation Therefore these molecules can be used as alternative or additive agents to
improve the probiotic bacteria activity and to prevent the pathogenic bacteria colonization.
Key words: Antibacterial activity, flavonoids, prebiotic, probiotic.
1.16 A Comparison between the Chemical Compositions, and Antioxidant Activity of
Cultivated and Wild Lavandula dentata Essential Oil
Bouchra Imelouane1, Ali Elbachiri1, Abd lbast Barichi5, Jean-Paul
Wathelet2, Jacques Dubois3, Majid ankit4, Hassan Amhamdi1
Department of Chemistry, University Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenue Mohamed VI, 60000, Oujda, Morocco.
Unit of General and Organic Chemistry, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, Passage des
Deportés n°2, B-5030, Gembloux, Belgium.3Toxicology and Physical Applied Chemistry, Institute of
Pharmacy, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. 4ALBAYTARY Veterinary Cabinet, Building
of the of the Koran house. Road of Nador. BP.9. Zaio 62900, Morocco. 5Department of Biology, University
Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenue Mohamed VI ,60000, Oujda, Morocco.
Abstract: With the increased realization that many wild medicinal and aromatic plant
(MAP) species are being overexploited, a number of agencies are recommending that wild
species be brought into domestication or cultivation systems.The present study describes
the phytochemical profile as well as the antimicrobial and antioxydant activities of
Lavandula dentata essential oil of the wild, collected in eastern Morocco (Taforalt,
Talazart) where the climate is sub-humide; and domesticated L. dentata essential oil
cultivated in Oujda whose climate is semi-arid. We studied the effect of domestication on
the physico-chemical quality as well as on the quality of antimicrobial and antioxidant
activities. The compositions of the essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-
MS.We showed that the chemical profile of domesticated lavender collected in summer
resembled, with little difference, that of the wild lavender collected in winter with a
chemotype beta-pinene. Besides, the chemical profile of domesticated lavender collected
in autumn resembled that of the wild lavender collected in summer with a chemotype 1.8-
cineole.These results which show the fast and complex changes in the chemical profile of
L. dentata and a probable interconversion between the major components, calls for
attention when using the essential oils of this plant.The oils of both wild and cultivated
lavandula were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activities by using 2,2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). We were able to show that domesticated lavender had
an antioxidant power that exceeds a bit that of wild lavender. Moreover, the domesticated
L.dentata essential oil showed greater radical-scavenging activity than those collected
from the wild.
Key words: CMI, DPPH, essential oil composition, Lavandula dentata, wild.
1.17 Effects of Tunisian Medicinal Plant Extracts on the Expression of Cell Defense
Genes in Human Leukemia Cell Line K562 Using cDNA Arrays. Correlation with
Related Biological Activities
Bouhlel Ines1, 2, Kilani Soumaya1, 2, Skandrani Inès1, 2, Ghedira Kamel2, Chekir-
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Monastir, Tunisia. 2Unité de
Pharmacognosie/Biologie Moléculaire 99/UR/07-03, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Rue Avicenne,
5000 Monastir, Tunisie.
Abstract: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) cause molecular damage to proteins, lipids and
nucleic acids. Fortunately, numerous defense systems protect cellular macromolecules
against oxidation. However cell defenses against oxidative stress could be strengthened by
using natural antioxidant molecules or crude extracts. Some Tunisian medicinal plants;
Acacia salicina, Cyperus rotundus, Pistacia lentiscus and Myrtus communis were
investigated for their capacities to reduce damages induced by H2O2 in human leukemia
cell line K562.The expression level of genes of K562 stressed (H2O2) cells exposed to
plant extracts or molecules, was quantified using a cDNA microarray containing probes
related to 82 genes of interest, essentially represented by antioxidant, DNA repair and
redox control genes. Acacia salicina extracts revealed an increase in the expression of
genes contributing to the regulation of redox status of cells and DNA repair. Cyperus
rotundus extracts showed an increase in the antioxidant and DNA repair expression level.
The antioxidant genes were significantly expressed when the stressed cells were incubated
with doses of Pistacia lentiscus and Myrtus communis compounds. The induction of these
genes was in good agreement with results obtained with classic biological assays such as
genotoxicity and antioxidant assays.
Key words: Expression, extracts, leukemia, medicinal plant, cell genes.
1.18 Essential Oil of the White Artemisia " Artemisia herba alba Asso." Chemical
Composition Study and the Antimicrobial Activity
Chefrour Azzedine1, Delimi Amel, Bennadja Salima1, Ait Kaki Yasmina1, Djahoudi
Abd El Ghani et Hadef Youcef
Laboratory of Plant biology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar-Annaba
Abstract: The white Artemisia (Artemisia herba alba Asso.) a steppe plant belonging to
the low, always green, ligneous family of Asteraces, rich in essential oil is. This species
has virtues evident purgatives playing a role in the control of the intestinal worms, leaves
are used in traditional medicine to look after the diabetes, after bronchitis, after abscess
and after diarrhea. During our modest work, an ethno-botanic investigation at the level of
two regions (Annaba and Guelma), as well as a histological study of the white Artemisia
were realized. An extraction of essential oil of leaves by training in the steam as well as
their chemical characterizations and an experimental study of the antibacterial and
antifungal activity towards the Candida albicans were made.The drug of the white
Artemisia got by Souk Ahras supplied the best return with essential oil of chemotype L
Verbenone, followed by that of Tebessa, rich with it thuyone, then that of Msila in
camphor and Khenchela to L Verbenone. The best results of the antibacterial activity were
shown by essential oil of Souk Ahras, Msila and Khenchela. As for the antifungal activity,
it is essential oil of Msila and Tebessa who gave the best results. Seen, its powerful
activity on anti- organic origins - resistant and on Candida albicans, the white Artemisia is
a real magic grass that it is necessary to master the chemical composition and the
therapeutic properties and to study in detail the mechanism of action of its constituents on
these germs to be able to the used as the additives in antibiotics to increase their activities
or as diffuser for the disinfection of atmospheres and as antiseptic and disinfectant of
medico- chirurgical materials.
Key words: Artemisia herba alba, essential oil, aromatograms, GCMS, bacterial strains,
Candida albicans, terpens, oxides.
1.19 Chemical Antimicrobial Composition and Activities of Essential Oil of Ptychotis
verticillata (Family of Apiaceae)
Chefrour Azzedine1, Sakhraoui Noura, Ait Kaki Yasmina1, Bennadja Salima1, Hadef
Youcef et Djahoudi Abd El Ghani
Laboratory of Plant biology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar-Annaba
Abstract: Ptychotis is a kind containing several species among which two are present in
Algeria. Ptychotis " Ptychotis verticillata ", called in Arabic Etymology noukha,
nounkha, el kemoun el habachi, khobz elfaraina and in Berber Atrillal or Atlillal, is an
annual herbaceous plant of the family of Apiaceae, in raised stalk, streaked, hail, in
numerous twigs. Rich in essential oil and in the other active principes. This plant is
antiseptic effective of the intestinal gastronomic way, the vermifuge, the febrifuge,
antispasmodic, diuretic and anti lithiasic. It is also used against the moths of hair and
against the bites of snakes. The chemical study of essential oil of Ptychotis verticillata
(extraction by The method training in the steam, the characterization of the chemical
composition by GCMS) and the evaluation of the antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of
this plant on isolated origins in a hospital environment gave encouraging results. The
production in essential oil was averagely brought up (2, 37±0,156ml / 100g MS), with a
very rich chemical composition. Ten chemical component doors, belonging to phenols of
origin terpenoïdics, are a part of organic substances forming the essential oil of Ptychotis
verticillata. Whose carvacrol is the leader of thread with a 48, 72 %, followed by gamma
terpinene (21,86 %) and the para cymene (13,51 %). The antibacterial and antifungal
activities were demonstrated by essays on various origins of bacteria and yeasts, namely
Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp, Escherichia coli and unicellular mushroom "
Candida albicans ", indicates the importance of this last one in the treatment of the
infectious diseases and mycosics.
Key words: Ptychotis, GCMS, extraction, essential oil, carvacrol, gamma terpinene,
aromatogram, yeast, antibacterial activity.
1.20 Anti-Bacterial Activity of Rosemary Essential Oil and Its Association with
DJAHOUDI Abdelghani1, CHEFROUR Azzedine2, AMOURA Kamel1,. Tlili-
AIT - KAKI Yasmina2, and BAGHLOUL F1
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar
University. 2Laboratory of Botany, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar
University, Annaba, Algeria.
Abstract: Results of study of anti-bactérienne activity essential oil of Rosemary
(Rosmarinus officinalis shows a broad activity on the best Genre Staphylococcus than
vancomycin choice anti-staphylocoque species.The association of oil with penicillin, the
oxacilline or erythromycin dramatically improves activity on same only used antibiotic
resistant strains.This opens a prospect of use of this type of molecules as disinfectants and
chemotherapy see antiseptics in human medicine.
Key words: Antibiotics, association, essential oil, rosemary, staphylococci.
1.21 Antidiabetic Activity of Ceiba pentandra in Streptozoticin Induced Diabetic Rats
Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré ., Tédong Léonard., Dimo Théophile., Ngueguim
Tsofack Florence, Tchamadeu Marie-Claire, Bilanda Danielle Claude, Kamtchouing
Department of Animal Biology and Physiology of University of Yaounde I, Po Box 812, Yaounde,
Abstract: In underdeveloped countries, more than 80% still use medicinal plants for their
primary health care. Ceiba pendandra is a medicinal plant, empirically used to treat
diabetes mellitus in Cameroon. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of
methylene chloride/methanol extract of Ceiba pendandra extract on type 1 diabetic
rats.Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection (55 mg/kg) in adult
male albino Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were divided in 4 groups of 5 animals each and
treated for 35 days as follow: vehicle (diabetic control), plant extract at the doses of 40 and
75 mg/kg and insulin (10 IU/kg sc). A group of normal rats was also used as positive
control. Daily administration of methylene chloride/methanol extract of C. pentandra
significantly reduced the food and water intakes and the volume of urine excreted as well
as the levels of blood glucose (71% reduction) and serum lipid profile (37% reduction), in
comparison with diabetic controls. Plant extract treatment increased the level of hepatic
glycogen. Immunohistochemistry of pancreas reveals a regeneration/revitalization of ß-
cells. The study concluded that the hypoglycaemic action of C. pentandra could be partly
due to amelioration in the beta-cells of pancreatic islets causing an increase in insulin
secretion. C. pentandra could be a potential source to develop new oral antidiabetic agent
in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Key words: ß-cells, Ceiba pentandra, diabetes.
1.22 Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Anthemis l. Species
Emel Akyüz, Leyla Açık, Ufuk Özbek, Mecit Vural
Gazi Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi, Biyoloji Bölümü, Teknikokullar, 06500, Ankara, Turkey.
Abstract: Anthemideae is one of the largest tribes of Asteraceae, comprising about 111
genera and ca. 1800 species. Anthemis L. represented with 79 taxa in Turkey. Anthemis
species are used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and food industry. Some of the species are
used for the treatment of hepatitis, activating urinary system, as a sedative. The
antimicrobial activity of A. fumariifolia Boiss, A. aciphylla Boiss.var. aciphylla, A.
cretica subsp. pontica (Willd.) Grierson were determined by agar-well diffusion method.
Antioxidant activities of Antemis species were determined by DPPH. Plant samples a
showed significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis,
Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus fecalis. Methanol plant extract showed higher
DPPH activity than ethanol extract of the plant. The results show that the most effective
plant for antioxidant activity was A. aciphylla var. aciphylla.
Key words: antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, Anthemis.
1.23 Effects of Rhizonyl Alcohol from Lobaria pulmonaria, a Lichen Species on
Indomethacin -Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage, Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil
Fadime Atalay1, Fehmi Odabasoglu1, Ahmet Cakir2, Zekai Halici3, Mesut Halici4,Ali
Aslan5 and Elif Cadirci6
Ataturk University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biochemistry,Erzurum, .2 Kilis 7 Aralık
University, Faculty of Sciences & Arts, Department of Chemistry, Kilis.3 Ataturk University, Faculty of
Medicine, Department of Pharmacology Erzurum.4 Ataturk University, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of
Biochemistry, Erzurum.5 Ataturk University, K. K. Education Faculty, Department of Biology,Erzurum.6
Ataturk University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 25240-Erzurum, Turkey.
Abstract: Lobaria pulmonaria, a lichen species has been used traditionally in folk
medicine of Turkey for treatment of various diseases. This study was designed to
determine gastroprotective effect of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of rhizonyl alcohol
(RA), which was firstly isolated as a natural compound from L. pulmonaria acetone
extract, on indomethacin-induced ulcer model in rats. The results showed that gastric
lesions were significantly reduced by 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of RA with
inhibition of 42.8, 56.4, 74.4 and 84.6, respectively. Furthermore, the in vivo antioxidant
levels were determined in rat stomach tissues of all groups. The administration of
indomethacin caused a significant decrease in the levels of Superoxide (SOD), glutathione
peroxidase (GPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and an increase in the lipid peroxidation
(LPO) level. In contrast to indomethacin, RA showed a significant antioxidant activity
against oxidative damage in stomach tissues induced by indomethacin increasing the
levels of SOD, GPO and GSH levels and reducing the level of LPO. However, catalase
(CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPx) levels, increased by the administration of
indomethacin were found to be lower in RA and lansoprasol administrated groups. The
present results suggested that the gastroprotective effect of MELP probably due to its
reducing effect on oxidative stress caused by indomethacin and on the neutrophil
infiltration in the tissues.
Key words: Antioxidants, gastroprotective, Lobaria pulmonaria, myeloperoxidase,
1.24 Critical Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan for their Anti-
Fatma U. Afifi, Violet Kasabri and Rana Abudahab
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman – Jordan.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be the most common metabolic disorder
worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide 300 million
people are currently living with DM. The disease deserves every attention to solve or at
least to decrease the disease related problems. The regional prevalence of diabetes in
MENA (Middle Eastern and North Africa) countries is 7.7%, ranging between 3% (in
Yemen) to 18.7% (in United Arab Emirates (IDF, 2006). Jordan has the ninth highest
prevalence of diabetes in this regional group of countries and stands at 10.1%. Jordan is a
country with deep rooted traditions. The use of plant based preparations is a common
practice by patients suffering from chronic diseases as well as by patients in the
management of mild conditions. Our country survey indicated that more than 60 different
plants, grown locally or imported, are recommended by the herbalists for the treatment or
to overcome the side effects of conventional therapy in patients suffering in DM.
Unfortunately only a small fraction of these plants have been screened in depth for their
hypoglycemic activity, and even smaller number of research identified the active
ingredients of them. Another shortcoming of this practice is that the plants are sold using
their local names. More often these local names are used for the genus of a particular plant
without distinguishing the species or the varieties. Sometimes even plants from different
genera are given the same common name. In the present study, selected representatives of
some locally grown plant species are in in vitro and in vivo experiments for their anti-
diabetic properties evaluated. The findings of the phytochemical and biological studies are
Key words: Diabetes, Jordan, medicinal plants.
1.25 The Effects of Chard (Beta vulgaris l. var cicla) Extract on the Lung of Dıabetıc
F. Oztay1, O. Sacan2, S. Bolkent1, Y. Ipci3, L. Kabasakal3, G. Sener3 and R
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 2Istanbul University,
Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar, 3Marmara University, School of
Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, lipid and
protein metabolisms. The treatment of diabetes mellitus is based on oral
antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. The plants used as traditional medicines are herbs
and spices, vegetables and fruits. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var cicla) is one the medicinal
herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. In present preliminary study, we have focused the
effects of chard extract on the lung by biochemical and structural investigations. Male,
Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into
three groups. Group I; Control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; diabetic
animals treated with streptozotocin (STZ, as a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight,
intraperitoneal) (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6). The
chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day
for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. On day 60, lung tissues were taken
from rats for histological and biochemical analysis. Lung tissue homogenized in 0.9%
saline to make up to 10% homogenate. Additionally, lungs were fixed Bouin‟s solutions.
The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)
levels, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Lung CAT and
SOD activities and GSH level were decreased and LPO level was increased in diabetic
rats. Administration of chard to diabetic rats increased lung CAT, SOD activities and GSH
level, but LPO levels decreased. Light microscopic investigations on paraffin lung
sections reported extensive infiltration areas, alveolar dilatations and alveolar epithelial
damage in diabetic rats. But, these results were regressed by chard extract administration.
In conclusion, we can say that chard extract has a protective effect on the lung tissue of
Key words: Chard, dıabetıc, extract, lung.
1.26 Anti-Tumor Properties of Iraqi Propolis: In vitro and In vivo Studies
G.M. Sulaiman1, E.Erba2, A.H.A‟dhiah3, K.W. Al Sammarre4, R. Bagnati5,
R.Frapolli2, E. Bello2, S. Uboldi2, M. Romano2, N. Panini2 and M.D‟Incalci2.
Department of Applied Sciences, Department of Biochemical Technology, University of Technology,
Baghdad, Iraq. 2Department of Oncology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.
Tropical Disease Research Centre, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Biotechnology Research Centre, University of Al-Nahrain, Baghdad, Iraq. 5Department of Environmental
Health Sciences, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan, Italy.
Abstract: Cancer is one of the most hazardous and fatal diseases in the world. Scientists
from the different countries worldwide are actively involved in control of this disease.
Increasing interest and research on natural products have revealed its importance in
treating many diseases including cancer. A natural product, propolis is a complex resinous
bee product that has a wide range of biological activities. After initial experiments we
found one particular extract of propolis that showed pro-apoptotic activity and a moderate
antitumor activity in vivo denominated M. Free radical scavenging activity of M was
evaluated by DPPH (1, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and the results showed a
concentration- dependent activity, is cytotoxic to human promyeloid leukemia- HL60 and
human colon carcinoma –HCT-116 cell lines with an IC50 value of 6 μg ml-1.
Morphological changes and DNA fragmentation ladder indicated that M actively induced
apoptosis in HL60 cells and necrosis in HCT-116. Flow cytometric measurement of Bcl-2
and Bax in HL60 revealed the increase in apoptosis level induced by M was associated
with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. These results suggests that M-
induced apoptosis is related to the induction of Bcl-2/Bax regulation. Using biparametric
cytometry we measured BrdUrd/DNA cell cycle in HL60 and HCT-116. The cell cycle
delay was seen in BrdUrd –positive cells and BrdUrd –negative cells in both cell lines.
The exposure of HL60 to two doses of M stimulated formation of phosphorylated histone
H2AX with dose dependent manner, the expression was contribute to formation of
apoptosis . In an experiment using tumor-bearing mice, oral administration of two doses
(500 and 1000) M caused reduce of tumor weights 37% and 40% as compared with
control, and had decrease in mitotic with increase the polyploid with enlarged nuclei cells
in order to maintain the decrease in cellular proliferation that is associated with inhibition
of tumor growth .thus, this study suggest to use the propolis as an effective food by people
besides the chemotherapy in cancer treatment.
Key words: Properties, propolis, tumor, vitro, vivo.
1.27 Free Radical, Metal-chelating and Antibacterial Activities of Methonolic
Extract of Capparis Spinosa
H. Bouriche, N. Kernouf, H. Belhadj, D. Harzalah, M.M. Zerroug, S. Dahamna, and
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, 19000, Algeria.
Abstract: The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of Capparis
spinosa buds were investigated in this study. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in
vitro by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay and the
measurement of the metal-chelating activity. The antibacterial activity was tested against a
pathogenic bacteria using agar disc-diffusion method. Results showed that the extract
exerted a strong scavenging activity against DPPH radical with IC50 values of 53.53
ug/ml, and exerted a metal chelating activity toward ferrous ions with IC50 values of
190.84 µg/ml. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of Capparis spinosa buds showed
appreciable antibacterial property. These findings suggest that the Capparis spinosa bud
extract may be considered as an interesting source of antioxidants and antibiotics for
therapeutic or nutraceutical industries.
Key words: Antibacterial, antioxidant activity, Capparis spinosa, plant extract.
1.28 Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms Improve Growth, Essential Oil Yield of
Marjoram and the Effect Gamma Radiation on Antimicrobial Activity of Marjoram
I. A. El-Ghandour1, Y.G.M. Galal1, Enayat M. Desouky2, Rawahia A. Arafa2 and
Abeer M.M. Abou Seer1
Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Department of Soil and Water Department.. 2Al-Azhar
University, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Botany (Microbiology) Department, Egypt.
Abstract: Field experiment was set up to study the response of marjoram plant grown on
sandy soil to inoculation with B. polymixa and /or Bradyrhizobium sp. in combination with
organic fertilizers (faba bean straw and sheep manure). Faba bean straw and sheep manure
were added at rate of 1500 kg P/ ha of both residues. Residues and bacterial inoculation
were incorporated into the soil ith either B. polymixa and/ or Bradyrhizobium sp. The
highest oil yield was irradiated with gamma irradiation at doses of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50
KGy). The chemone month prior to marjoram cultivation. Marjoram (root cutting) was
inoculated wical constituents of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-Ms techniques
after exposure to gamma radiation. The gamma irradiated essential oils of marjoram were
tested for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microorganisms. The herb
and oil yield were the highest in case of the combination between sheep manure and B.
polymixa at the 2nd cut than in control. The chemical composition of marjoram essential oil
did not change due to the bacterial inoculation or applied residues, but the percentages of
certain constituents were affected. Results also revealed that, gamma irradiation doses
increased the antimicrobial activity with different magnitudes. The essential oil extracted
from herb exposed to 30 KGy was found to be the most active antimicrobial with slight
increases in the main components.
Key words: Antimicrobial, B. polymixa, Bradyrhizobium sp., essential oil, gamma
1.29 The Toxicity of Aloe barbadensis Miller Juice is Due to the Induction of
I. E. Cock and J. Sirdaarta
Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan,
Brisbane, Queensland 4111, Australia.
Abstract: Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a long history of use for medicinal and
dietary purposes and as a component of many cosmetic preparations. Aloe vera has anti-
inflammatory, immunostimulatory, antibacterial and antiviral activities and accelerates
wound healing. There have also been reports of toxic effects of Aloe vera juice. Various
low molecular weight components are cytotoxic to fibroblasts and normal human skin
cells and tumour cells in vitro. The mechanism of toxicity is yet to be determined. Many
active constituents have been isolated from A. barbadensis leaves and their bioactivities
studied. The anthraquinones, anthrones and chromones are effective at counteracting
various diseases. Aloe emodin has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Aloin and
aloe emodin may act as either pro-oxidants or antioxidants dependent on their
concentration. Therefore these compounds may act in either a protective or toxic manner
at different concentrations. It has been suggested that the toxicity of Aloe vera components
may be due oxidative stress induction. Conversely, at lower concentrations, these same
components may act as antioxidants and protect cells from oxidative stress.This study
reports on the ability of Aloe vera juice to induce oxidative stress in Artemia franciscana
and the ability of vitamin E and its analogue Trolox to counteract this oxidative stress.
Furthermore, this study examines the mechanism of Aloe vera juice toxicity by examining
its effect on various biomarker enzymes.Exposure of Artemia nauplii to Aloe vera juice
resulted in acute toxicity at dilutions as low as 4 % (24 h LC50 4.6 % ± 0.3). All
antioxidants examined were also toxic when tested in high doses with 24 h LC50‟s in the
following order of toxicity: vitamin C (203.1 µg/ml ± 11.3) > Trolox™ (283.3 µg/ml ±
25.8) > vitamin E (only low toxicity was observed at 24 h). At lower doses, vitamin E and
Trolox™ were non-toxic and could block the toxicity induced by Aloe vera juice. Vitamin
E was more effective than Trolox™. Treatment of A. franciscana with antioxidants prior
to exposure to juice was more effective than the simultaneous treatment of antioxidant and
the toxin, suggesting that Aloe vera juice induced lethality is due to oxidative stress which
can be blocked by antioxidant addition. Exposure of Artemia nauplii to sub-lethal levels of
Aloe vera juice resulted in a decreased activity of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione
reductase and glutathione peroxidase by 34%, 79% and 90% respectively. Vitamin E co-
exposure resulted in enzyme activities closer to the control value (78%, 56% and 32% of
control enzymatic activities for thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and
glutathione peroxidase activity respectively). These results indicate that exposure to sub-
lethal doses of Aloe vera juice induces alterations in the cellular redox status of Artemia
franciscana and that vitamin E addition helps the Artemia franciscana nauplii to
overcome/block the juice induced oxidative stress.
Key words: Aloe vera, cellular redox, glutathione, Oxidative Stress, toxicity.
1.30 Antioxidant Response of Tribulus terrestris L. Grown on Industrially Polluted
I. Stancheva1, M.Geneva, P.Yonova1 , Y. Markovska2
Acad. M.Popov. Institute of Plant Physiology – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str.,
Bl. 21,1113 Sofia, Bulgaria,2Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Biology, 8 D. Tzankov
Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
Abstract: Possibilities for phytoaccumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant capacity of
puncture vine, grown on industrially polluted with Cd, Pb and Zn soil were studied.
Content of Cd, Pb and Zn in the polluted soil exceeded permissible concentrations 3, 4 and
2 times respectively. Puncture vine plants (Tribulus terrestris L.), were grown under
glasshouse conditions on polluted and non-polluted control soil. Plants grown on heavy
metal polluted soil accumulated in the aboveground parts 3.3 times more Cd, 4.3 times
more Pb and 2.3 times more Zn, in comparison with the control plants. Heavy metals
concentration in plant and soil samples were determined on the inductively – coupled
Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Spectrophotometric quantification of ascorbate, reduced
gluthatione and vitamin E was performed through the formation of phosphomolybdenum
complex. Total antioxidant capacity (free radicals scavenging activity) was measured from
the bleaching of the purple-colored methanol solution of free stable radical
(diphenylpycril-hydrazyl, DPPH•) inhibition. All antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate
peroxidase, catalase, dehydroascorbate reductase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione
peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and monodehydroascorbate
reductase) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Puncture vine plants possess good ability
to accumulate heavy metals. Plants grown on heavy metal polluted soil accumulated heavy
metals in both the shoots and roots. Cd and Pb accumulated more in the roots than in the
shoots of plants both from the non - polluted and polluted soil. The observed levels of
main contaminates in aboveground parts were 3.3 times more Cd, 4.3 times more Pb and
2.3 times more Zn, in comparison with the control plants. Heavy metals content in the
roots of treated plants was 2.5, 2.8 and 1.4 times more than in the controls for Cd, Pb and
Zn respectively. The levels of heavy metals accumulation in aboveground parts allowed
supposing that Tribulus terrestris is a plant that could be used for phytoremediation,
more over that higher Cd and Zn levels were found in the plants than in the soil. Absence
of biomass reduction indicated that puncture vine plants tolerate the existing concentration
level of Cd, Pb and Zn. The antioxidant potential of the puncture vine plants is defined by
the content of antioxidant metabolites vitamin E, ascorbate, gluthatione and total phenols
and antioxidant enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and
dehydroascorbate reductase. From the results we can conclude that soil Cd, Pb and Zn in
concentrations far exceeded permissible limit concentrations influenced only a part of
antioxidant capacity of Tribulus terrestris plants.
Key words: Antioxidant capacity, heavy metals, glutathione, polluted soil, puncture vine.
1.31 Modification of Lipid Profile in Albino Rats Fed Diets Incorporated with 5 and
10% Vernonia amygdalina.Del Leaves
Ifeoma Irene Ijeh and Agatha Chima Egedigwe
Dept of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike,
P.M.B7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
Abstract: The effect of 5 and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia
amygdalina on serum triacyglycerol, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL, was studied in
albino rats. Processed and unprocessed leaves Vernonia amygdalina (PVA and UPVA)
were incorporated into standard Vital feed at 5 and 10% levels and fed to adult male
Wistar rats weighing 90-160g over a period of 28 days. Serum lipid profile was assayed
using standard Kits supplied by Randox Laboratories Co UK. Feeding of processed and
unprocessed Vernonia amygdalina resulted in significant (P≤0.05) decreases in serum
triacylglycerol concentration(mg/100ml) in groups fed 5%PVA(146.27±2.56),
10%PVA(113.39±0.89), 5%UPVA (99.43±1.85), 10%UPVA (80.60±0.78) relative to
control (159.15±0.32) fed the basal diet without the vegetable. Serum cholesterol
concentration (mg/100ml) also decreased significantly in groups fed
5%PVA(187.31±2.65), 10% PVA (165.06±2.87), 5% UPVA (183.96±1.14), 10%UPVa
(155.32±0.90) relative to control (195.31±4.39). Serum HDL concentrations increased
significantly in groups fed 5%PVA (89.32±4.44), 10% PVA (95.93±1.19), 5% UPVA
(104.48±1.36), 10%UPVA (114.74±1.03) relative to control (61.79±0.65). Serum LDL
concentration decreased significantly in groups fed 5%PVA(68.74±3.52), 10% PVA
(46.45±3.20), 5% UPVA (59.60±1.68), 10% UPVA (24.46±1.27) relative to control
(61.79±0.65). Serum VLDL Concentrations decreased significantly in groups fed
5%PVA(29.25±0.51), 10% PVA (22.68±0.18), 5% UPVA (19.89±0.37), 10%UPVA
(16.12±0.16) relative to control (61.79±0.65). Feeding of Vernonia amygdalina in the
unprocessed form resulted in a more marked decrease in serum Triacylglcerols ,
Cholesterol, LDL and VLDL and increase in HDL. These findings are indicative that
dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina at 5 and 10% levels in both processed and
unprocessed forms could have positive modulatory effect on blood lipid profile, by
increasing HDL which is beneficial while reducing blood levels of LDL, VLDL and
cholesterol which are considered high risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
Key words: Cholesterol, triacylglycerol, Vernonia amygdalina.
1.32 The Antibacterial Effectiveness Research by Disc Diffusion Method and The
Mutagenic Activity Research by AMES/ Salmonella/ Microzom Test System of
Alcohol, Ether and Asetone Extracts and Oil of Lavandula stoechas L.
Ġlknur KULCANAY ġAHĠN & 2Ercan ÇATAK
Ahi Evran University College of Health, Kırşehir, Turkey. 2Osmangazi University, Faculty of Science,
Department of Biology, Eskişehir, Turkey.
Abstract: In this study research on the alcohol, ether and acetone extracts of Lavandula
stoechas L., and the mutagenic activity of its oils has been done according to the Ames/
Salmonella/ Microsome test procedure. Various extracts have been taken from the plants
leaf and flower divisions. In the laboratory, the above mentioned test procedure has been
done according to the plate incorporation method. The bacterial cultures (TA98, TA100)
of Salmonella typhimurium were used as test organisms in the experiments. At the end of
the experiments, it was seen that all of the plants extracts were not directly or indirectly
mutagenic effective (frame-shift and point mutations. In terms of antibacterial
effectiveness, it has been concluded that Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Basillus
cereus, Klebsiella pneumania, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Sarcina lutea,
Staphylococcus aerous, Enterobacter aerogenes.
Key Words: Ames/ Salmonella, antibacterial effective, Lavandula stoechas L.,
microsome test, mutagenic activity.
1.33 Effects of Methanolic Extract of Teucrium polium on Blood Parameters and
Histopathology of Liver and Kidney in Female Rat
Imane KRACHE, Nadia BENZIDANE, Nacer AMRAOUI, Noureddine CHAREF,
Abderrahmane BAGHIANI, Seddik KHENNOUF and Lekhmici ARRAR
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas
of Setif 19000, Algeria.
Abstract: Teucrium polium L. is commonly used as medicinal plants in Algeria against a
variety of human disease. The effects of methanolic extract were examined per os on
female rats Albino Wistar. Biochemical and haematological serum parameters, and
morphology and histopathology of organs of treated rats were studied. The study of acute
toxicity showed a low toxicity with LD50 > 2400 mg / Kg of body weight of rats. These
data can be used to classify this plant in slightly toxic. However, the sub-acute treatment
for six weeks of rats with 75, 150 and 300 mg of methanolic extract / Kg of body weight
resulted in significant increases of the studied haematological parameters. Biochemical
analysis revealed significant increase of renal (urea, Creatinine, uric acid, Na and K),
accompanied by increase of relative weight of kidney, lipidic (cholesterol) and hepatic
(TGO) values in all treated rats. Histological examination confirmed biochemical tests by
the observation of perilobular necrosis areas, bile duct and inflammatory infiltration of the
liver and presence of marked intracytoplasmic vacuoles in kidney with the dose 300 mg of
methanolic extract of T. polium. Use of Teucrium polium L. may cause hepatotoxicity
and/or nephrotoxicity after prolonged herb administration.
Key words: Teucrium polium L, methanolic extract, LD50, hematologic, liver, kidney.
1.34 The Effects of Chaed (Beta vulgaris L. var cicla) Extracts on the Lenses of
Ismet Burcu TURKYILMAZ1, Bertan Boran BAYRAK1, Ozlem SACAN1, YeĢim
IPCI2,Levent KABASAKAL2, Göksel SENER2, Refiye YANARDAG1
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar; 2Marmara
University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology 81010. Haydarpaşa- Istanbul-Turkey.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition that results in severe metabolic
imbalances and nonphysiological changes in many tissues, and oxidative stress plays an
important role in its etiology1. Beta vulgaris L. species are used as a popular folk medicine
for liver and kidney diseases, for stimulation of the immune and hematopoietic systems,
and as a special diet in the treatment of cancer2. In the present study, the effects of chard
extracts on the lenses of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Male,
Spraque Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into
three groups. Group I; control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; streptozotocin
(STZ)–diabetic animals (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6).
Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitonal injection of STZ in a single dose of
60 mg/kg body weight. The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at
a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. At the
end of the experimental period, lens tissues of rats were taken after decaptation.The right
and left lenses were both taken and homogenized with 0.9% saline solution. The
homogenates were centrifuged and the clear supernatants were used for protein,
glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and enzyme activities. Lens LPO
levels and aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and catalase activities were increased
in diabetic rats when compared to control rats. Also, lens GSH levels were decreased. On
the other hand, treatment with chard extract reversed these effects.These results suggested
that administration of chard extracts for 45 days is a potentially beneficial agent to reduce
the lenses damage in diabetic rats, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.
Key words: Chaed, diabetic, extracts, lenses, oxidative stress.
1.35 Effects of Malaysian Germinated Brown Rice on Atherosclerosis in Cholesterol-
Khairul Kamilah AK1, Zulkhairi A1, Azrina A2, Norhaizan ME2, Maznah I3, Hasnah
B1, Taufik Hidayat M1, Mokhlas MAM1, Khairunnuur FA1, Fazali F1, Farah I. N1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor. 3Laboratory of Molecular
Biomedicine, Bioscience Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Abstract: The cardioprotective role of rice diets, which is the staple food for Asians, has
been suggested since several decades ago. There are several types of popular rice
consumed in Malaysia such as Basmati, long grain, white, brown and black rice. In this
study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and germinated
brown rice (GBR) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic induced-rabbits for 10 weeks.
Forty two male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were used and grouped as; NC (normal
group, n=6), HC (normal diet and 0.5% cholesterol, n=6), WR (white rice and 0.5%
cholesterol, n = 6), BR (brown rice and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6), GBR (germinated brown
rice and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6) and SG (simvastatin and 0.5% cholesterol, n = 6). The
plasma samples were collected for blood lipid analyses at week 0, 5 and 10 respectively
while the aorta was excised for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at termination. The
levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were
lower in the plasma of rabbits fed GBR than other groups meanwhile plasma high density
lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) concentration was greater in GBR fed group when
compared to HC group. Feeding GBR to rabbits reveals a favourable effect towards a
reduction of atherosclerosis in the aorta by 70%. As a conclusion, findings from this study
showed that Malaysian GBR has demonstrated positive hypocholesterolemic and anti-
atherogenic effect in hypercholesterolemia induces-rabbits. However, the exact
mechanism involving various compounds and antioxidant in GBR needs further
Key words: Atherosclerosis, cholesterol-fed rabbit, lipid profile, rice.
1.36 Cytotoxic Effect of Artemisia Herba alba on S.U.99 Cell Line Growth Rate
Khulood Whayeb Alsamarrae
Manager of biotechnology research center , Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq.
Abstract: the study aimed to determine the effect of Artemesia on S.U.99 cell line growth
rate in different times of incubation (24, 48, 72 and 92 hour) and its effect on mice embryo
fibroblast cell growth rate. The result showed inhibition in S.U.99 cell line growth rate in
all times of incubation in comparison with the control .the effect may be attributed to
certain active secondary. Metabolites found in the plant extract. Terpenes are one of these
Key words: Cell, cytotoxic, Herba alba, growth.
1.37 Study of Anti-Inflammatory Action of Amuse Extract of Complex Herbal
Kyslychenko O.A., and Vihtinskaya I.L.
National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine. Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate
Education, Kharkov, Ukraine.
Abstract: Combination of five different plants with various pharmacological properties in
herbal species (HS) make it possible to obtain new effective and nontoxic drugs. It
included Matricaria chamomilla, Calendula officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Hypericum
perforatum, Mentha piperita (1:1:1:1:1). The suppressive action of HS on vascular
permeability and pleurisy was studied (Suzuki, 1966). Male white rabbits weighting about
2 kg were employed. 30 minutes after the sample drug was administrated orally 5 ml/kg
body weight of 1% Evans blue solution was injected into ear‟s vein of rabbits.
Immediately then 3 inflammation-inducing substances were injected into dehaired back
skin, 4 sites for each substance, thus totalling 12 sites and 0,1 ml for each site. The
inflammation-inducing substances were dissolved to concentrations adequate not causing
tissue necrosis in preliminary experiments (0,01% histamine, 0,001% serotonin and 0,01%
carageenin). One hour later the animals were killed by air embolism, the testing skin sites
removed and the area where Evans blue exudated estimated. On the other hand, the skin
tissue was decomposed by the action of protease, according to the method of Suzuki and
the amount of exudated Evans blue was determined by colorimetry. Three to six animals
were made to constitute one group for experiments and the average values and standard
deviation were obtained. In the group, receiving 500 mg HS per 1 kg body weight per os
the area of Evans blue exudation after injection of histamine, serotonin and carageenin
were 288 mm2 – 230 mm2, 69 – 35 mm2 and 76 mm2 – 54 mm2, respectively, showing
distinct decreases and, thus, proving the inhititing action of HS on vascular permeability.
The amount of Evans blue in the exudate which was estimated simultaneously was found
to decrease in all cases: with histamine from 420 mg per one spot to 365 per one spot; with
serotonin from 140 mg per one spot to 160 mg per one spot and with carrageenin from 290
to 188 per one spot. As a result of the research the suppressing action of HS on vascular
permeability and pleurisy was studied. By oral administration of 500 mg/kg of HS the
augmented vascular permeability caused by histamine, serotonin and carrageenin was
Key words: Extract, herbal species, inflammatory, vascular.
1.38 Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Thick Extract of Rodiola coccinea
Kyslychenko V.S., Diakonova Ia.V., Zhuravel I.O., Karpiuk U.V.1, Tseliuba
National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine. National O.O. Bohomolets Medical
University, Kyiv, Ukraine.
Abstract: The application of synthetic preparations often has serious side effects , in
particular as a result of their accumulation in an organism, that does impossible their
application over a long period of time at treatment of chronic diseases. These matters are
foreign for an organism, while bioactive substances of phytogenous origin are familiar,
because they are synthesized by living organisms. It is well-known that 80% of the world
population use remedies obtained on plant basis. Their medicinal value many is known by
millenniums, and plants are successfully used in traditional medicine. Even in Western
countries, where basic attention is spared synthetic preparations, over 25% of medicines
are obtained on plant basis. Therefore a search of new vegetable sources of bioactive
compounds and creation basis of medicinal preparations on their актуальной actual tasks
of modern pharmacy. The object of our research was a thick extract from rhizomes and
roots of Rhodiola coccinea that is called by common people red brush, water served as an
extract. Rodiola the bright red is widely used in folk medicine, for stimulation of
immunity in the period of the protracted diseases and long reception of antibiotics, for the
prophylaxis of womanish illnesses, such as a mastopathy, hysteromyoma, erosion, cyst,
irregular monthly cycles, violation of heart work, at anemia and leucosis, at endocrine
violations and as adaptogen. We developed a project of normatively analytical
documentation for the thick extract Rhodiola coccinea. Identifying a thick extract is
suggested to be carried out on external declaration, smell, taste, and also positive reaction
on antocyanes. A dry remain, maintenance of heavy metals, microbiological cleanness and
quantitative maintenance of antocyanes, was identified from numerical indexes. As
Rhodiola coccinea in folk medicine is used for stimulation of immunity in the period of
the protracted diseases, including those of infectious character, similarly at the long
acceptance of antibiotics, it was expedient to study antimicrobial activity of the got
extract. For the study of antimicrobial activity of extract the method of the successive
breeding in a liquid nourishing environment and method of diffusion in a gelose were
used. It was set as a result of researches, those microorganisms of Staphylococcus
aureus, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris are sensible to the thick extract from
rhizomes and roots of Rhodiola coccinea. Thus, thick extract from rhizomes and roots of
Rhodiola coccinea can be recommended as basis for creation of medicinal preparations,
used in treatment of infectious diseases, caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia
coli, and Proteus vulgaris.
Key words: Antimicrobial, Rodiola Coccinea, red brush, rhizomes.
1.39 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Myrtus
communis L. from Algeria
M. Brada 1, A. Hennia 2, S. Nemmiche 2, J.P. Wathelet 3 and G. Lognay 4
Département de Génie des Procédés, Institut des Sciences et de la Technologie, Centre Universitaire de
Khemis-Miliana, Algeria. 2Département de Biotechnologie et Technologie Alimentaire, Faculté des Sciences
Exactes et des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Mostaganem, Algeria. 3Unité de Chimie
Organique et Chimie Générale. 4Unité de Chimie Analytique, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences
Agronomiques de Gembloux, 2 ; Passage des Déportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
Abstract: This study deals with the valorisation of medicinal and aromatic plants of the
Algerian flora, in order to find new bioactive natural products. Myrtus communis essential
oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by capillary gas chromatography and gas
chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-seven volatile compounds were identified in
the leaves essential oil; the major components -pinene (23.5 %), limonene (22.9
%), 1,8-cineole (16.1 %), linalool (13.0%), linalyl acetate (10.9%) and geranyl acetate
(4.6%). The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracts was evaluated by the diffusion
method and by the dilution method in liquid medium on pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Proteus sp and Klebsiella sp). The antimicrobial activity of different
extracts against five strains of bacteria showed apparent sensitivities but different depending on the
pathogen. Some bacteria had been sensitive to low doses of about 2 and 5μl of essential oils. These results
were confirmed by those of microbial growth which was strongly inhibited in the presence of doses ranging
from 8 to 20μl of essential oils.
Their antibacterial activity would be attributed to many factors
such as concentration, type of target microorganisms and the major presence of active
compounds.The essential oils extracted from Myrtus communis L. from Algeria had evident antimicrobial
activity against the tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp and Klebsiella sp having shown
the most sensitive.
Key words: Myrtus communis, essential oil composition, antimicrobial activity, bacterial pathogens.
1.40 Effect of Feeding with some Egyptian Vegetables on Total Lipids and
Cholesterol Fractions in Blood Serum of Albino Rats
M. Kamal E Youssef 1, F. M. El-Tellawy2, S. A. Ghanem2 M. N. Zaky2 and M. M.
Food Sci. & Techn. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University 2Home Economics, Dept., Faculty of
Specific Education, Ain -Shams University, 3Home Economics Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Assiut
Abstract: Moderate food intake is one of the very important reasons for enjoying a good
health and ability of working. Less eating fresh vegetables may be leading to exposure to
many diseases. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clarify the effect
of the three studied vegetables namely: cabbage, carrot and radish on total lipids,
triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL/LDL ratio, VLDL-
cholesterol in blood serum of the experimental rats after feeding with three studied
vegetables as well as in the control diets. The effect of feeding cabbage, carrot, and radish
were tested in hyperlipidemic rats given diets containing these vegetables for six weeks.
The results revealed that the treated rats with cabbage, carrot, and radish had lower levels
of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL-
cholesterol) than untreated group. On the other hand, radish recorded the least significant
decrease in serum total lipids, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) of
the experimental rats. Meanwhile, carrot recorded the least significant decrease in serum
total lipids of the experimental rats.
Key words: Cabbage, carrot, radish, , total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol.
1.41 The Effect of Using Certain Spices on Histopathological Structure of Some
Organs in Digestive System of Albino Rats
M. Kamal E. Youssef1, Sanaa M. El-Bendary2 and Rasha M. Ahmad3
Food Science & Technology Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 2Home Economic Dept.,
Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, 3Home Economic Dept., Faculty of Specific
Education, Assiut University.
Abstract: Spices were the topic of many arguments due to their great importance.
However, black pepper and red chilli are considered the most common spices used in
Egyptian households. Two black pepper samples (Indian and Vietnamese) and four
cultivars of red chilli planted in different governorates of Egypt (Aswan, Assiut, Cairo and
Alexandria) have been studied. The effect of feeding the experimental animals with black
peppers and red chillies on histological structure of stomach, duodenum, liver and spleen
was carried out on one hundred and fourteen adult male white albino rats weighing
between 100 and 120 grams. The rats were classified randomly into (18) main groups of
(6) rats each and the control group. The rats were fed for 30 days on basal diet containing
the studied spices. The changes in the histopathological structure of some animal organs
were investigated after ending the feeding program. The present investigations indicated
that feeding the experimental animals during 30 days with the studied black pepper and
red chilli resulted changes in histological structure of stomach, duodenum, liver and
Key words: Black pepper, duodenum, liver, spleen. rats, red chilli, spices, stomach.
1.42 Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extact from Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G.
M. Mutluhan DOGER, Refiye YANARDAG
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320. Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the form of superoxide anion, hydroxyl
radical and hydrogene peroxide are generated in living organisms through many pathways.
Accumalation of ROS in aerobic organisms is thought to cause oxidative damage in cells.
Oxidative damage is believed to be strongly associated with certain human diseases such
as mutagenesis, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, aging and carcinogenesis. Many
synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene
(BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone and propyl gallate have shown toxic and/or mutagenic
effects, which have shifted the attention to naturally occuring antioxidants. However, the
use of these synthetic antioxidants is restricted in some countries due to their toxicity.
Therefore, substitution of synthetic antioxidants by natural ones and the screening of plant
species for identifying new antioxidants have become critically important in recent years.
The plant kingdom offers a wide range of natural antioxidants. Trachystemon orientalis
(L.) G. Don (Boraginaceae) is grown in Marmara and Black Sea regions of Turkey and is
commonly used as a vegetable in these regions. The orientalis species have an expectorant,
diaphoretic, and antipyretic effects. In the present study, the possible antioxidative
activities of water extract T. orientalis (L.) G. Don were evaluated using different
antioxidant tests. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolics,
flavonoid and proline contents of the extract were also studied. The results were compared
with natural and synthetic antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, Trolox and vitamin E. This
study showed that T. orientalis (L.) G. Don extract exhibited antioxidant activity in all
tests. These findings show that T. orientalis (L.) G. Don may be considered as an
interesting source of natural antioxidants food manufactures.
Key words: Antioxidant, aqueous, butylated hydroxytoluene, boraginaceae, extact.
1.43 The Effects of Nigella sativa on Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage-Induced Cerebral
Ischemia in Rats
Mehmet Ersahin1, Hale Z. Toklu2, ġule Çetinel3, Berrak Ç. Yeğen4, Göksel ġener2
Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery; 2 School of
Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Marmara University, 3 School of Medicine, Department of
Histology & Embryology, Marmara University, 4 School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Marmara
University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Cerebral ischemia, related to vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity
and mortality in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the study was
to investigate the putative neuroprotective effect of Nigella sativa, a strong antioxidant, in
a murine model of SAH. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control, vehicle-treated
SAH, and Nigella sativa-treated (0.2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) SAH groups. To induce
SAH, rats were injected with 0.3 mL blood into their cisterna magna. Forty-eight hours
after SAH induction, neurological examination scores were recorded and the rats were
decapitated. Brain tissue samples were taken for blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability,
brain water content, histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde
(MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+-K+ ATPase
activities. On the second day of SAH induction, neurological examination scores were
increased in SAH groups, while SAH caused significant decreases in brain GSH content
and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, which were accompanied with significant increases in MDA
levels and MPO activity. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment reversed all these
biochemical indices as well as SAH-induced histopathological alterations, while increased
brain water content and impaired BBB were reversed by Nigella sativa treatment. The
present data suggest that the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa may be the result of its
antioxidant and vasodilatory properties, which preserve BBB permeability and reduce brain
edema concomitantly. Although further studies are needed to explain the precise
mechanisms of action of Nigella sativa on cerebral ischemia, we can currently suggest that
this agent has novel therapeutic effects in the treatment of acute ischemic brain damage
Key words: Antioxidant, cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, Nigella sativa.
1.44 Antioxidant Activity of Propolis from Algarve
Miguel MG1, Nunes S2, Dandlen S2, Cavaco AM3, Antunes MD1
Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, DQF, Edifício 8, Centro de Biotecnologia
Vegetal, IBB, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro. 2Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade de Ciências e
Tecnologia, DQF, Edifício 8, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro. 3Universidade do Algarve, Faculdade
de Ciências e Tecnologia, Edifício 2, CEOT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139, Faro, Portugal.
Abstract: The term „propolis‟ was used in Ancient Greece meaning: pro (for, in front of,
e.g., at the entrance to) and polis (city or community); a substance that is for or in defence
of the city or hive. Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from leaf buds
and exudates from various plant sources, which is employed for construction and repair of
the honeycomb. More than 180 compounds have been reported as being constituents of
propolis: polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters), terpenoids, steroids,
and amino acids. Nevertheless, its composition varies qualitatively and quantitatively with
the geographical and botanical origins. Propolis possesses antimicrobial,
antiinflammatory, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antitumor, immunostimulating and
antioxidant activities, among others. These activities are particularly dependent on the
chemical composition of propolis. In the present work the antioxidant activities, measured
by several methods, in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis collected at different zones of
Algarve, during winter and spring, were evaluated. Phenolic content was evaluated along
with the capacity of extracts of propolis for scavenging DPPH and ABTS free radicals as
well as superoxide anion. The zones were spread by 3 areas in central Algarve: Mountain
(Califórnia, Cabaça, Sarnadinha, Sobreira and Vila Chã Vermelhos); Maqui (Ameijoafra,
Arrodeios and Pé da Serra), and the third region was an intermediate zone between those
two regions, that we called as Transition (Rio Seco, Bicão Alto, Jordana, Lajo and
Madeira). Independent on the collection time generally Ameijoafra, Arrodeios and Pé da
Serra, all of them belonging to the Maqui region, presented the highest amount of phenols.
Concerning the antioxidant activity, namely the capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals,
the extracts obtained from Ameijoafra, Pé da Serra and Arrodeios (Maqui) in both
collection times, and Vila Chã Vermelhos (Mountain), only in spring, was the most active.
A practically similar pattern was observed when the activity was measured through the
ABTS radical scavenging. These results were coincident with the highest amounts of
phenols present in the extracts. Only the samples from Maqui were significant better
scavengers of superoxide anion radicals than the remaining samples.
Key words: Algarve, antioxidant, propolis.
1.45 Antioxdant Capacity, Nutritional and Phenolic Components of some Aromatic
Head of Food Sci. &Tech. Dept., Faculty of Agriclture, Assiut University. Assiut, Egypt.
Abstract: Essential oils were of obtained from five selected aromatic plants, namely:
Fennel, rosemary, ginger, thyme and cinnamon by distillation method. Their contents of
phenols were determined and phenolic components were separated and identified by using
Hplc method. The antioxidant activity of extracts of all studied samples was determined
using the rancimat test. The antioxidant activities were compared to synthetic antioxidants
such as BHA and BHT. The obtained results indicated that the aromatic plant extracts are
considered a potential source of natural antioxidants, and it could be used in foods to
replace synthetic antioxidants, which are being restricted due to their side effects such as
carcinogenicity. The results showed that the aromatic plant oil extracts caused a significant
decrease in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride. Similar results were observed in
LDL. cholesterol concentration. It could be concluded that the studies aromatic plant
samples might be contain polar products which be able to lower lipid concentrations in
hyperlipidemia rats, and could be beneficial in preventing hyperlipidemia and related
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, aromatic plants, cholesterol, essential oils, phenols,
1.46 Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarix gallica L. Extracts and Isolated Flavonoids
Mostafa Lefahal1, Salah Akkal1, Souheila Louaar1, Merzoug Benahmed1, Ammar.
Zallagui2 , Helmut Duddeck3
Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses physicochimiques et Biologiques, Département de Chimie, Faculte
de Sciences exactes, Universite Mentouri Constantine, Route d‟Ain el Bey, 25000 Constantine, Algerie .
Laboratoire des produits naturels d‟origine végetale, Département de Chimie,Faculte de Sciences exactes,
Universite Mentouri. Constantine, Route d‟Ain el Bey, 25000 Constantine, Algerie. 3Universität Hannover,
Institut für Organische Chemie, Schneiderberg 1B, D-30167Hannover, Germany.
Abstract: A chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Tamarix gallica afforded two
flavonoids, 5-Hydroxy-4′,3,7-trimethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,3′-Trihydroxy-4′-
methoxyflavone (2). The structures of the isolated compounds were established by
chromatographic behaviour and by means of UV, NMR and MS spectral analysis.
Moreover the Antimicrobial activity test was carried out on flavonoid extract and two
isolated flavonoids: (1) and (2) of Tamarix gallica using disk diffusion method against
five human pathogenic bacteria, including Gram positive, Gram-negative bacteria and one
fungus Aspergillus niger.
Key words: Tamarix gallica;, Tamaricaceae; flavonoids; antimicrobial activity.
1.47 Antimicrobial Screening of Viscum album L.
Muhammad Altaf Hussain and Muhammad Qayyum Khan
Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir Muzaffarabad.
Abstract: The leaves and twigs of Viscum album L. (Family: Loranthaceae) were
extracted successively with various organic solvents and water. These crude extracts
were assessed for antimicrobial activities against three Gram positive bacteria, five
Gram negative bacteria, one yeast and one fungus by using disc diffusion method.
The Ethylacetate, chloroform, ethanol, and methanol crude extracts of selected plant
parts had significant antimicrobial activities on both Gram positive and Gram
negative bacteria. The Ethylacetate and methanol crude extracts of leaves and twigs
of Viscum album exhibited prominent activities against Gram positive and Gram
negative bacteria used in comparison to other extracts which had moderate activity
against all the tested bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the
selected plant parts were more active against Gram negative bacteria than Gram
positive bacteria. The standard reference antibiotics, Ciprofloxacin (100µm/ml) and
Nystatin (1500u/ml) were used as positive control.
Key words: Antimicrobial, bacteria, leaves, screening.
1.48 Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Root Extract of Berberis lycium Royle
Muhammad Qayyum Khan and Muhammad Altaf Hussain
Department of Botany, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Muzaffarabad 13100 Pakistan.
Abstract: The present work was carried out to study the antimicrobial activity of the
aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of the root of Berberis lycium Royle
(Family Berberidaceae), against Gram(+) bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus,
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis, Gram (–) viz Salmonella typhi, E. coli
and a fungal strain Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities were determined by
using Paper-Disc method, described by Casal (1979) and Chung et al., (1990). The
ethanolic and aqueous crud root extract were found to be most effective antifungal and
antibacterial agents while no significant activity was shown by the petroleum ether extract
against test organisms. The results were compared with the inhibition caused by
commercially available standard reference antibiotic disc (Tetracycline). The inhibitory
effects of all the crude extracts on the growth of both Gram (+) and Gram (-) organisms
are very close and identical in magnitude and are comparable with standard antibiotic disc
Key words: Antimicrobial, Berberis lyceum, extract, root.
1.49 The Immediate Antimicrobial Effect of Miswak Extraction
Nadia, A. Al-OMARI. 2Fardous N Al-Adwan., 3Jihad Qassem3, Amer Al-Omari2 and
Rania A. Al-efiashat
MSc.Pharm., 2BSc.Pharm., 3Al-Balqa`Applied University, Jordan.
Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the activity of antimicrobial components of
miswak on the bacteria found in the mouth, especially (Staphylococcus aureus, and
Micrococcus). Swap was taken from tooth and cultured, and then isolation of bacteria was
done. The wanted bacteria ( S.aureus and Micrcoccus ) were cultured. Broth from each
bacterium was prepared and different dilutions were taken from it. Samples from the
dilutions were taken and put on sterile Petri dish and incubated for 24 hours. After growth
colonies were counted. The same process was done with the addition of miswak extraction
on the broth. Finally comparison was done between numbers of colonies before and after
adding miswak extraction. Results showed that, the number of bacterial colonies was
reduced after adding miswak extraction for both Staphylococcus and Micrococcus.For
Staphylococcus, the total count before adding miswak extraction for 3 samples were
9X106 cfu, 6x106 cfu, and 7x106 cfu. The count after adding miswak extraction was
6x103 cfu, 3x103 cfu, and 4x103 cfu respectively.For Micrococcus the count before was
8x105 cfu, 5x105 cfu, and 6x105 cfu.after adding miswak extraction the count was 6x102
cfu, 3x102 cfu, and4x102 cfu respectively. In conclusion,There was a reduction in the
number of colonies of the bacteria found on the tooth surface, which is due to the presence
of many minerals in miswak like Sodium salts, Calcium salts, and phosphate salts….etc.
Key words: Antimicrobial, Extraction, miswak.
1.50 Saudi Traditional Medicine: Studies on Herbal Drugs with Anti-Diabetic
Naif O. Al-Harbi, Riyadh M. Al-Ashban, and Arif H. Shah
Central Laboratory for Drug Analysis, Ministry of Health and Saudi Food and Drug Authority Joint Venture,
King Saud Medical Complex, P.O.Box 59082, Riyadh-11525, Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Medical plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus
especially in developing countries. Several plants have been identified to be useful to cure
diabetes in Saudi Traditional Medicine. Some of these plants are defined in Tibb al-Nabvi
while others are listed in Greeko-Arab System of Medicine. Artemisia abyssinica,
Teucrium polium, Clutia richardiana, Rhazya stricta, Clutia richardiana, Allium cepa,
Citrullus colocynthis, Caralluma tuberculata, Momordica charantia, Cymbopogon
proximus, Aloe vera, Allium sativum, Zygophyllum coccineum, Lupinus albus, Teucriurn
oliverianum, Coriandrum sativum, Nigella sativa, Commiphora molmol, Gum olibnum,
Ferula asafetida, Azadirachta indica, Hammada saticornica and Trigonella foenum-
greacum, showed significant hypoglycemic potential in animal models. Recent literature
survey revealed that some new bioactive compounds were isolated from plants which
possessed hypoglycemic activity. It was noticed the anti-diabetic activity of pure
compounds was more than oral hypoglycaemic agents used in clinical therapy. These
findings clearly demonstrated the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of
diabetes. However, a large number of medicinal plants possessed some degree of toxicity.
For example, it was reported that about one third of medicinal plants used in the treatment
of diabetes might contain toxic chemical constituents. During our work, it was found that
Artemisia abyssinica and Teucrium polium possessed significant spermatotoxic potential.
However, little concern is shown to the side effects and toxicity of herbal drugs which
might be used for a relatively longer period of time. In continuation of our work, now
Trigonella foenum-graecum treatment was evaluated for its toxic potential. Acute (24 h)
and chronic (90 days) oral toxicity studies on the ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-
graecum L. (Leguminosae) seeds were carried out. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g/kg
while chronic dosage was 100 mg/kg per day of the extract . All morphological,
biochemical, hematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to mortality, body
weight changes and any change in vital organs were recorded. Histopathological
investigations were done on vital organs. Growth arrest in the treated animals was
observed. The treated mice gained no significant weight during chronic treatment while
there was a significant gain in body weight of the control group mice. Biochemical studies
revealed a significant decrease in blood sugar levels of fenugreek treatment groups while
hematological parameters remained comparable to the control. In the treatment, male
group there was a significant decrease in weight of testes as compared to the control.
There was a marginal weight gain in kidney weight of mice after chronic treatment as
compared to the control. Fenugreek chronic treatment caused a highly significant
spermatotoxic effects in male mice. Based on the results of present study, it is suggested
that special caution must be taken when fenugreek seeds and/or their extracts are added to
special foodstuff formulated for people with diabetes. Furthermore, the results of the
current study provide basic information about the toxicity of fenugreek seeds that might be
helpful in planning future pre-clinical experiments on this potent natural drug.
Key words: Diabetic, drugs, herbal, saudi, traditional medicine.
1.51 Anti-Stress Activity of Ethnolic Extract of Zanthoxylum armatum dc Leaves
Nitin Verma and R.L.Khosa
Department of Pharmacy, Bharat Institute of Technology, Bye-Pass Road, Partapur Meerut -250 103 (U.P.)
India. Phone No. 0121-2440460, Fax No.0121-2440310.
Abstract: An exponential rise in world population coupled with rapid industrial growth
has a direct impact on environment and society thus making man easily vulnerable to
stress conditions. These , in-turn , causes disturbances in the normal physiological
functioning of the body by way of increased free radical generation culminating in
hypertension, neurosis, immune suppression and other physical and mental disorders.
Global search is on, for the development of an effective antistress drug from natural source
which could effectively tone up the disturbed physiological functioning of the subjects
affected by such stress problem. A number of herbal drugs mostly in the form of their
extracts (holistic approach) or in some as active principles isolated from them, have been
evaluated for their antistress activity. Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) is extensively
used in indigenous system of medicine in various ailments and as health tonic. The present
study was aimed to evaluate the antistress activity of Zanthoxylum armatum in a battery of
experiments, as this plant is reported be having significant antioxidant actions in various
models in our lab. Taxonomically identified and authenticated plant material was defatted
with petroleum ether (60-80°) and extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extract was dried
and made in to suspension in water containing 20% v/v propylene glycol and 0.08%
Tween 80. The experiments were conducted on albino rats. The drug suspension was
administered to the respective treatment group at a dose of 500 mg/kg, once daily in the
morning through gastric intubation. The control animals received drug vehicle (1 ml) and
the diazepam control animals received 2.5 mg/kg diazepam for a similar period. The
photocell activity cage method, rotating rod method, forced swimming endurance method,
autoanalgesia, open field behavior method, adrenocortical activity following restraint
stress, spleen weight following restraint stress were used to investigate the antistress
activity of the Z. armatum. The results of photocell and rotating rod experiments were
showed that the treatment with the plant had no neurological impairing or marked CNS
depressant activities. The forced swimming endurance test exhibited a significantly
increased period of onset and a reduced total duration of immobility in rats thus indicating
the antidepressant activity of the plant. In the analgesiometer measurements, were found to
possess analgesic activity. The open field behavior aspects of ambulation, rearing and
period of immobility in the 5-minutes test have shown the anxiolytic effects upon
treatment with plant extract. Thus It was concluded that the Zanthoxylum armatum (500
mg /kg) possess significant antistress activity in all the parameters studied.
Key words: Environment, ethnolic, extract, leaves, Zanthoxylum armatum.
1.52 Strobilanthes crispus Extract Reduces Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) in
Obese Mice Fed High Fat and Low Fat Diets without Altering Food Intake
1 2 2 1 1
Norhasnida, Z , Warner, A , Ebling, F , Salter, A , and Brameld, J
Schools of Biosciences and Biomedical Sciences , University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Abstract: Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) is claimed to have body weight lowering
effect. However, currently there is no scientific evidence to support the claim. We
investigated the effects of S. crispus extract (SCE) on high fat-induced obese mice
maintained on HFD or switched to LFD. All mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 25
weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on the HFD and half switched
to low fat diet (LFD). At the same time, mice were given normal water or 0.1% (w/v) SCE
in water at Week 0-4 which was increased to 1% (w/v) at Week 5-9. Oxygen consumption
(VO2), CO2 production (VCO2), RER, locomotor activity (LMA) and heat production
(HP) were measured at Week -1, 4 and 9. Food intake, water intake and body weight was
measured weekly. Plasma glycerol (PG) and abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) weight were
determined at Week 10. Results indicated that mice switched to LFD lost weight (p<
0.001), mainly due to decreased energy intake (p<0.001) as there were no effects on VO2,
LMA or HP (p=0.931, p=0.437, p=0.621). They also had lower AAT weight and PG level
(all p<0.001). SCE had no effect at either dose on body weight, VO2, VCO2, LMA or HP
(p=0.08, p=0.474, p=0.605, p=0.988, p=0.698), but significantly reduced RER (p=0.034),
without altering food or water intake (p=0.1, p=0.222). PG level were also increased in
SCE treated mice (p=0.032). In conclusion, Switching to LFD reduced obesogenic
phenotype. SCE appeared to induce lipolysis and body fat oxidation.
Key words: Fat diet, obese, respiratory exchange, Strobilanthes crispus.
1.53 Nigella sativa Treatment Ameliorates Cardiac and Cerebral Injury in
Nur TaĢar1, Özer ġehirli1, Ömer Yiğiner2, ġule Çetinel3, 4Berrak Ç. Yeğen, 4 Emre
ġener, Göksel ġener1
Marmara University, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology; 2Gülhane Military Medical
Academy, Department of Cardiology; Marmara University, School of Medicine, 3Departments of Histology
& Embryology and 4Physiology, Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Hypertension is a lifestyle-related disease and dietary modifications are
effective for its management and prevention. Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) and
its active component thymoquinone have been known as sources of antioxidants. In this
study, we investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa in a renovascular
hypertension model induced by placing a renal artery clip in Wistar albino rats (n= 8),
while sham rats (n= 8) had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation,
rats received Nigella sativa oil (0.2 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. At
the end of the 9th week, after the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements
were recorded, the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH) level, creatine kinase (CK) activity, while cardiac and cerebral
tissues were removed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH)
levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+,K+-ATPase activities. Hypertension caused
increased BP and HR, along with increased plasma LDH and CK activities (p<0.05-
0.001). Moreover, in hypertensive animals cardiac and cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase activities
and GSH contents were decreased, while MDA levels and MPO activities were increased
in both tissues (p<0.05-0.001). On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly
reduced BP and HR, attenuated oxidative injury. In conclusion, Nigella sativa protected
against hypertension-induced cardiac and cerebral damage via its antioxidant and
antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in
Key words: Ameliorates, cardiac, cerebral, hypertensive, Nigella sati.
1.54 Assessment of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory Activities of
Origanum haussknechtii Boiss.
Nurgün Küçükboyacı1, Ilkay Erdogan-Orhan1, M. Mesud Hürkul2, AyĢegül Güvenç2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330 Etiler, 2Department of
Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.
Abstract: Origanum haussknechtii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) is an endemic species to Turkey,
which has been used as a tea in Erzincan-Kemaliye region of the country. The aim of this
work was to determine antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory properties
of Origanum haussknechtii. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the plant were
evaluated for their antioxidant capacity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical
scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating effect, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP),
trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays. In
addition, their AChE inhibitory activity, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of
Alzheimer‟s disease, was also screened by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman.The
extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models
used. The extracts displayed a mild scavenging activity against DPPH at 1000 μg ml -1.
Besides, they exerted a moderate effect in FRAP, while only the methanol extract had a
similar activity at 1000 μg ml-1 (19.86 ± 0.23) to that of the reference (26.94 ± 1.48). In the
TBA method, the methanol extract showed highest antioxidant activity (IC50=23.62 ± 2.42
μg ml-1) than its aqueous extract (IC50=98.99 ± 1.58 μg ml-1) as compared to propyl gallate
(IC50=0.24 ± 0.01 μg ml-1). For the TEAC assay, the methanol extract possessed the
highest antioxidant capacity (1.35 ± 0.28 mmol trolox/g) than the aqueous extract (1.22 ±
0.55 mmol trolox/g). However, both of the extracts were inactive in AChE inhibitory
Key words: Antioxidant, cholinesterase, origanum, lamiaceae, spectrophotometric.
1.55 Fifteen Years of Work on Aloe vera
Nuriye AKEV1, Ayse CAN1, Nurhayat SUTLUPINAR2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Medical usage and applications of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. (Aloeaceae), deal
with skin disorders, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer and the effects are mainly
attributed to immunomodulatory or antioxidant activities. Compounds responsible for
these activities were sometimes isolated and identified but some authors prefer to declare
that their synergistic effects of are responsible for the beneficial effect of the plant. In our
studies water extracts were prepared separately from the leaf skin and the gel parts of A.
vera (ISTE 65118) which was cultivated in the green house of Istanbul University Alfred
Heilbronn Botanical Garden. Our work on A. vera beginned with the separation of
anthraquinones from the exudate part of the leaves (1) and continued with the purification
and characterization of the lectins, namely Aloctin I and II from the leaf skin and gel parts
separately (2,3). In the following study, A. vera leaf skin and gel extracts were assayed
against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type I and type II diabetic rats. In acute studies
significant hypoglycaemic effect was seen, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II
diabetes in comparison with the known drug glibenclamide (4). On the other hand, the
same effect could not be seen on chronic treatment (5). The effect of A. vera extracts on
several tissues: lenses (6), kidney (7), liver (8), pancreatic -cells (9), heart and skin (10)
of type-II diabetic rats was investigated consequent to the above mentioned studies. The
biochemical markers for each tissue as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated.
For all tissues, except pancreatic -cells, an amelioration of oxidative damage provoked
by STZ was determined. A. vera has shown a significant prophylactic effect on Ehrlich
ascites tumour cells when injected to mice before tumour inoculation (11). This effect was
also seen with the purified lectin (Aloctin I) and attributed to the immunomodulatory
effect of the plant (12). There is strong evidence to suggest that oxidative stress may play
a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes as well as cancer. In order to continue on
investigating the therapeutic properties of A. vera, and in the light of our research,
assuming that its benefit could be attributed to the antioxidant activity, the antioxidant
potential of the leaves was evaluated in our last study. The leaf skin extract showed good
antioxidant capacity in all tests while the inner gel did not exhibit any activity (13).
Key words: Aloe vera, antioxidant, antitumour, antidiabetic.
1.56 Hepatoprotective Effect of Smilax excelsa L.
Nurten OZSOY1, Alper OKYAR2, Ayse CAN1, Nuriye AKEV1, Gul BAKTIR2
Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University,
Abstract: Smilax excelsa L. leaves are used widely in the Black Sea region of Turkey for
consumption in the daily diet and in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases,
skin disorders and liver inflammation. The reported strong in vitro antioxidative activity of
S. excelsa leaves suggests that it may also have a strong preventive effect against oxidative
stress in vivo. Because free radicals and reactive oxygen species play a central role in liver
diseases, dietary antioxidants have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract liver
damage. In vivo antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of S. excelsa
against acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in the liver was investigated in
the present study. The aqueous extract of S. excelsa leaves was administered orally in
doses of 100 mg and 400 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 9 days. Acute hepatic toxicity
was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body wt, in a 20 % v/v olive oil
solution) on the 10 th day and assessed 24 h after CCl4 treatment. Rats treated with CCl4,
developed significant liver damage as observed from the elevated serum levels of hepato-
specific enzymes (AST and ALT) as well as severe alteration in other biochemical
parameters. In addition, this potent toxicant caused significant decrease in glutathione
reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase activities,
depleted the GSH content and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver. Administration of
S. excelsa aqueous extract prior to CCl4 intoxication produced the inhibition in CCl4-
induced toxicity by altering the levels of lipid peroxidation, and enchancing the decreased
activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as enchancing the decreased level of the reduced
glutathione. When administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight the aqueous
extract altered liver function and oxidative stress parameters to nearly normal against
CCl4-treated rats.The results of this study suggest that S. excelsa could protect the liver
tissue against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rats probably by increasing antioxidative
Key words: Antioxidant effect, carbon tetrachloride, leaves, liver, Smilax excelsa.
1.57 Effect of Smilax excelsa L. on the Antioxedant System in Kidney Tissue
Nurten OZSOY1, Alper OKYAR2, Nuriye AKEV1, Ayse CAN, Gul BAKTIR2
Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University,
Abstract: Investigation on the pharmacological activity of plant extracts used in folk
medicine as well as on dietary plants has become one of the major activities of researchers
worldwide. The beneficial effects of plants are mainly related to their antioxidant effects
and various tests are proposed in order to prove this fact. Smilax excelsa L. (Liliaceae)
leaves are used widely in the Black Sea region of Turkey for consumption in the daily diet
and in folk medicine for their medicinal properties. In vitro antioxidant activity of S.
excelsa L. leaves was demonstrated in a previous study in our laboratory. The present
study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract from leaves of S. excelsa
against experimentally induced renal damage in rats. S. excelsa L. leaves were collected
from Istanbul in Turkey (ISTE 81928). The dried leaves were extracted with boiling water.
The extracts were filtered and evaporated to dryness. Female Wistar-albino rats were
separated in 5 different groups. The control group received water and basal diet for 10
days, the CCl4 group received the same diet for 9 days and was treated intraperitoneally
with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight in 20 % olive oil, v/v) on the 10th day. The three other
groups were treated with three different doses of the aqueous extract of S. excelsa (100,
200 and 400 mg/kg) by gavage, once daily, for 9 days. Acute toxicity was induced by i.p.
injection of CCl4 at the same dose, on the 10th day and animals were sacrificed 24 h after.
The kidneys were excised, rinsed in ice-cold normal saline solution and a 10 % w/v
homogenate was prepared. The tissue homogenate was used for the estimation of
antioxidant parameters such as, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, reduced
glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione
reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and myeloperoxidase. Renal
parameter carbonic anhydrase was also determined in kidney tissue. The results
demonstrate that S. excelsa aqueous extract improve the antioxidant parameters and
carbonic anhydrase levels impaired by CCl4 administration, nearly to the control group
levels. The best effect was obtained at 400 mg/kg dose. The extracts boost also the
enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system in kidney tissue, showing thus a
beneficial effect for the plant.
Key words: Smilax excelsa, carbon tetrachloride, antioxidant enzymes, kidney.
1.58 Invitro Assessment of the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Amaranthus
Nurten OZSOY1, Tugba YILMAZ1, Ozlem KURT1, Ayse CAN1, Refiye
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering,
Abstract: Free radicals are associated with various physiological and pathological events
such as inflammation, diabetes, aging, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Naturally
occuring antioxidants have been reported to play a major role in ameliorating oxidative
damage induced by free radicals. Amaranth is an ancient plant belonging to the
Amaranthaceae, which is believed to have originated from Central and Southern America.
The members of the genus Amaranthus are widely distrubuted throughout the world in
tropical, subtropical and temperate regions as grain crops, pot-herbs, ornamentals and dye
plants. Amaranth is classified as a plant showing preventive and therapeutic (hypolipemic,
antimutajenic, immune-enhancing, antioxidant, antimalaric and photoprotective) activity.
Amaranthus lividus L. (locally name: dari mancari) is used as a vegetable in West Black
Sea Region of Turkey. In vitro antioxidant potential of this plant has been investigated in
our earlier study. The stems with leaves and flowers of A. lividus were collected from
Bartin, Turkey (ISTE 83401). Water, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared,
filtered and evaporated to dryness. All the extracts were kept at -20oC and dissolved in
water or solvent before use. The free radical scavenging properties like superoxide radical,
hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide radical and antioxidant activity by using β-carotene
bleaching test were evaluated for all extracts. Ssynthetic antioxidants such as Gallic acid
and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were used as standards. It can be concluded that, all
the extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in all performed tests, A. lividus leaves and
flowers, in the way which they are consumed as foodstuff in the Black Sea region of
Turkey, can be used as an accesible source of natural antioxidants with consequent impact
on their health benefits.
Key words: Amaranthus lividus L., antioxidant activity, free radical, scavenging activity.
1.59 The Effects of Chard Extract on Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in the Testies of
O. Sacan1, E. Kaptan2, Y. Ipci3, L. Kabasakal3, G. Sener3, R. Yanardag1 and S.
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar, 2Istanbul
University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 3Marmara University, School of
Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the world‟s most severe endocrine disease involving
metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and including alterations in
carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolisms. In recent years, various plant extracts have
been claimed to be useful for the therapy of diabetic hyperglycemia. Chard (Beta vulgaris
L. var cicla) is a herbaceous biennial leafy vegetable cultivated in many parts of the world
for its year round availability, low cost and wide use in many traditional dishes. Beta
vulgaris L. species are used as a popular folk medicine for liver and kidney diseases, for
stimulation of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and as a special diet in the
treatment of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of chard extract
administration on testis of STZ-induced diabetic rat. For this purpose, male Spraque
Dawley rats weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into three
groups. Group I; Control animals given citrate buffer (n=4), Group II; Streptozotocin
(STZ)–diabetic animals (n= 6), Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract (n=6).
Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ in a single dose of 60 mg/kg
body weight. The chard extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of
2 g/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. At the end of the
experimental period, testis tissue of rats was obtained after decapitation. The testis tissues
were homogenized with 0.9% saline solution. For histopathological evaluation, testes were
fixed in Bouin‟s fluid and followed routine processing methods, 5-6 μm thick paraffin
sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Testis lipid peroxidation
(LPO) levels were increased and also testis Catalase (CAT) and superoxide
dismutase(SOD) activities were decreased in diabetic rats. Testicular LPO were decreased
and also CAT and SOD activities were increased in diabetic rats given chard extract. In
diabetic rat testes, germ cells were sloughed as a group into the lumina of most
seminiferous tubule section. Also degenerative germ cells and residual bodies were
observed in the tubule epithelium when compared to control individuals. However there
was a reduction in testicular degenerative indications of diabetic animals given chard
extract. Biochemical and microscopic results revealed that administration of chard extract
to diabetic rats reversed adverse effects of diabetes take placed in rat testis. In conclusion,
we can say that chard extract shows an ameliorating effect on testicular damage caused by
Key words: Antioxidant, chard, diabetic, enzyme, extracts, testies.
1.60 Determination of Antioxidat of Activities and Phenolic Contents of Salvia
multicaulis vahl. FROM Turkey
Önder YUMRUTAġ1, Saadet D. SAYGIDEĞER1, Nilgün ÖZTÜRK2 , and N. BarıĢ
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziantep University, 27310 Gaziantep, 2Department
of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskişehir, 3Department of Food
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-Architecture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Çanakkale,
Abstract: Our study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of hexane
and methanol extracts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl. from Lamiaceae and to determine its
total phenolics, flavonoids , flavonols and phenolic acid contents. The extracts were
screened for their possible antioxidant potentials by DPPH and ABTS free radical
scavenging, power reducing, metal chelating and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. The
methanol extract of S. multicaulis exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined
by different assay and contained significant levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols
and phenolic acids. Total phenolic content were spectrophotometrically determined by
Folin-Ciocalteu assay. They were found 73,57 ± 2,26 and 273,74 ± 1,16 mg/g dry weight,
expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in hexane and methanol extracts, respectively.
Total flavonoid contents were determined in values of 86,48 ± 3,18 and 32,64 ± 1,16
mg/g, however flavonol contents were determined as 21,25 ± 1,88 and 10,41 ± 1,68 mg/g
in hexane and methanol, respectively. The amounts of phenolic acids in the extracts were
characterized by a reverse-phase HPLC method that used in the gradient elution
employing diode array detection. Internal standard (IS) technique was applied for the
analysis of phenolic acids to increase the precision and propylparaben was employed for
this purpose. The most abundant phenolic acid detected by HPLC in methanol extract was
rosmarinic acid in S. multicaulis as 2,16 mg g-1. Other phenolic acids obtained from
extract were found to be vanillic, caffeic, syringic, o-coumaric, p-coumaric, ferulic and
chlorogenic acids. This study show that methanolic extract of S. multicaulis have higher
activities than its hexan extract.
Key words: S. multicaulis; Antioxidant activity; Phenolics; HPLC.
1.61 Antiradical and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants
P. Labun1, I. Salamon2
Department of Ecology, FHNS, Presov University, 01, 17 th November St., SK-081 16 Presov, Slovakia,
firstname.lastname@example.orgExcellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01,
17th November St., SK-081 16 Presov, Slovakia.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species contain one or more unequal electrons. As a result,
they are extremely chemically reactive. It occurs in humans when they breathe, even
during normal metabolism. For protection against these pathological phenomena organism
has a number of mechanisms which are disposed of free radicals. Safely to interact with
free radicals may antioxidants. Terminating the chain reaction before it becomes
detrimental to vital molecules in the body. Their main role is to prevent oxidative damage
to the body of a reactive state. Medicinal plants fall into abundant resources of natural
antioxidants. Based on the research of their efficacy, infusions of St. John's-Wort and
Horsetail were compared in this contribution. Infusions of these plants degrade free
radicals very effectively. Values SC50 uptake 2, 2 – diphenyl – 1 – picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
of oxidants were set. Results showed that St. John's Wort has a higher antioxidant activity
than Horsetail. The infusions may be used not only in pharmaceutical but also in food
industry for their many biological effects.
Key words: antioxidant, DPPH, Horsetail, St. John's-Wort, free radicals.
1.62 Histopathological Studies on Animal Infected with Trichophyton rubrum and
Treated with Fumaria officinalis
Rafal shakeeb Al-Ani, Khulood al-Samarrae and Salim Al-Obaidi
Abstract: This investigation was planned to study the histopathological changes caused
by Trichophyton rubrum and study the therapeutic activity of Fumaria officinalis
(ethanolic extract) on the infected skin by using light microscope (in vitro study). Light
microscopic studies have shown certain degenerative changes in the infected area, these
changes were represented by oedema with heavy acute inflammatory cell in dermis area
extended to hypodermis, abscess formation and congestion of blood vessels. Healing after
eleven day of the treatment with Fumaria officinalis extract, the incision was completely
covered with newly formed epithelium and the hair seen in comparism with fugidin
ointment with which the healing was represented by slower regenerative changes, crust
tend to drop-off spontaneously and the incision which covered the area were less than
those covered the area treated with Fumaria extract, indicating the efficiency of Fumaria
ethanolic extract as antifungal agent. Light microscopic studies revealed certain
regenerative changes in the infected area after the treatment with Fumaria officinalis
extract, these changes were represented by more moderate inflammatory reaction with
accumulation of neotrophile and monocyte in the epidermis layer.
Key words: Animal, histopathological, Fumaria officinalis, Trichophyton rubrum.
1.63 Uterine Contractility Pattern After Bryophyllum pinnatum in Vitro vs. in Vivo
Regula Wächter1, Jana Juhasova1, Rudolf Brenneisen2, Matthias Hamburger3,
Monica Mennet4,Ana-Paula Simões-Wüst5, Martin Schnelle4, Andreas Worel4,
Ursula von Mandach1
Department of Obstetrics University Hospital Zürich, 2Department of Clinical Research University of
Berne, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences University of Basel, 4Weleda AG Arlesheim, 5Research
Department Paracelsus Hospital Richterswil.
Abstract: Bryophyllum pinnatum preparations have been used since 30 years for
tocolysis. The present study covers the uterine contractility pattern after the addition of B.
pinnatum extracts on in vitro muscle strip preparations (myograph) compared to the
changes in vivo registered in the cardiotocogram (CTG) of pregnant women with B.
pinnatum tocolysis. Press juice (component of Weleda Bryophyllum Kautabletten) from
B. pinnatum leaves and its chemical fractions are given to strips from myometrium
obtained during caesarean section for contraction (voltage) measurements by myometry.
The influence on the spontaneous uterine contraction pattern is quantified by AUC and the
frequency of contractions. The results are compared with graphs performed in the CTG by
pregnant women with B. pinnatum tocolysis. Results indicated that,the press juice shows
in vitro a concentration-dependent inhibition of the AUC. Among the fractions whose
HPLC data indicate flavonoids as constituents, the AUC is more inhibited than those who
are presumably contain bufadienolids or cinnamomic acid derivatives. With the decrease
of the AUC, the frequency of contractions is increasing in the press juice. Initial results
from the CTG are suggesting a similar pattern also in vivo. In conclusion, B. pinnatum
juice and some fractions inhibit the contractility of myometrium in vitro while initial
frequency increases. Consequences for mother and child will be discussed.
Key words: Bryophyllum pinnatum, contractility, uterine, vitro, vivo.
1.64 Anticonvulsant Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Some Plants Against
Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures in Rats
S. Akbar1 and M.A. Al-Yahya2
College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, P.O. Box 6800, Buraidah 51452, and 2College of Pharmacy, King
Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Medicinal plants have played a significant historical role in the maintenance of
health and treatment of various diseases from the time immemorial. They still provide us
unique chemical structures that serve as template for the development of new therapeutic
entities. Plants grown under various climactic and environmental conditions may vary in
their pharmacological activity and, thus, therapeutic effects. A number of plant-based
drugs are widely used by the local folk medicine practitioners of Saudi Arabia. Among
those are certain plant drugs that are credited for their antiepileptic activity. However, no
scientific basis is provided for such claims to be valid. Pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure
model is one of the standard procedures to test the potential antiepileptic activity. We
purchased four such drugs, Ruta chalepensis, Paeonia emodi, Delphenium denudatum and
Anacyclus pyrethrum, from the local market in Riyadh and screened their ethanol extracts
for anti-seizure activity against pentylenetetrazole (cardiazole)-induced (90 mg/kg, i.p.)
convulsions in male albino rats. Oral administration of the extract (dissolved in distilled
water) of Ruta chalepensis in a dose of 1 gm/kg body weight one hour prior to
pentylenetetrazole injection, showed the maximum protection (87%) against convulsions
and death. Seven out of the eight rats used did not develop any convulsions or die as a
result of pentylenetetrazole injection. However, the same drug in a dose of 500 mg/kg
body weight produced only 25% and 37.5% protection against convulsions and death,
respectively. Paeonia emodi and Delphenium denudatum protected 50% and 30% animals
against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and 50% and 60% against death,
respectively. Anacyclus pyrethrum offered absolutely no protection against
pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions and death. The exact mechanism of induction of
convulsions by pentylenetetrazole is not understood but it is considered a GABA
antagonist. Similarly, to understand the mechanism of action of these drugs, further
detailed studies would be required.
Key words: Anticonvulsant, ethanol extracts, pentylenetetrazole.
1.65 Effects of Chard (beta vulgaris l. var. cicla) and Insulin on the Stomach of Stz-
S. Bolkent1, O. Sacan2, S. Bolkent3, Y. Ipci4, L. Kabasakal4, G. Sener4 and R.
Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 34098
Cerrahpasa,2Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320-Avcilar,
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, 4Marmara University,
School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34668-Haydarpasa, Istanbul- Turkey.
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus has been linked to the excessive generation of reactive
oxygen species. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) is one of the medicinal herbs used by
diabetics in Turkey. Several studies indicate that insulin deficiency plays an important role
in the regulation of somatostatin release. Cholecystokinin regulates a variety of functions
in the gastrointestinal tract. We have investigated the effect of chard extracts on the
stomach by biochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Male, Spraque Dawley rats
weighing 380-420 g were used. Rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I;
Control animals given citrate buffer, Group II; Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic animals,
Group III; STZ-diabetic animals given chard extract, Group IV; STZ-diabetic animals
given insulin, Group V; STZ-diabetic animals given chard+insulin. Diabetes was induced
by intraperitoneal injection of STZ in a single dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The chard
extract was administrated by gavage technique to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 45
days, 15 days after animals were made diabetic. The insulin was administrated by
subcutaneous injection to rats at a dose of 6U/kg every day for 45 days, 15 days after
animals were made diabetic. At the end of the experimental period, stomach tissues of rats
were obtained after decapitation. Gastric somatostatin contents were decreased in STZ-
diabetic rats compared with other groups. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells in the all
animals were generally found to be scattered in the pyloric mucosa but not observed in the
fundic mucosa. Stomach tissue was taken from animals, homogenized in 0.9% saline to
make up to 10% homogenate. The homogenates were used for protein, glutathione (GSH)
and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)
activities. Stomach CAT and SOD activities and GSH level were decreased and LPO level
was increased in diabetic rats. Administration of chard, chard+insulin and insulin to
diabetic rats increased stomach CAT and SOD activities and GSH level, but LPO level
decreased. As a result, we can propose that chard, chard+insulin and insulin could be
potentially beneficial agents in reducing stomach damage of diabetic rats, probably by
decreasing oxidative stress.
Key words: Chard, dıabetıc, insulın, stomach.
1.66 Hepatotoxic effects of Retama sphaerocarpa Aqueous Extract: An Experimental
Study on Albino Rats
S. Dahamna1 , S. Boussahel, D. Harzallah2, H. Bouriche, A. Belgeit, M. Marghem and
Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences & Life, University Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, 19000, Algeria
Laboratories of phytotherapy applied to chronic diseases, applied microbiology, and applied biochemistry,
Abstract: The leaves of Retama sphaerocarpaare (fabiceae) known in Algeria as
“Retam”, is widely used in the folk medicine. It used to treat acute respiratory diseases ,
eruptive fevers and diuretic. In the past it was used to heat the furnaces bakeries.. In this
study, hepatotoxicity effects of Retama sphaerocarpa aqueous extract was examined.
After administration of 1.0 mg/kg of aqueous plant extract to Albino Wistar rats, blood
samples tissues such as liver and kidney were collected for morphological, biochemical
and histopathological evaluation. Results revealed that Retama sphaerocarpa aqueous
extract produced weight loss and increased plasma alkaline phosphatase, GPT and GOT.
Clinical signs of intoxications appeared less than 1 hour after the treatment. However,
others rats died afterwards. These changes were most severe during the first day of
administration; they also persisted till 24 hours, which may suggest a possibility of an
enterohepatic circulation of the drug or its metabolites. This was complemented with
morphological disruption in hepatocytes on light microscopy.
Key words: Retama sphaerocarpaare, biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity, leaves.
1.67 The Hepato-Toxicity of Acetaminophen and the Therapeutic Role of Neemazal -
W in Albino Rats
Safinaz Badie Bakshwan
Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, KingDom of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is widely used as analgesic
and antipyretic agent who is safe when in therapeutic doses. However, it can cause acute
hepatotoxicity in both humans and experimental animals when taken in overdoses or in
moderate doses in combination with other drugs or alcohol. The liver plays a key role in
many of the processes of intermediary metabolism. It is also an important organ in the
detoxication of drugs and carcinogens and affects the excretion of a wide range of
compounds into bile. It is evident from the present work that APAP treatment for short
term (15 days) or long period (30 days) caused a significant elevation in the activities of
aminotransferases (ALT and ASTenzymes dependent on time of treatment by Neemazal-
w. Neem trees are distributed in south east and central Asia and tropical regions of
Australia, Africa and the Middle East. Neem oil contains 4 or 5 compounds. Neem has
several beneficial pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory,anti-arthiritis, anti-
ulcer, anti-cancer, anti-tumor,anti-hormones, anti-pyretic, anti-protozoal, anti-viral, anti-
bacteria,anti-fungal, hypotensive, hypolipidimic, hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective
agents. In the present investigation, the intoxicated rats which treated with neem oil
manifested a significant decrease in the liver enzyme activities and a considerable increase
in serum total protein and albumin. These results may be attributed to the effect of neem
oil which acts as hepatoprotective agent. They attributed this improvement in the hepatic
cells to increase the level of both glutathione and protein-SH.The present study reveals a
significant increase of the Hb and iron levels of APAP rat group after treatment with 60
ug/100g b.wt.neemazal-W, dependent on time of adminstration. However, neem oil is an
anti-oxidant and plays an important role for scavenging the free radicals and increases the
globin synthesis in the body necessary for the formation of haemoglobin molecule.
Key words: Acetaminophen, neemazal, rats, toxicity, therapeutic.
1.68 Isolation and Characterization of Peptide(s) from Pisum sativum Having
Antimicrobial Activity against Mammalian Pathogenic Bacteria
Saima Rehman and Azra Khanum
PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi Department of Biochemistry Rawalpindi-46300, Pakistan.
Abstract: A number of studies have been carried out in Pakistan to extract antibacterial
natural products from indigenous plants but less attention has been focused to isolate
active peptides which may serve as competent candidate for the discovery of natural
antibiotic. Therefore a systematic approach was taken to isolate and characterize the
peptide(s) from the crude aqueous extract, solubilized plus dialyzed ammonium sulphate
precipitates and purified gel filtration chromatographic fractions of seed/pod of Pisum
sativum L. (garden pea). Their antibacterial activity was investigated against bacterial
pathogens: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Pasterurella multocida, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus and Proteus vulgaris using disc diffusion method. Crude
aqueous extract was prepared in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 75 % ammonium
sulphate solution was used to precipitate the peptide (s) from the crude aqueous extracts.
The peptides were purified by gel filtration chromatography and molecular weights were
determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).
Two active peptides from seed i.e. S4, S5 and pod i.e. P7, P8 were obtained having
molecular weight ~19 kDa, ~22 kDa, ~10 kDa and ~11 kDa, respectively. The bioactivity
of each peptide was tested against different enzymes, temperatures and pH. The results
showed that the all purified peptides were susceptible to inactivation by trypsin and
proteinase K, stable at temperature 4, 25 ˚C and active at pH 5-7. Further S. aureus was
found to be the most sensitive strain based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)
Key words: Chromatography, isolation, peptide, sativum.
1.69 Antibiotic Activity of the Essential Oil of the Algerian East Noble Laurel
On Some Bacterial Strains
Salima Bennadja, Yasmina Tlili Ait Kaki, Azzedine Chefrour, Abdelghani
Djahoudiand Youcef Hadef
Faculty of Medicine, department of pharmacy, University of Annaba, Algeria.
Abstract: The noble Laurel is rather common in Tell from Algiers and Constantine
region, and also in the fresh stations of the forests of the Algerian coast. It is cultivated as
decorative and culinary plant. In this study we suggest determining the chromatographic
profile of some essential oil of Laurus nobilis collected in the Algerian East and to test its
antibacterial activity, by using various concentrations and this, towards o8 bacterial
strains. To characterize chemically the essential oil of the Laurel, we proceeded by the
technique of the Chromatography in gaseous phase coupled with the Mass spectrometry
(CPG / SM). to estimate the antibacterial activity of this essential oil at the concentrations
raw , diluted in 1/2, in 1/4, in 1/8 and in 1/16) on 08 bacterial strains (Escherichia coli,
Serratia sp, Proteus sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D,
Pseudomonas sp and Acinetobacter sp). And to reveal better the action of this essential oil
on the various origins we established at first the effect of certain number of antibiotics on
each of the origins. The results of the CPG / MS reveal that the essential oil of noble
Laurel is a mixture of various classes of terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpènes) rich
in a natural ether-oxide terpénique: 1.8 cinéole (35,31 %), in linalol (22.52 %), in Eugénol
methyl ether (9.17 %) and in Camphène (7.37 %). Pseudomonas sp and Streptococcus D
are very sensitive to the essential oil of the noble Laurel because the concentration (1/16 )
of this oil is sufficient to obtain an excellent antimicrobial action to these two origins.
E.coli and Proteus sp are of a low sensibility in the dilutions 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16, it can
explain by the variety of the physico-chemical properties of the middle of culture. The
fluctuation in the antibacterial answer from a concentration to the other one for Klebsiella
pneumoniae can be due to a saturation of the middle. Serratia sp and Acinetobacter sp are
very sensitive to the dilutions. 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8. Among oxidative germs, we noticed that
Pseudomonas sp is the origin the most sensitive to the essential oil of noble Laurel.
Globally, the resistant germs in tested antibiotics present a bigger sensibility towards our
essential oil, what would justify the complementarily of the aromatherapy and the
antibiotic therapy in the affections in which these bacteria are incriminated.This
antimicrobial activity is due to the synergy exercised by the various constituents which
constitute this essential oil and especially in the presence of lactones sesquiterpenics.
Key words: Algeria, essential oil, antibacterial activity, Laurus nobilis.
1.70 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extract from Rumex cristatus DC
Sibel KAHRAMAN, and Refiye YANARDAG
Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Plants have been used for years as a source of traditional medicine to treat
various diseases and conditions. Several Rumex species (Polygonaceae) are employed in
traditional medicine in many parts of Turkey as a laxative, cholagogue, antipyretic, anti-
inflammatory, purgative, depurative, and constipation. Rumex species are consumed as a
green vegetable in several parts of the world, particularly in Turkey. Rumex cristatus DC
is widely used in daily diet as a salad in Turkey. The antioxidant activity of water extract
of R. cristatus DC was investigated in the different months using by different antioxidant
tests All results were compared with natural antioxidants; α-tocopherol acetate and
synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and
Trolox. Total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents of the extracts were
determined. It is observed that antioxidant activity of R. cristatus DC depends on different
maturing stages of plant. Generally, June extracts of R. cristatus DC showed maximum
antioxidant activity. It is concluded that R. cristatus DC is a fine natural antioxidant source
because it has high antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, flavonoids and ascorbic
Key words: Antioxidant, extract, polygonaceae, α-tocopherol.
1.71 Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Secondary Metabolites Extracted from
Spontaneous Plants from the Area of Laghouat, Algeria
Department of Biology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Amar Telidji University, Laghouat, Algeria.
Abstract: In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal
potential of plant secondary metabolites: phenolic compounds, alkaloids and essential oils.
These metabolites were extracted from eight spontaneous plants collected in the area of
Laghouat, in the north of the Algerian desert. The investigated plants were: Datura
stramonium, Peganum harmala, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander, Citrullus
colocynthis, Cleome arabica, Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia lentiscus. The total phenolic
compounds were extracted, and then quantified by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. The
essential oils of Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia lentiscus were obtained by
hydrodistillation and analysed by GS/MS. The alkaloids were extracted from Datura
stramonium, Peganum harmala, Ricinus communis, Nerium oleander, Citrullus
colocynthis and Cleome arabica. The concentrations of the alkaloidic extracts were
evaluated by UV-Visible. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assessed by the
agar disc diffusion method against three bacteria and three fungi strains. The MIC
evaluation of the active extracts was performed by the dilution method. Results indicated
that, the phenolic compounds obtained from the investigated plants did not exhibit an
antimicrobial activity against the tested strains. The essential oils of Pistacia atlantica and
Pistacia lentiscus demonstrated an inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli ATTC
25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 43300 MRSA+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC
27853 and against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis and F. oxysporum f. sp.
lycopersici.The MIC of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil on bacteria was 0.25% (v/v). The
alkaloidic extract of Ricinus communis was effective against E. coli ATTC 25922 and
exhibited an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml.
Key words: Alkaloid, antibacterial, antifungal, essential oils, phenolic compounds, plant.
1.72 Alternative Treatment of Infection by Compounds Isolated from Globularia
Tir touil Aicha1,2, Meddah Boumediene1, Leke2 André, Nahnouh Noreddine3 and
Canarelli Jean Pierre2
LRSBG, Faculté SNV – Université de Mascara, Algérie. 2Service de Pédiatrie, CHU, Nord Amiens, France.
CH de MASCARA, Mascara, Algérie.
Abstract: The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical pathogens is
reviewed and its clinical impact on management is increased. Continued surveillance of
resistance rates among clinical pathogens is needed to ensure that appropriate
recommendations can be made for treatment of infected patients. Since, vancomycin-
resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are
the most important bacteria isolated in this case. Further studies addressing the clinical and
bacteriological outcomes of patients infected with a resistant pathogen are needed. The
leaves of Globularia eriocephala Pomel (family Globulariaceae) named “Tasselgha” are
widely used in North region of Algeria as a folk medicine. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and
hydromethanol extracts of Globularia alypum and essential oil were tested against some
clinical pathogens bacteria. Antibacterial activities were tested against bacteria isolated
from surgery in perioperative period using disc-diffusion method and MIC were
determined. The compound of essential oils was confirmed using chromatography
techniques. Results indicated that, The hydromethanolic extract of Globularia eriocephala
leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and
Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activities were observed in ethyl acetate and
hydromethanolic extracts of Globularia eriocephala leaves. The MIC values of the
compound against Staphylococcus aureus (75.0mg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(63.5mg/ml) and Klebsiella pneumonia (62.0 mg/ml). The combination of Chloroform
extract and essential oils exerted wielded a synergistic effect for the inhibition against the
growth of the Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria when the MICs were applied.
Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antibacterial activity against bacterial
responsible of nosocomial infection, and the essential oil compounds showed at all a
moderate activity against these bacteria. These results suggested Globularia eriocephala
could be a potential source of antibacterial agents. Further investigations are in progress to
determine the active constituent(s) for their application in medical research.
Key words: Alternative, globularia eriocephal, infection, isolation.
1.73 Research for an Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of the Basilic
(Ocimum basilicum L.) on some Bacterial Strains
Tlili- Ait-kaki Yasmina, Bennadja Salima, Djahoudi Abdelghnani, Hadef Youcef and
Laboratory of botany, Department of pharmacy, Faculty of medicine, University, Badji Mokhtar Annaba,
Abstract: To reveal the therapeutic properties of the basilica, (Ocimum basilicum L.) an
ethnobotanic study was led, to emphasize the place which occupies our plant in the local
herbal medicine. Then, we were interested, in the research and in the identification of the
chemical constituents of the basilic after their extraction, namely the essential oil and the
tannins, by basing itself on chromatographic methods: the CCM and the CPG, what
allowed us the revealing an outfit of active substances, having in theory numerous curative
properties. Analyses find the presence of 34 constituents, the chemical point of view,
essential oil of the basilicum the members of the majority party of which are ß linalol
(22.43 %), ß myrcene (12,48 %), Alpha Terpineol acetate (10,82 %), linalol acetate (9,49
%), myrcenol (9,18 %). The research for an activity antibiotic of the essential oil of the
Basil was tested on 5 bacterial strains which are the most incriminated in the indications
for which, this oil is used Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus D,
Pseudomonas sp, Acinetobacter sp. For every bacterium, we used 04 different
concentrations: the oil diluted in 1/2, in 1/4, and in 1/8. For the synergy, we note the
presence of common chemical constituents between both oil but in uneven contents: ß
linalol, the limonene and the eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) it emerges from it that quantitatively
the association between both oil brings concentrations more raised in common
constituents, what is going to improve the antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Antifungal activity, CCM-CPG-activity antimicrobial, Ocimum basilicum,
essential oil, leaves.
1.74 Study of Pharmacological Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds of some Plants of
Caragana Genus Growing in Ukraine
Vihtinskaya, O.O.1, and Kyslychenko, V.S2.
Kharkov Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkov, Ukraine, National University of
Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine.
Abstract: Herbal remedies are popular due to their favorable profile of benefit-risk ratio.
In the rehabilitation of the biliary tract dysfunctions it is advisable to use phytotherapy by
the medical herbs with choleretic, spasmolytic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory
activities. There have been studied chemical ingredients of sprouts of Caragana
arborescence, Caragana frutex, and Caragana mollis. The sum of such phenolic
compounds as hydroxycinnamic acids, coumarines and flavonoids was extracted from
sprouts of the researched plants. These plants are used in folk medicine for the treatment
of liver pathology. In the experiment on the rats and mice it was studied comparative acute
of polyphenolic complexes of Caragana arborescence, Caragana frutex, Caragana mollis
(Carfen) and Silibor, produced by pharmaceutical firm “Zdorov‟ye”. It also has choleretic,
hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The drugs are practically
nontoxic and have similar specific activity. Carfen has stronger choleretic activity than
Silibor but its hepatoprotective activity is weaker. In the conditions of acute hepatitis
(CCl4) in the experiments on rats after intragasrical administration of polyphenolic
compounds of Caragana arborescence, Caragana frutex, Caragana mollis and Silibor
protect disturbance of biochemical indexes level of malonic dialdehyde,
superoxiddismutase and catalase activity in liver, aspartat- and alanin-aminotransferase
activity and level of protein in serum, antioxidant activity in blood. Carfen is safe and
effective tool with expressed choleretic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity.
Data about influence of Caragana arborescence polyphenolic compounds (Carfen) on gall
acids metabolism in dog‟s liver are obtained. Stimulating influence of Caragana
arborescence biologically active substances on out-secretary function of a liver and
variation of quantitative and qualitative gall characteristics at experimental animals
resumed. Combination of flavonoids, coumarines, hydroxy-cinnamic acids provides the
polyvalent action of preparation, that enables to consider it as a perspective remedy from
the point of clinical pharmacology and pharmacoeconomics.
Key words: Caragana, pharmacological, plants, polyphenolic.
1.75 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of some
Algerian Origanum, Rosmarinus and Artemisia spp.
Youcef HADEF1, Azzedine CHEFROUR2, Yasmina AIT KAKI2, Salima
BENNADJA2 , Wassim OUARTANI1, Feriel BENKAZA1 and Nadjib KAARAR1
Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Département de Pharmacie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Badji
Mokhtar, BP 205, Annaba (23000), Algérie ; 2Laboratoire de Botanique Médicale, Département de
Pharmacie, Faculté de Médecine, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 205, Annaba (23000), Algérie.
Abstract: Following the development of the mycoses related to the treatments involving a
fall of immunizing defenses, with invasive therapeutic practices and the appearance of
resistant stocks research the new antifongiques ones appeared like a vital need. Among the
antifongiques ones of vegetable origin one can quote the essential oils secreted by various
plants. The essential oils were isolated by steam distillation from the aeral parts of
Origanum majorana from Touadjnia near Guelma, Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae)
from Ichemoul, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Annaba. The oils were analyzed
by GC/MS. The highest oil yied was obtained from Origanum majorana (4,86%). The
main constituants of oils were as follows : O. majorana, Thymol (40,69%), g-Terpinene
(28,39%), Paracymene (13,57%), Carvacrol (2,41%) ; R. officinalis, a-pinene (19,7%),
Camphor (12,56%), Borneol (11,22%), 1,8 cineol (7,93%) ; A. herba alba, Camphor
(31,95%), Chrysantenone (24,75%), a-Thuyone (10,21%), 1,8 cineol (9,88%). Essential
oils from three Algerian plants were analyzed for their potential activity against Candida
albicans. The highest efficiency was obtained with the essential oil from Origanum
majorana (MIC 80% = 2,685 μg/ml).
Key words: Antifungal, Candida albicans, carvacrol, essential oils, Origanum majorana,
1.76 Antibacterial Activity of Extracts of Ajuga iva, and Teucrium polium
Zerroug, M.M1., Zouaghi, M2., Boumerfeg, S2., Baghiani, A2., Nicklin , J.3 and Arrar,
Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biology, University Ferhat Abbes of Setif, Setif,
Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University Ferhat Abbes of Setif,
Setif, Algeria. 3School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of
Abstract: Antibiotics provide the main basis for the therapy of microbial (bacterial and
fungal) infections. Since the discovery of these antibiotics and their use as
chemotherapeutic agents there was a belief in the medical fraternity that this would lead to
the eventual eradication of infectious diseases. However, overuse of antibiotics has
become the major factor in the emergence and dissemination of multi-drug resistant strains
of several groups of microorganisms. Many plants which are used in traditional medicine
contain antimicrobial compounds. In this study, the antibacterial activity of methanolic
extracts of Teucrium polium and Ajuga iva were tested against five bacteria, E. coli MC
4100, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas diminutus, Paracoccus paratrophus and
Micrococcus luteus. T. polium and A. iva plants were collected and allowed to dry in the
dark at room temperature. Dried plant material (100g) was added to 1 L of methanol and
incubated at room temperature for three days. The crude solution was filtered through
muslin cloth, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. The dried material was dissolved in 2
ml of methanol. Bacterial suspensions (100 µl) were spread on tryptone soya agar (TSA)
medium. Plant extracts (10 µl) were applied to discs of filter paper and placed on agar
plates containing the microorganisms. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48h. After
incubation the zones of inhibition around the discs was measured. Extracts of T. polium
gave zones of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Paracoccus
paratrophus of 3.7, 2.0 and 2.0 mm, respectively. A. iva extract only inhibited the growth
of Paracoccus paratrophus, giving a zone of inhibition of 3.0.mm. The present results
showed that extracts of T. polium inhibited the growth of three bacterial species. Extracts
of A. iva, on the other hand, inhibited only one bacterium.
Key words: Ajuga iva, antibacterial activity, plant extracts, Teucrium polium.
1.77 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of
Lavandula viridis L´Hér.
Zuzarte, M.1,2, Gonçalves, M. J.1, Cavaleiro, C.1, Canhoto, J.2, Silva, M. J.3, Vale-
Silva, L.3, Pinto, E.3, and Salgueiro, L.1
Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Science Campus, University of Coimbra,
Azinhaga de S. Comba 3000-354, Coimbra, Portugal. 2 Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Department of
Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Ap. 3046, 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal.3 Microbiology Service /
CEQUIMED, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Aníbal Cunha 164, 4050-047 Porto, Portugal.
Abstract: In the last few years, an increase in the incidence of fungal diseases has been
found, particularly among patients with impaired immune systems. Moreover, the reduced
number of available drugs and the increasing resistance to classical antifungal compounds
justifies the research for efficient and economic therapeutic alternatives with low side
effects. Aromatic plants and their essential oils have been traditionally used as antifungal
agents and therefore are an excellent option in the research for novel fungicides. In the
present work we report for the first time the antifungal activity of the essential oils of
Lavandula viridis from Portugal. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation using a
Clevenger-type apparatus and analysed by GC and GC/MS using fused silica capillary
columns with two different stationary phases. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of
the oil against several pathogenic fungi (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans,
dermatophytes and Aspergillus spp.) the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the
minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using a broth macrodilution method
based on the CLSI reference protocols M27-A3 and M38-A2. The influence of
subinhibitory concentrations of the essential oil on the dimorphic transition in Candida
albicans was then studied. The oil was characterized by high contents of oxygen-
containing monoterpenes (69.5%) followed by monoterpenic hydrocarbons (17.1%). The
main constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.5%), camphor (13.4%), α-pinene (9.0%) and
linalool (7.9%), whereas sesquiterpenic compounds attained only 4.8%. MIC and MLC
values varied among the tested strains, dermatophyte, Cryptococcus neoformans and
Candida strains being the most sensitive (MIC and MLC values ranging from 0.32 to
2.5µL/mL). For all these strains the MIC was equivalent to the MLC, indicating a
fungicidal effect of the essential oil. The oil was further shown to completely inhibit
filamentation in C. albicans at concentrations as low as MIC/16. This is particularly
important since filamentation is crucial in C. albicans for pathogenicity. The major
constituents were also assayed individually against the fungal strains. The antifungal
activity of the essential oil is presumably due to both the contribution of α-pinene and the
synergistic effect between the different compounds present in the oil. Our results support
the use of L. viridis essential oils in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases, particularly
dermatophytosis and candidosis, although clinical trials are required to evaluate the
practical relevance of our in vitro research.
Key words: Antifungal, composition, essential oils, Lavandula viridis.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 2: The ethno-pharmacological studies on medicinal plants.
2.1 Medicinal Plants in the Holly Quran and their Therapeutic Benefits
Abdulrahman E. Koshak, PharmD1Abdulaziz A. Alfaleh, PharmD1 - Prof. Essam A.
Abdel-Sattar2 - Prof. Emad A. Koshak3
Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 2Department of Natural Products, Faculty of
Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 3Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha
Kingdome of Saudi Arabia.
Abstract: There are many plants with medicinal applications have been enumerated in the
Holly Book of Muslims “Quran”. This may point to their pharmaceutical importance in
different illnesses either due to their nutritional or phototherapeutic values. This study was
conducted to identify the medicinal plants enumerated in the Quran and exploring their
phytotherapeutic benefits. Searching the Quran for any enumeration of medicinal plants
was conducted. Then, exploration for any documentation and publication of their
therapeutical benefits was explored by searching the internet websites for well referenced
publications. The results indicated that, at least twelve medicinal plants have been
identified in the Quran. They included: Camphor “Cinnamomum camphora L.”, Date palm
“Phoenix dactylifera L.”, Fig “Ficus carica L.”, Ginger “Zingiber officinale Roscoe.”,
Grape “Vitis vinifera L.”, Garlic “Allium sativum L.”, Lentil “Lens culinaris Medic.”,
Olive “Olea europea L.”, Onion “Allium cepa L.”, Pomegranate “Punica granatum L.”,
Summer squash “Cucurbita pepo, Sweet basil “Ocimum basilicum L.”. Six of these plants
were selected because of having several therapeutically proven values in the medical
literature. Recent publications on pomegranate revealed its benefits as hypotensive,
hypolipidimic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant and as cancer-preventive activities in
prostate and breast cancers. Grapes and grape seeds showed hypocholesterolemic,
antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and of great benefits in cardiovascular
problems. Several clinical studies proved the effectiveness of ginger in nausea and
vomiting associated with motion sickness, vomiting in pregnancy, and motion sickness, in
addition to its anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic activities. Clinical and animals studies
proved the medicinal benefits of olive oil and olive leaves as hypoglycaemic, hypotensive,
hypocholesterolemic, and antiviral, antimicrobial and as immunostimulant. Searching the
Quran has identified the enumeration of at least twelve medicinal plants. Searching the
medical databases revealed that there is huge number of publications on the
phytotherapeutical benefits for the use of these plants. Further research work is required to
explore other medicinal plants and their benefits mentioned in the Quran.
Key words: Holly Quran, medicinal plants, phytotherapeutic.
2.2 Therapeutic Values of Moroccan Plants: from Traditional knowledge to Scientific
Laboratory Physiology-Pharmacology & Environmental Health, University of Fez, Morocco.
Abstract: Ethno pharmacological surveys carried out in many parts of the world,
including Morocco, have identified hundreds of plants used in folk medicine for the
treatment of hypertension, and studies in experimental animals have confirmed the
ethnomedical use of some of these plants. To confirm the rationale for the
ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies in the treatment of pathologies,
pharmacological evidence of the therapeutic activity of a number medicinal plants has
been demonstrated in experimental animals, as well as direct effect of a number of herbs
and plant products in humans. Studies have been carried out with the following
herbs/plants, used in folk medicine to treat human diseases, to demonstrate curative effects
in humans or to isolate constituents responsible for pharmacological activity. The medical
use of plant-derived remedies is still based on subjective and empirical observations of
efficacy on human beings. The primary purpose of modern verification is the assessment
of therapeutic efficacy, as well as the establishment of qualitative and quantitative
correlations between efficacy and chemical constituents. An effective approach proceeds
through ethnopharmacognostical studies, action –guided isolation and identification of
bioactive constituents and controlled clinical assessment of “phytomedicines”. Examples
of evidence based bioactive phytoconstituents for several pathologies; cardiovascular,
metabolic and renal are presented for many plants: Marrubium vulgare, Calycotome
villosa, Carum, Pomegranate, Cucurbita pepo, Ficus carica, Olea europeae, Ajuga iva,
tanacetum, Centaurium and Nigella sative. Results from our studies have confirmed
polyphenols from Moroccan medicinal plants as a cardioprotective agent. These results
indicate that plants have antioxidant properties and its consumption may prevent or delay
free radical mediated diseases such as cardiovascular disease. So many therapeutically
strategies have been tested to prevent the occurrence of these oxidative diseases.
Polyphenolic compounds in plants exert cardioprotective effects linked to their free radical
scavenging. Flavonoids and phenolic compounds which are widely distributed in plants
have been reported to exert multiple biological effects, including antioxidant, free radical
scavenging abilities, anti-inflammatory. There is a growing interest in the food industry
and in preventive health care in the development and evaluation of natural antioxidants
from plants. Some plants contain considerable amount of polyphenolic substances, which
have been reported to have antioxidant activity.
Key words: Antioxidant, Natural products, Phytotherapy, herbal medicine, folk remedies,
2.3 Medicinal, Aromatic and Spice Plants in Romanians‟ Rites and Beliefs
Georgeta Rata, Cornelia Petroman, Ioan Petroman
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to see if medicinal, aromatic and spice plants such
as used by the Romanians in their rites and beliefs hundreds of years ago could still be of
any use nowadays in such fields as pharmaceutics and/or food industry. The corpus of
medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common names has been taken from Elena Niculita-
Voronca‟s “Rites and beliefs of the Romanians collected and ranged mythologically”, a
solid, well documented book printed in 1903 at Chernivtsi (nowadays in Ukraine). The
approach is a both linguistic and botanic one: we have inventoried 62 common names of
medicinal, aromatic and spice plants and then we tried to identify their scientific name, so
that we can track them in modern pharmacology and gastronomy. We have found out that,
as far as medicinal plants are concerned, most of the plants used in the past in the
treatment of different diseases are no longer used as medicinal plants, while plants used as
aromatic or spice plants still play an important role in Romanian cuisine. Research was
limited by several factors: there are no Latin (scientific) names of the plants in Niculita-
Voronca‟s book; in a few cases, the same medicinal, aromatic or spice plant common
name (whose scientific name is available) applies to plants belonging to different plant
families; for 10% of the medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common names we could not
find the scientific name; for other 6% of the medicinal, aromatic and spice plant common
names we could not find the English equivalent (necessary in the developing of the present
study). The practical implications of the study consist in the fact that our findings could
serve as a basis for further research in the field of medicinal plants with a view to
developing new medicines for the treatment of the diseases of the modern times. The value
of the paper is given by the fact that it approaches the study of a corpus of medicinal,
aromatic and spice plants from a double perspective: linguistic and botanic.
Key words: medicinal plants, aromatic plants, spice plants, linguistics, botany.
2.4 An Ancient Medicinal Plant: Olive
Hakan CETINKAYA, Nazım SEKEROGLU, Gulcihan GUZELDAG, and
Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000, Kilis, Turkey
Abstract: Olive (Olea europea L.) is a characteristic plant of the Mediterranean region.
One of the oldest crops, olive has mainly been cultivated (90 %) in the Mediterranean
countries for its fruit and oil. Besides the Mediterranean countries, it is commercially
grown in Africa, Australia and South America, as well. Olive fruit and olive oil have been
used as food and traditional medicine for ages. All the plant parts have a great importance
for Mediterranean people in daily life. Olive is a symbol of the peace for all over the
world. Its pharmaceutical properties and food value had been discovered in Mediterranean
civilizations about 4000 years ago. It is known as “Elixir of the life” in the region. Leaf,
fruit seed, and olive oil are important medicinal parts of the olive tree among people.
These natural drugs have been used solely for curing some ailments or an important part of
the traditional mixtures. Recent scientific studies have also proved the oil quality with
high content of oleic acid. It is stated that pure olive oil should be consumed in daily diets
for healthy and long life. Phenols in olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste
and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics inhibit
oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (the most atherogenic ones) and possess other potent
biological activities that if demonstrated in vivo, could partially account for the observed
healthful effects of diets that include high-quality olive oil and other foods rich in
flavonoids and phenols. Olive oil is a rich source of monounsaturated fat, which reduces
the risk of heart disease by decreasing levels of artery-clogging lipids in the blood.
Additionally, olive oil is a rich source of polyphenols powerful antioxidants that are
increasingly attracting attention for their ability to promote good health. Olive oil is an
important constituent of modern cosmetic products as well. Herbal tea prepared by olive
leaf has been used for lowering blood pressure and treating diabetes in the region for a
long time. Modern herbal mixtures for hypertension have a big content of olive leaf
extract. Chemical composition of olive leaves are Iridodide monoterpenes (including
among others, oleuropein [6-9 %], additionally 6-O-oleropinesaccharose, ligstroside,
oleroside, oleroside-7, 11-dimethyl ether), triterpenes (including olenolic acid, maslinic
acid), flavonoids (chalcones [olivine, olivine-4‟-O-diglucoside]) and volatiles. Clinical
evidence has proven that the blood pressure lowering effects of olive leaf extracts.
Bioassays support its antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV and
anti-inflammatory effects at laboratory level. A liquid extract made directly from fresh
olive leaves recently gained international attention when it was shown to have an
antioxidant capacity almost double to green tea extract and 400 % higher than Vitamin C.
Thus, olive plant and its derivatives are thought to be of important source of food,
cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries in the future.
Key words: Antioxidant, hypertension, olive, pharmaceutical, Phenols.
2.5 Medicinal Plants of Ahaggar (Algeria)
Hocine LAOUE1 and Nelly A.2
Laboratoire de valorization des ressources biologiques, Université Ferhat Abbas, Sétif, Algérie, 2 Faculty
of Agronomy, Hally-Spirit University, Kaslik, Lebanon.
Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used as a source of remedies since ancient times.
This work has the objective a survey of the species of plants and their uses as medicinal,
which are utilized for therapeutic purposes in Ahaggar region of Algeria. The area of
study is recognized by a moderate diversity of species of plants. As results, a total of 55
species belonging to many genera and families were recorded and also their
ethnomedicinal information. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of
investigation of those species that have not been subject of pharmacological study,
although their popular uses have already been reported.
Key words: Ahaggar, algeria, medicinal plants, survey.
2.6 Medicinal and Aromatic Plant and Opportunities for Sustainable Management in
Ibraliu, A1., Faslia, N1., Shehu, J.1 and Mullaj, A.2
Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment. Agricultural University of
Tirana, Koder Kamez, Tirane, Albania. Tirane, Tl. (+355) 47 200624, Fax (+355) 47 200624. 2 Faculty of
Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana.
Abstract: Medicinal plants represent an important asset to the livelihoods of many people
in Albania. The rural a communities rely on medicinal plants for their primary healthcare
needs and income generation. Accordingly, about 300 medicinal plant species were found
to be actively traded or used in Albania. These species were mostly used for the extraction
and development of several drugs and chemotherapeutics from these plants as well as from
traditionally used rural herbal. Some of the used species are rare, vulnerable, endangered,
critically endangered and are declining from the wild. However, in different areas where
habitat loss and habitat change are major threats to medicinal plant species or nature
conservation aims in general, continued wild-collection may even support nature
conservation. Sustainable wild-collection may thus increase among local people the
awareness for the need to conserve the species and their habitats.
Key words: Albania, Aromatic, Medicinal plants, rural herbal.
2.7 A Comparative Study of Medicinal Plants Cultivation and Uses in Six Latin
Isabel Maria Madaleno
Portuguese Tropical Research Institute, Global Development Programme.
Abstract: Native trees and medicinal herb species are essential components in Latin
American front and backyards. They can be found as hedges and flourishing bushes in
gardens, in small vases on terraces and balconies, in vacant urban plots, in peripheral lots
and farms. They constitute a valuable resource for low-income residents and alternative
medicine for many. Central markets and weekly fairs additionally provide a wide variety
of species used in mild or chronic diseases therapies, broadly appreciated by Latin
American citizens. This comparative study was carried out in Lima (Peru), Santiago
(Chile), Belen (Brazil), Havana (Cuba), San José, Costa Rica and Mexico City (Mexico)
for over a decade. The objective of the present ethno-geographic study is to analyze
traditional ecological knowledge both because garden biodiversity preservation is crucial
for a healthy urban environment and because traditional healing practices and ethno-
botanical knowledge are an important legacy for future generations.
Key words: Latin America, local knowledge, medicinal plants.
2.8 Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Italy
Kamel GHEDIRA1, Maria Lucia LEPORATTI2
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Faculté de Pharmacie de Monastir, Rue Avicenne, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia.
Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Università “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy.
Abstract: Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite
sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times.
Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a
mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is a to conduct a
comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to
explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out
from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries. The
comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into
consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it
focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses
of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. A list of
153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in
traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many
species emerged from these data. This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief
that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed
over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to
provide new and useful knowledge.
Key words: Analysis, italy, medicinal Plants, traditional, Tunisia.
2.9 The Importance of Artichoke as Medicinal Plant
Meliha Temirkaynak, Sadettin Küçük, Recep ÇoĢkun and Hüseyin Namal
Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute, Antalya-Türkiye.
Abstract: Artichoke is most important vegetable crops in the World in terms of medicinal
use. It contains cynarin and other phenolic compounds. Artichokes have been used
traditionally in Europe to improve digestive and urinary tract health. Artichoke leaf
extracts are currently used in Europe as a remedy for indigestion. In this review, the use of
medicinal plants of artichoke has been mentioned.
Keywords: artichoke, medicinal, plant.
2.10 Ethno – Toxicological Screaning on Medicinal Plants of Siran Valley, Northern
Mushtaq Ahmad Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Mir Ajab Khan, Shazia Sultana and
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: Siran Valley is located in District Mansehra of North West Frontier Province
(NWFP), Northern Pakistan. The Siran River catchments area is commonly known as,
Siran Valley”. It is situated between 34o 33/ 35// and 34o 44/ 30// north latitude, and
between 73o 13/ 38// and 73o 22/ 40// east longitude. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that 62
poisonous plant species belonging to 59 genera and 37 families encountered from the area
were being utilized for various advantageous and disadvantageous purposes by different
ethnic groups and rural people of the area. The major uses of poisonous plants recorded
from area are fish poison, antilice, anthelmintic, wormicide, abortifacient, antiseptic,
purgative and larvicides. The present study is based on extensive surveys in the actual
fields and queries with the local community of the area. Surveys were made in such a way
that utility of each and every poisonous plant growing in different seasons in different
localities should be recorded. Several tribal herdsmen, knowledgeable, experienced and
domestic folk herbal practioners were interviewed with a view to record all the uses of
poisonous plants being practiced among them in different parts of the area. Repeated
queries were made from different localities in order to verify the information. Literature
survey was carried out to explore chemical constituents. The voucher specimens were
deposited in the Herbarium, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University,
Islamabad (ISL), and Pakistan.
Key words: Chemical constituents, folk uses, poisonous plants, queries, Pakistan, Siran
valley, and voucher specimens.
2.11 The Most Widely Used Medicinal Plants in Iraq: Traditional knowledge.
Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the most widely used medicinal plants in
Iraq, and the popular medical heritage in Iraq through some of the old prescriptions
prepared from a mixture of herbs and which is still used to the present day. Methods used
in this research study included two axis Comprehensive knowledge of the medicinal plants
mentioned in this research and The therapeutic qualities of the old prescriptions from the
popular medical heritage in Iraq. Results were highlighted the most important medicinal
plants used in Iraq and the popular medical heritage in Iraq.
Key words: Iraq, medicinal plants.
2.12 Wild Edible Plants of Southeastern Part of Turkey
Nazım SEKEROGLU1, Ufuk KOCA2, S. Burcin AKGUNLU1, and Kamil AYDIN1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Art and Science, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000, Kilis, Turkey.
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, 06330, Ankara, Turkey.
Abstract: Wild edible plants have been used as food either raw or cooked for centuries all
over the world. After field cultivation of some vegetable crops, they lost their popularity in
the last decades. However, because of side effects of chemicals used in agriculture,
insistent studies on changing of genetic structures of the cultivated plants, seeking for
different tastes and longing to nature and natural products, interest in wild edible plants or
wild vegetables gradually increased recently. Scientific studies for comparing chemical
composition and nourishment value of wild and cultivated vegetables have also been
proven better quality aspects of wild vegetables. In this mean, determination of wild edible
crops in exact regions has a special significance. In the present study, 20 different wild
edible plants used as vegetable in southeastern part of Turkey – especially in Kilis and
Gaziantep provinces- were determined. Those plant species used as wild vegetables are
Allium rotundum, Arum dioscorides, Capparis spinosa, Chenopodium album, Crocus
biflorus, Echinophora tenuifolia, Gundelia tournefortii, Malva sylvestris, Mentha
longifolia, Nasturtium officinale, Papaver rhoeas, Poligonum aviculare, Portulaca
oleracea, Tragapogon buphthalmaides, Tragapogon porrifolius, Rumex acetocella,
Sinapis alba, Terfezia boudieri, Thymbra spicata, and Urtica dioica. In the present study,
their local and scientific names, harvest periods, used parts, the purpose of consumptions
and the way of utilizations were also determined. Moreover, medicinal properties of the
plants as a traditional remedy were also evaluated.
Key words: Edible, wild, plants, turkey.
2.13 Historical Medical Use of Cultivated Food Plants in Estonia
Renata Sõukand1,2, Raivo Kalle1, Ain Raal3
Estonian Literary Museum, Vanemuise 42, Tartu, Estonia. Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics,
Department of Semiotics, University of Tartu, Tiigi 78, Tartu, Estonia 3Department of Pharmacy, University
of Tartu, Nooruse 1, Tartu, 50411, Estonia.
Abstract: Cultivated food plants are often rejected in ethno biological study, as
considered having non-indigenous, imported use. Still the medical utilization of cultivates
deserves more attention as many plants already utilized for food posses good potential to
be used for medical needs. Although all of cultivated food plants are indeed alien species,
their everyday availability and handling allows developing independent folk healing
methods. Our objectives are to test this hypothesis. The argumentation in this paper is
based on the digitized Estonian herbal lore (ca 8 808 texts) collected in Estonia since
1888. We analysed the diachronic change of the use of eleven cultivates most utilized for
medical proposes at the turn of 20 century. Overall, quantitative methods have been
applied, although the species or families of the plants mentioned in specific folklore texts
were detected using text logical methods. Additionally, comparative perspective is
involved, to investigate the dissemination of knowledge and health impact of cultivates.
Results indicated that, stonians used for medical purposes several food plants, including
Allium cepa and Allium sativum, Solanum tuberosum, cereals Avena sativa, Secale
cereale, Hordeum and Triticum aestivum, also Linum usitatissimum, Brassica oleracea,
Daucus carota L. subsp. Sativus, and Brassica napus ssp. Rapifera Metzg., to name the
most popular. Use patterns and indications have changed over the century, corresponding
to changes in cultivation and cultural preferences. Medicinal use of food plants (including
moods of preparation, parts used etc) differ considerably form the their use for food
purposes, including the use of raw plants and by-products. In conclusion, the use of food
plants for medical purposes had little in common with suggestions given in literature,
while in recent use patterns had changed and resemble more uses promoted in media.
Many specific historical medical uses of food plants have actual influence on health and
thus indicate the ability to discover proper utilization for health need for the plants
everyday at hand.
Key words: Estonia, food plants, historical, medical uses.
2.14 Diversity in the Use of Phytomedicines by the Ethnic People of Pachim
Medinipur, West Bengal, India
Department of Sociology, University of Kalyani, 741235, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Abstract: Birth, disease and death are the natural outcome of the living organisms.
Human beings are not exceptional one. Urban growth and development without destroying
the nature is really a paradox. Modern society has brought many changes in human life
due to the technological development where the use of allopathic medicines, application of
surgery and other improved clinical tests are getting priority. On the other hand, the uses
of phytomedicines are proliferating through out the world as these medicinal plants have
some positive impact on humans. Paschim Medinipur is enriched for its ethnic population
as jungles, hills, forests, etc., are the natural habitat of these people. Three ethnic groups
have been selected from this area. The Lodhas – hunters and gatherers, the Santals and the
Mundas- agriculturists have been selected for the study. The Lodhas are till today
identified as Primitive Tribal Group. These entire tribal groups have very close
association with the nature. Primitivism still persists in their everyday life. Their rites of
passages are characterized with traditional beliefs and practices. The aim of this study is to
find out how these medicinal plants are being used by the different ethnic groups for
curing diseases by which they can maintain their physical and mental health .The three
major aspects are various uses of phytomedicines by these ethnic groups during the time
of their ailments, different ethnic groups use different medicinal plants for the same
disease, and same plant has multiple applications for different diseases. All these
information from these ethnic groups are really informative and it can be used as alternate
medicines by the modern people. But unfortunately many of the important species of
medicinal plants have become endangered due to their premature and over harvesting by
the collectors and other pharmaceutical companies. This has resulted in the subsequent
degradation of the natural habitat causing threat to bio-diversity.Three different blocks are
selected for these ethnic groups. Generally, the gunins or the medicinal men
admininistered these phytomedicines for curing the diseases. It can also be noted that most
of the gunins are illiterate or they have little education but their applied knowledge is
worth mentioning and these resourceful knowledges are applied through phytomedicines
not only by the different ethnic groups but the whole villagers are benefited through it. So
the special efforts should be given to restore the indigenous knowledge for the welfare of
Key words: Bengal, diversity, ethnic, medinipur, pachim, phytomedicines.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 3: The use of medicinal plants as food additives in food recipes.
3.1 Effectiveness of Some Aromatic Plant Oils as an Inhibitor of Lipid Oxidation
Magda A. A. seleim
Food Sci. & Tech. Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
Abstract: Oxidative degradation of lipids is a major factor limiting the shelf life of foods.
The free radical reaction of lipid peroxidation is generally responsible for the deterioration
of lipid-containing foods. Use of antioxidants during the manufacturing process can
minimize the extent of lipid peroxidation. Spices and some herbs have received increased
attention as sources of many effective antioxidants. The effect of essential oils extracted
from fennel,. rosemary and ginger on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil during
storage in the dark and with light exposure was studied. The effect of heating time on the
stability of oil was studied as well. The obtained results showed that the studied essential
oil inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products during heating
and storage of sunflower oil. It could be concluded that, essential oils of selected aromatic
plants are promising as natural antioxidants.
Keywords: Aromatic plants, fennel, ginger, lipid oxidation, rosemary, sunflower oil.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 4: Standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal products.
4.1 Studying the Kinetics of the Essential Oil Components of Three Algerian Thyme
A.Touhami, L. Nasri, A. Azzedine; A.Djerourou.
Laboratory of Synthesis and Biocatalysis Organique: BP, 12, 23000, Annaba, Algeria.
Abstract: Recent studies showed that essential oil and their constituents present an
important potential as antimicrobial agents and in several industrial and medical domains.
Our work consists in the study of the kinetics of the components of essential oil of three
kind of the thymus (numidicus, ciliatus and algériensis) before, during and prospering
after in various Algerian regions. The chemical compositions of essential oil isolated by
hydrodistillation of the air party of the plant were analyzed by Chromatography in gaseous
phase coupled with the mass spectrometry CG-SM Shimadzu on 2010. The study showed
a big difference in the kinetics of the components of essential oil during year; not only
between the various kinds but also in the same kind.
Key words: Algerian, components, essential oil, kinetics, thyme.
4.2 Phytochemical Investigation of Satureja sahendica Bornm
Ahmad Reza Gohari1, Mahdieh-Sadat Nourbakhsh2, Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Asghar
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,
PO Box 14155-6451, Tel & Fax: +98-21-64122330. 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of
Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Satureja sahendica Bornm is generally called Marzeh in the Persian language
and belongs to Lamiaceae family which comprises 13 species in Iran. Several species of
Satureja are well known for their analgesic, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-
proliferative, antifungal and anti-nociceptive activities. In this study, the plant material
(aerial parts of S. sahendica) was collected in September, 2008 from North-East of Iran
(Azerbayjan province). Diosmetin (1), together with Luteolin (2), Oleanolic acid (3) and
beta-Sitosterol (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S.
sahendica for the first time. Different chromatographic methods were carried out on the
silica gel and sephadex LH20 in order to separate of compounds. The structures of the
isolated compounds were determined using the 1H, 13C-NMR and MS spectra in
comparison of those reported in the literatures. Diosmetin is an important flavone which
converts to Luteolin in the human body and affects on the breast cancer via binding to the
Key words: Flavonoids, Lamiaceae, Salvia macrosiphon, steroid.
4.3 Isolation and HPLC quantification of Rosmarinic acid from Hymenocrater
Ahmad Reza Gohari1, Soodabeh Saeidnia1, Maryam Shekarchi2, Homa
Hajimehdipoor 2, Abbass Hadjiakhoondi 1,3
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P
O Box 14155-6451. Fax & Tel: +98-21-64122330. 2Food and Drug Control Laboratories and Food and Drug
Laboratory Research Center, MOH & ME. 3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran
University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: The genus, Hymenocrater (Lamiaceae), growing wildly in Iran, has been
screened as a new source of rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic and an economically
important constituent. The variation of the RA content was quantified in three samples of
H. calycinus which grow in different regions (geographically and habitate) of Iran using
high-performance liquid chromatography. The RA concentrations ranged from 2.4 mg g -
(based on dried weight of plants) for Esfarayen origin to 13.2 mg g -1 for Bajgiran origin.
This is the first report of RA quantification in H. calycinus which has never before been
screened for this bioactive metabolite.
Keywords: HPLC quantification, Hymenocrater calycinus, lamiaceae, rosmarinic acid.
4.4 Flavonoids of Marrubium deserti from Hoggar Region
Ahmed Touil, Farouk Zaidi and Salah Rhouati
Laboratoire des produits naturels d‟origine végétale et synthèse organique, Département de chimie, faculté
des sciences exactes, Université Mentouri-Constantine, Algérie.
Abstract: Lamiaceae is a very important family in Algerian flora, many species of this
family are used in traditional therapy and as sources for essential oils and some species of
the genus Marrubium are used in folk medicine to treat some disease. The species
Marrubium deserti (De Noe) was collected from Hoggar region in southern of Algeria.
Previous study on this genus revealed the presence of diterpenoides, flavonoids and
phenylpropanoides. From the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. deserti some
flavonoids were isolated by deferent chromatographic methods (C.C., TLC) and identified
by spectral techniques (UV, NMR and MS) and chemical analysis. All this compounds are
identified for the first time from the species.
Key words: Flavonoids; Marrubium deserti; Lamiaceae family; Spectral analysis.
4.5 Comparison of Essential Oil compositions of Some Natural and Cultivated
Endemic Sideritis Species
Ahmet GümüĢçü1, Osman Tugay2, Yüksel Kan3
Selcuk University, Cumra High Educational College, Cumra, Konya, Turkey. 2Selcuk University, Faculty
of Science, Department of Biology, Konya, Turkey. 3Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department
of Field Crops, Konya, Turkey.
Abstract: In this study, some yield components and essential compositions of some
endemic Sideritis species were investigated. These species are very important for its
economical value and utilization for human health. This study carried out at the
experimental fields of Cumra High Educational High College and laboratories of
Department of Field crops, Faculty of Agriculture, in 2008 and 2009 years. Some
characteristics of natural and cultivated plants were determined and essential oil
compositions were given comparatively. The collected and cultivating species were
Sideritis congesta P.H. Davis and Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. Essential oil ratio
of the cultivated plants were for S. congesta and S. condensata, 0.11%, 0.016%,
respectively and natural plants were 0.027%, 0.020%, respectively. According to analyses,
the most important components were β-pinene (28.43%), α-pinene (20.14%), cubebol
(16.98%) for cultivated S. congesta; caryophyllene (23.96%), germacrene (23.91%) for
cultivated S. condensata. The other components of natural plants were β-pinene (19.83%),
α-pinene (14.61%) for natural S. congesta; caryophyllene (0.67%), germacrene (0.62%)
for natural S. condensata.
Key words: Cultivation, essential oil composition, sideritis condensata, sideritis congesta.
4.6 Chromotochraphic Identification of Some Olive ( 0lea europaea ) Compounds
Defence Induced by Alternaria conjucta Simmons Toxins
Anwer Noori Alkhero, 2Ayad chachan Al-Daowdy
Forestry Department Divisio, nCollege of Agri. And Forestry, University of Mosul. 2College of Agri. And
Forestry. University of Mosul, Iraq.
Abstract: The studying aimed to study the induced defence compounds which induced by
Alternaria conjucta toxins and its identification in olive( 0lea ouropeana ) leaves , the
compound were Gallic acid , Ellagic acid , (+) Epicatechin and Gallocatechin , these
compounds were appeared as a results of injection by Tentoxin and Tenuazonic acid
toxins only .Gallic and Ellagic acid were replicated in appearance in control and fungi
toxin treatment wherease ( - ) Epicatechin and ( - ) Gallocatechin appeared in control only.
The results showed identification of Gallic acid which was the same of Rf value with
standered value when it was measured at Thin Layer Chromotochraphy (TLC) by the
solvent system Butanol: Acetic acid : Distillated water at the ratio ( 4 : 1 : 5 , v /v/v) and
using iodine indicater.
Key words: Alternaria conjucta, chromotochraphic, defence, olive.
4.7 The Evaluation of Time of Corms lifting and Foliar Nutrition on Morphological
and Chemical Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
Arsham safipouriyan1, Hosain Amir Shekari2, Tybee Rajabian3, Hosain Fotokian2
Department of agronomy and plant breeding, 2Department of agronomy and medical plants research center,
Agricultural College, University of Shahed. 3Department of agronomy, Agricultural College, University of
Tarbiat modares, Tehran-Iran.
Abstract: For studying the effects of the time of corms lifting and foliar nutrition on yield
morphological and chemical yield of the saffron (Crocus sativus L.) a split plat –
experiment with complete randomized block design, was performed in three replications.
The experiment was carried out in the SHAHED medical plant field and laboratory. The
treatment of experience was existed in four levels consist of Dates of corm lifting(April
30th,may 15th ,may 30th,September 17th) as sub factor and four levels of solution
density(blank,5%,7%.9%) as a main factor consist of different. The results showed that in
level of 9% foliar nutrition the stigma has the most percent of humidity and in level of 7%
of foliar nutrition we have seen the most crocin and picrocrocin content in stigmas. The
most content of safranal was in sheet of 5% foliar nutrition and corm lifting in Shriver
(September) has the most effects in studied qualifications.
Key words: Corm lifting, crocin, foliar nutrition, picrocrocin saffron, safranal, yield.
4.8 Determination of Organic Elements of Epilobium angustifolium BY ICP-MS AND
Ayse Serguzel YUSUFOGLU, and Aysema SAYIK
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Material Science 34320, Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: The genus Epilobium (Order Myrtales; Family Onagrecae) is widely
distributed all over the world and consists of over 200 species. Various members of the
genus Epilobium angustifolium have been used in folk medicine internally for prostate
disease. The Epilobium angustifolium extracts have analgesic, anti-microbial, anti-
motility, anti-proliferative activity on prostate cells and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and
anti-androgenic properties. In Russia due to its sweet and pleasant taste it is usually
consumed as tea for the treatment of stomach, ulceration, gastritis and sleeping disorders.
The leaves and young shoot tips can be used in salads, soups or cooked as a vegetable.
Because of all these properties the anorganic and organic constituents of this plant are very
important. Organic part is studied in another paper by us. In this work it is aimed to
analyse and determine the anorganic elements of the plant material of Epilobium
angustifolium. According to the literature research there is no information about anorganic
elements of Epilobium angustifolium from Canakkale, Turkey. [1-2]. The aerial parts of
Epilobium angustifolium were collected in June from Canakkale, Turkey at flowered
season. Collected plant was washed with deionized water and dried for 5-7 days in shade
at room temperature.Two different plant samples were prepared. One was the dry sample
and the other was wet sample via infusion. For the dry sample, all the aerial parts of the
plants together with leaves, flowers and body were powdered and used for AAS and ICP
MS. The wet sample was prepared by letting the powdered plant material to stay in boiled
water for twenty minutes and then by filtration from the solid part. The dry and infusion
sample were used for analysis. Thermo-Elemental ICP-MS-X Series and Analyst 200
Flame, Analyst 600 Graphit-Furnace and Hydrid Systems (Perkin Elmer) were used for
qualitative and quantative analysis. The results obtained by AAS and ICP-MS were
compared with each other.
Key words: Elements, Epilobium angustifolium, filtration, prostate, qualitative.
4.9 Investigation of Flavonoid and Fatty Acid Composition of Corn Silk from
Ayse Serguzel YUSUFOGLU and Aysema SAYIK
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Organic Chemistry Department. 34320, Avcilar-Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract: Corn silk named as “Maydis stigma” is used for medicinal purposes as diuretic
and antiseptic by people and is very cheap and wasted. In this study it is aimed to analyse
the flavonoid and fatty acid composition of corn silk grown in Turkey at Balikesir region.
As a result of the literature research no enough information is found about corn silk from
Turkey, Balikesir region. According to the results obtained from this study corn silk could
be evaluated by medicine, pharmacy, biology, cosmetic, food and chemistry industries. In
some studies, the antioxidant activity of corn silk is determined; therefore the flavonoid
composition of corn silk from Turkey is investigated in this study. There is no information
about flavonoid content of corn silk from Turkey, Balikesir region. The corn silk is
extracted with distilled water and ethanol. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts prepared are
analysed by HPLC and LC-MS for their flavonoid composition.The fatty acid composition
of corn silk from Turkey has not been investigated, too. The corn silk from Turkey is
extracted by Soxhlet method for its fatty acids content. The Soxhlet extract obtained was
evaporated and analysed by GC-MS as free acids and methyl esters on different columns.
Key words: Corn silk, flavnoid, Maydis stigma, turkey.
4.10 Fatty Acids Compositions of Juniperus Species (Juniperus section) Native to
AyĢegül Güvenç1, Nurgün Küçükboyacı 2, Ahmet C. Gören3
Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara,
Turkey.2 Gazi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 06330 Etiler, Ankara,
Turkey.3 TUBİTAK, UME, Group of Chemistry, P.O. Box 54, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey.
Abstract: The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) is represented by seven species in
Turkey. The section Juniperus contains three species (J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L., J.
oxycedrus L.); and the section Sabina has four species (J. phoenicia L., J. foetidissima
Willd., J. sabina L., J. exelsa Bieb.). Several Juniperus species have been used to various
diseases in Turkish folk medicine. Some species of the genus have been studied for their
biological activities and chemical composition of different parts (stem, fruit and leaves).
This study was undertaken to investigate the fatty acids of the seeds of five taxa of
Juniperus section growing in Turkey. These taxa are J. drupacea, J. communis var.
communis, J. communis var. saxatilis, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus
subsp. macrocarpa. Analysis of the methyl esters have been carried out with GC-MS.
Linoleic, γ-linolenic and oleic acids were determined as the main fatty acids in the seed oil
of studied species. While erucic acid was found to be remarkable amounts in J. communis
var. communis (10.1 %) and J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4 %). To best of our
knowledge, the present work is the first report on the fatty acid composition of seed of
Juniperus section growing in Turkey.
Key words: Composition, fatty acids, juniperus, methyl esters, seeds.
4.11 Comparison of Antiradical Activities and Compositions of Essential Oils of Two
Origanum spp. from Turkey
B. COSGE1, M. KIRALAN2, A.IPEK3, A. BAYRAK2, B.GURBUZ4
Abant Izzet Baysal University, Mudurnu S.A.Vocational School of Higher Education, Bolu,. 2Department
of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 3 Cankırı Karatekin University, Biology
Department, Cankırı,. 4Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Ankara,
Abstract: Hydro-distilled essential oils from the aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L.
subsp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (OVH) and Origanum onites L. (OO) were analyzed by
GC/MS. Twelve compounds comprising 98.89% of the (OVH) essential oil were
characterized, and the main components were thymol (58.35%) and γ-terpinene (23.22%).
Twenty compounds representing 94.58% of the (OO) essential oil were identified, among
which carvacrol (73.90%) and γ-terpinene (5.96%) were the major ones. Antiradical
activities of essential oils investigated were tested using the DPPH radical-scavenging
method. DPPH radical scavenging activities of two Origanum species essential oils were
very high, and this was obviously related to their chemical compositions which were
markedly rich in phenolic components such as thymol and carvacrol.
Key words: Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum, Origanum onites L., carvacrol, DPPH,
essential oil, GC/MS, thymol.
4.12 Hyoscyamine production from Datura sp transgenic hairy root
B. HARFI1, L. KHELIFI, M. KHELIFI-SLAOUI, D. ZAOUI
Ecole nationale supérieure agronomique (E.N.S.A.) El-Harrach, Algerie. Laboratoire de ressources
génétiques et biotechnologies (L-RGB) El-Harrach, Algerie.
Abstract: Tropane alkaloids present a great economic value in particular for
pharmaceutical industry. The culture of Datura sp hairy root obtained by inoculation with
A4 Agrobacterium rhizogenes offers promising prospects for alkaloids in-vitro production.
The objective of our study is to try optimizing hyoscyamine production exploiting the
composition of mineral fraction of the media culture. On the whole of obtained lines, those
selected are DT10, DS18, DI3 and DF11 resulting respectively from the genetic
transformation of Datura tatula, D. stramonium, D. innoxia and D. ferox. The most
effective line is DT10. The obtained results show that the whole mediums (MS and B5)
give the best biomass; the diluted mediums (½MS, ¾MS, ½B5 and ¾B5) are more
interesting for hyoscyamine production. Concentrations 75 mM of nitrogen and 10 mM of
calcium gave the most significant dry weights.
Key words: Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Datura sp, hairy root, hyoscyamine, optimisation.
4.13 Essential Oil Composition from Artemisia campestris Grown in Algeria
Belhattab R.1, Boudjouref M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P 2, Figueirido A.C.2
Dept.of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria. 2Universidade de
Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, DBV, Instituto de Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro de
Biotecnologia Vegetal, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
Abstract: Aerial parts of Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae), collected in the flowering
phase, from Boussaada region (Algeria) were analysed for their volatile components. The
volatile fraction was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h
and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
(GC-MS). The essential oil was obtained in a yield of 0.66% (v/dry weight). Fifty-eight
components were identified representing 98% of the total oil. The main components were
α-terpenyl acetate and α-pinene (19% and 18% respectively) followed by camphor (9%),
camphene (8%), limonene and borneol (5% both).
Key words: Artemisia campestris, Asteraceae, volatile fraction, α- terpenyl acetate.
4.14 Chemical Composition of Artemisia campestris Volatile Fraction from Algeria
Belhattab R1, Figueirido A.C.2, Boudjouref M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P.
Dept. of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria. 2Centro de
Biotecnologia Vegetal, Dep. de Biologia Vegetal, FCL, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.
Abstract: Aerial parts of Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae) from Boussaada region
(Algeria) were analysed for their volatile components. The volatile fraction was obtained
by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger- type apparatus for 3 hours at a yield of 0,66% v/dry
weight, then analysed by gas chrommatography- FID (GC-FID) and gas
chrommatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 58 components were identified
representing 97% of the total volatile fraction. The main components were α- terpenyl
acetate and α-pinene (18,8% and 18,4% respectively) followed by camphore (9,2%),
camphene (7,7%), limonene and borneol (5,2% both).
Key words: Artemisia campestris, asteraceae, volatile fraction, α- terpenyl acetate.
4.15 Analyse of the Volatile Fraction of Ruta chalepensis from Algeria
Belhattab R1, Figueirido A.C.2, Selloum M.1, Barroso J.G.2, Pedro L.P.2
Dept.Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria 2Centro de Biotecnologia
Vegetal, Dep. de Biologia Vegetal, FCL, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal.
Abstract: The chemical variations of the volatile fractions of two populations of Ruta
chalepensis (Rutaceae) collected in two areas of north-eastern of Setif region, Algeria
(Bougaa and Ainroua) were analysed. The volatile fractions were obtained from the aerial
parts by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger- type apparatus (yields from 0,32% to 0,50%
v/dry weight), then analysed by gas chrommatography- FID (GC-FID) and gas
chrommatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 40 components were identified
representing 75,8 - 90,1% of the total volatile fractions. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene
total amount did not exceed 5% of the fractions. The main components were 2-
undecanone (67,3% - 81,1%) followed by β-caryophyllene (2,6%- 1,6%).
Key words: Ruta chalepensis, Rutaceae, volatile, 2-undecanone.β caryophyllene.
4.16 Essential Oil Composition from Two Populations of Ruta chalepensis from
Belhattab R.1, Selloum M. 1, Barroso J.G. 2, Pedro L.P. 2, Figueirido A.C. 2
Dept.Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Ferhat Abbas, 2Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de
Ciências de Lisboa, DBV, Instituto de Biotecnologia Bioengenharia, Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, C2,
Abstract: The essential oils isolated from two populations of Ruta chalepensis
(Rutaceae), collected in the flowering phase, in two areas of north-eastern of Setif region,
Algeria (Bougaa and Ainroua), were analysed. The volatile fraction was isolated by
hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h and analysed by gas
chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The
essential oils were obtained in yields of 0.32% (v/dry weight) and 0.50% (Bougaa and
Ainroua, respectively). Forty components were identified representing 76% and 90% of R.
chalepensis oils, from the plants collected in Bougaa and Ainroua, respectively. 2-
Undecanone was the main component in the oils isolated from plants collected in Bougaa
(67%) and Ainroua (81%), followed by β-caryophyllene (3% and 2%, respectively).
Key words: Ruta chalepensis; Rutaceae; volatile fractions; 2-undecanone; β-
4.17 Secondary Metabolite of Horse Chestnut in Vitro Culture
Dusica ģalic-Dragosava1, Snezana ZdraVkovic-Korac1, Jelena Milojevic1 and
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research, "Siniša Stanković'', Bulevar despota
Stefana 142, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
Abstract: Plants are source of many compounds useful in medicine, pharmaceutical and
cosmetic industry. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) seed extract is widely
used for the treatment of peripheral vascular disorders, and in cosmetics as a remedy
against cellulites. It has a general vasoprotective role by protecting collagen and elastin.
By protecting these key vessels proteins, veins and capillaries stay strong and maintain
their structural integrity when exposed to stress. Aescin was found to be effective as anti-
inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-viral agent. Horse chestnut extracts are more powerful
anti-oxidants than vitamin E, and also exhibit potent cell-protective effects, which are
linked to the well-known anti-ageing properties of anti-oxidants.The present study is
aimed to determine the content of aescin in horse chestnut androgenic embryos growing
on media supplemented with various hormones. Aescin content was determined in
globular and cotyledonary embryos grown on phytoregulator-free medium and
cotyledonary embryos grown on media with various phytoregulators. Leaves and seeds
collected from the nature were used as a control. Aescin analysis was conducted according
to the German Pharmacopoeia (Deutsches Arzneibuch 10, 1991). As this material is
available during only short period of the year, we studied the possibility of using plant
tissue culture to obtain aescin. For this purpose, the content of aescin in androgenic
embryos of horse chestnut was studied. Aescin content was found to be dependent on the
stage of androgenic embryo development and the type of the phytoregulator supplemented
to the nutritive medium. In the absence of the phytoregulators, androgenic embryos at the
globular stage of development contained approximately four times less aescin than those
at the cotyledonary stage. Inclusion of various phytoregulators in the nutritive media
stimulated aescin production. In conclusion, horse chestnut androgenic embryos produce
high amount of aescin, which can be manipulated by the addition of phytoregulators. We
find this approach promising for resolving the problems associated with commercial
production of aescin.
Key words: Aesculus hippocastanum, androgenic embryo, triterpenoid saponins.
4.18 An Approach to Develop an Olive Paste through the Production of a Natural
G. BACHIR RAHO, A. BELLIL, M. BELLIL
Département de Biologie, Faculté des sciences de la nature, Université de Mascara Algérie.
Abstract: The olive is the fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea) native to the
Mediterranean region, tropical and central Asia and various parts of Africa. In botany, it is
a drupe, smooth-skinned, fleshy envelope rich in fat, containing a very hard nucleus, bone,
which contains a seed, rarely both. His ovoid shape is typical. Its color is green at first and
ripens to blackish-purple. The oil extracted from its fruit is considered by many as the best
known edible oil. Our work focuses on the physical extraction of a natural food coloring
from the paste of black olives. The dye has a high stability; therefore it can be used in the
textile industry. The extraction process was carried out in several stages before to proceed
to the chromatography and spectral analyses on the final product. The solvent mixture is
practiced between acetic acid and water. The elimination of acid was carried out by
crystallization and evaporation of water by discontinues distillation on four operations at
86 ° C during 10 minutes on each exercise.
Key words: Acetic acid, crystallization, distillation, dye, olives, extraction.
4.19 The Impact of the Pharmaceutical Regulations on the Quality of Medicines on
the Sudanese Market: Importers‟ Perspective
Gamal K. M. Ali1 and Abdeen M. Omer2
Former Dept. of Pharmaceutical Services and Planning Manager, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum,
Sudan1. Occupational Health Administration, Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan2.
Abstract: The strategy of price liberalisation and privatisation had been implemented in
Sudan over the last decade, and has had a positive result on government deficit. The
investment law approved recently has good statements and rules on the above strategy in
particular to pharmacy regulations. Under the pressure of the new privatisation policy, the
government introduced radical changes in the pharmacy regulations. The 2001 Pharmacy
and Poisons Act and its provisions established the Federal Pharmacy and Poison Board
(FPPB). All the authorities of the implementation of Pharmacy and Poisons Act were
given to this board. This article provides an overview of the impact of the pharmaceutical
regulations on the quality of medicines on the Sudanese market from the perspective of the
pharmacists working with drug importing companies. The information necessary to
conduct the evaluation was collected from 30 pharmacists who are the owners or
shareholders in medicines‟ importing companies. The participants were selected randomly.
89% of respondents considered the medicines on the Sudanese market are generally of
good quality. The design of the research itself may be considered inadequate with regard
to selection process. However, the authors believe it provides enough evidence, and the
current pharmaceutical regulations have some loopholes. The Pharmacy, Poisons,
Cosmetics and Medical Devices Act-2001 and its regulation should be enforced. The
overall set-up including the Act itself needs to be revised.
Key words: Quality of medicines, drug importers, the Act, regulatory authorities,
4.20 Capsaicin Contents of Different Capsicum (Red Peppers) Populations and
Gulsum Yaldiz1., and Mensure Ozguven2
Rize University, Pazar Vocational School, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Department, 53300, Rize.
Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Field Crops Department, 01330, Balcali – Adana, Turkey.
Abstract: Red peppers are of the important vegetable and spice crops all over the world.
They are also an important part of delicious Turkish cousins for centuries, as well. Turkey
is one of the most important producers for these special crops. Because of their chemical
compositions, red peppers have a special importance for daily diets. Red peppers are
important sources for vitamin C both unripe green form and ripped red form. Besides their
food purposes they have recently been used in pharmaceutical products. Recent scientific
studies have also proven their anti-cancerous properties. The main therapeutic component
of red peppers is capsaicin where synthesized in the placenta of the ripe pepper fruit. In
this mean, red peppers with high capsaicin content are desired in pharmaceutical industry.
In the present study, thirty-three introduced red peppers varieties from different countries
and local red peppers populations were compared for their capsaicin contents. Capsaicin
contents of the investigated red peppers varied from 0,04 mg/g to 4,05 mg/g. The lowest
capsaicin content was obtained from the varieties C. frutescens 24 and C. sp.7, the highest
value determined in the local population Acı Cicek 52.
Key words: Capsaicin, pharmaceutical industry, red peppers, varieties.
4.21 Isolation and Characterization of a Compound from Semecarpus anacardium L.
with Actylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity
Hamid-Reza Adhami1, Hanspeter Kaehlig2, Liselotte Krenn1, Martin Zehl1
Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. 2Institute
of Organic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 38, Vienna, Austria.
Abstract: It has been well indicated that a cholinergic deficit correlates with the severity
of Alzheimer‟s disease. The cholinergic function can be improved by AChE inhibitors that
block this key enzyme in the breakdown of acetylcholine. Based on traditional medicine,
during the last decade the use of herbal medicinal substances in dementia therapy has been
studied.The fruits and the fruit resin of Semecarpus anacardium L. (Anacardiaceae) have
been used in several systems of traditional medicine with various therapeutic properties,
among those for the enhancement of cognitive performance in several herbal drug
mixtures. To find new natural compounds with AChE inhibitory effect, the fruits were
extracted with dichloromethane and methanol by accelerated solvent extraction. The
extracts were investigated by a respective colorimetric microplate assay and by TLC
bioautography (Rhee et al., 2001; Marston et al. 2002). Physostigmine was used as a
positive control in these two enzymatic assays. The major active compound was isolated
using several chromatographic techniques such as vacuum liquid chromatography on silica
using petroleum ether-chloroform mixtures as mobile phase and size exclusion
chromatography with Lipophilic Sephadex LH20 as stationary phase under elution with
methanol. The structure of the active component was characterized by different
spectroscopic/spectrometric methods such as one and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR
(COSY, TOSCY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and mass spectrometry. This substance was
identified as an aliphatic derivative of catechol, the IC50 of which was determined as 33.2
μg/ml in the assay on AChE inhibition.
Key words: Actylcholinesterase, inhibition, isolation, Semecarpus anacardium.
4.22 Phytochemical Study of Tyfon (Brassica campestris f. biennis DC. x B. Rapa L.)
I.G. Gurieva, V.S. Kyslychenko, Iu.S. Kolisnyk
National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Abstract: The search of new medicinal raw material with large material base is still a very
important task of modern pharmacy. Representatives of the Brassicaceae family are
spread worldwide; they have been used in national medicine of different countries owing
to a broad spectrum of their pharmacologic activities. Tyfon (Brassica campestris f.
biennis DC. x B. rapa L.) was created in 1976 in Netherlands as a hybrid of turnip and
Chinese cabbage. The plant is 110-120 cm high, with straight stem, flowers are of yellow
colour. It is widely used as a fodder crop. Cattle, which were fed by tyfon grass, gained
weight very quickly because of the high content of protein and sugars. It was interesting to
study chemical composition of main active substances in tyfon grass with the purpose to
create a food supplement in future.Thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, atom-
emission spectrography and chemical reactions allowed us to discover polysaccharides,
sugars, tannins, flavonoids, microelements, hydroxycinnamic (coffeic, chlorogenic) and
organic (benzoic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric) acids, aminoacids and fatty (palmitic, linoleic,
linolenic, oleic, stearic, lauric, myristic) acids. It was found that tyfon grass contained 15
elements, among which sodium, potassium, silicium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus
prevailed. Aminoacids were detected with aminoacid analyzer T339M Mikrotechna-Praha
and were mainly represented by aspartic, glutamic acids, proline, glycine, alanine, valine,
threonine and serine. The content of protein was found to be 11, 49 ± 0, 06%.
Technological parameters of the raw material were also established. Thus, more
phytochemical research should be provided for more profound study of tyfon grass. Also
biological research will be carried out in future to detect most pronounced
pharmacological effects of tyfon grass.
Key words: Chromatography, phytochemical, tyfon.
4.23 The Level of Trace Metals and other Contaminants in Medical Plants Used in
Isam, M. Jawad
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, P.O.Box 961343 Amman,
Abstract: The level of trace metals(Pb,Fe,Cu,Cd,Cr,Zn,Mn)and the ash composition of 250
samples of deferent types of most popular medical plants used extensively in Iraq were
determined. Average values of each metals and standard deviation are presented. High levels of
Fe, Zn, and Pb were observed in most of the medical plants used, Total ash, water soluble ash,
acid insoluble ash and alcohol extract percentages were determined for all the samples of
medical plants. High levels of these extracted indicated the poor quality of some of these
Key words: Contaminants, medical plants, trace element.
4.24 Development of New Plant Drugs, Their Extracts and Final Product
Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17th November St., SK-
081 16 Presov, Slovakia.
Abstract: Modern medicine seems to be omnipotent and information about tens of
thousand diseases and hundreds of thousand symptoms, use of last achievements of
chemistry and physics makes the processes in organism even more differentiated and
difficult to understand. The development of new plant drugs has no end as new
preparations seem to have no limit of perfection. Since time began medicinal plants played
the most important part in the composition of therapeutic and various preparations which
were used in popular doctoring. Modern phytotherapy is a direct successor of the rich
tradition of popular doctoring in Europe. It is based on years of experience of people
having direct contact with nature. Over the years this experience has been verified in
practice, supplemented and classified – folk herbalist wisdom formed and passed from
generation to generation. Are there unique matters from pharmacopoeia which have been
used by people for centuries and even thousands of years? And it is said that even if they
exist, then are very few in number. Several of them are represented by tree plant species:
Tribulus terrestris L., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Ilja., and Stevia rebaudiana
Bertoni (Bertoni). A leader of natural plant production in Slovakia is the company
CALENDULA, Co., which is situated in Nova Lubovna and has been establishing
medicinal plant processing (the essential oil, extract production, food and cosmetic
products) since 1999. Our mutual research includes dry and liquid extracts and Steviana
preparation with characteristics: Tribulus extractum siccum (dry matter: min. 90 %, ash:
max. 14 %, saponines in dry matter: min. 10 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.005 %,
particulate density: 0.51 g.ml-1, excipiente: maltodextrine (10 %), content of pesticide
residues: chlorine <0.0005 mg.kg-1, phosphate <0.0005 mg.kg-1),
Leuzea extractum siccum (dry matter: min. 90 %, ash: max. 15 %, ecdysterone content:
min. 1.0 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.005 %, Particulate size: 0.355 mm /40 mesh/,
min. 95 %, content of pesticide residues: chlorine < 0.0005 mg.kg-1, phosphate < 0.0005
mg.kg-1), Stevia extractum fluida (dry matter: min. 60 %, ash: max. 15 %, steviosides in
dry matter: min. 25 %, content of heavy metals: max. 0.002 %, index of a light refraction:
1.440 – 1.460), Steviana (volume of product in an original packaging: min. 25.0 ml, dry
matter: min. 20 %, steviosides in dry matter: min. 20 %, content of heavy metals: max.
0.002 %, Index of a light refraction: 1.365 – 1.395).
Acknowledgements: My participation at The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal
Plants, Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses is supported by the Agency of Ministry of
Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120041.
Key words: Cultivation, extracts, new medicinal plants, plant drugs, preparation.
4.25 Poppy Cultivation in the Czech and Slovak Republic
Ivan Salamon, and 2Jozef Fejer
Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17th November St., SK-
081 16 Presov, Slovakia. 2Department of Ecology, Faculty of Humanity and Natural Sciences, Presov
University, 01, 17th November St., SK 081 16 Presov, Slovakia.
Abstract: Poppy (Papaver somniferum L ).is a traditional crop in Central Europe .Its
cultivation there has a long history .In the Czech Republic it is possible to grow the poppy on an
area of more than 100 square metres on the basis of a reporting duty and in Slovakia on the basis of a
licence .In the past 10 years, the cultivation area for the plant has varied from 27,611 to 69,793
hectares in the Czech Republic and from 386 to 2,714 hectares in Slovakia. The cultivation is
located mostly in eastern parts of the Czech Republic and in western parts Slovakia, near the city of
Hlohovec, where a pharmaceutical company is located .The climate in those regions it is good for the
cultivation and production of pharmaceutical raw materials .Farms grow the plant mainly for the food
grade seed production .The poppy straw, the basic row material for alkaloid production, is
seen as a by-product of the cultivation. Cultivated varieties accumulate 0.4 – 0.6 %of morphine in
dried capsules .Poppy straws from farmers contain only 0.3 %of that alkaloid (average in the period
1970 – 2005.
Aknolgement: My participation at The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants,
Their Cultivation and Aspects of Uses is supported by the Agency of Ministry of
Education SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project ITMS 26220120041 .
Key words: Czech Republic, cultivation location, food, seeds, slovakia, straw, poppy.
4.26 Screening of New Perspective Species of the Plant Raw Material and System
Approach in Studying Families on its Basis
Khvorost O.P., Gontovaya T.N., Maliy V.V., Fedchenkova Iu.A., Musienko
National University of Pharmacy, Kharkov, Ukraine.
Abstract: The aim of our research was working out the strategy of searching new
medicinal plants and new medicines. The objects of our research were such taxons of rank
as familia Betulaceae (genus 3), Corylaceae (genus 3), Caprifoliaceae (genus 2), Oleaceae
(genus 2), Ulmaceae (genus 5), Aceraceae (genus 3), Boraginaceae (genus 16) and
Violaceae (genus 15). Vegetative and generative organs were analyzed as plant raw
material of the representatives of more than 100 species and 49 genera of the families. As
a result of the research macro- and microscopical conformities of structure that are
important at the level of family, genus and species and also some diagnostical signs for
plant raw material. Conformities of accumulation of primary and secondly metabolites in
plant tissues were set down. The determination of containing of different groups of the
phenolic compounds, tannins and cathehins was carried out. On the basis of this research
34 species of plants were chosen as the perspective sources of plant raw material. The next
step is the determination of some kinds of biological activity and comparison of the
obtained data by application express methods in vitro. As the result of performed research,
the list of new perspective species of the plant raw material (with taking into account
availability of plant raw material such as prevalence, speed of reproduction, and simplicity
of cultivation) decreased from the pharmacognostical point of view to 19 species.
Key words: Betulaceae, plant raw material, screening, species.
4.27 Accumulation of Biologically Active Compounds in the Rhizomes and Roots of
Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus /Maxim. et Rupr./ Maxim.)
K. Baczek, Z. Weglarz, J. L. Przybyl
Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW,
Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.
Abstract: Eleuthero is a shrub growing wild in Far Eastern Asia. Its underground organs
(rhizomes and roots), called “roots”, are medicinal raw material with high adaptogenic
activity. The aim of our study was to define the differences between rhizomes and roots in
respect of their quality, concerning specially the accumulation of biologically active
compounds. The objects of the study were two-, three-, four-year-old plants cultivated in
the experimental field of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW. The
biologically active compounds were determined by HPLC using the Shimadzu
chromatograph with DAD detector. Luna 5μm C18 (2) 250 x 4.6 mm column was applied.
The mass of rhizomes and roots were going by a ratio of 60:40. The content of the most
important compounds i.e. eleutherosides B and E, was markedly higher in the rhizomes in
comparison with the roots, regardless of the age of plants. The sum of these two
eleutherosides both in the rhizomes and the roots excided British Pharmacopoeia
requirements (80mg/100g). In contrary to eleutherosides B and E, the content of
eleutheroside A (sitosterol 3-O-β-D glucoside) in the rhizomes was over twofold lower
compared to the roots. The content of main phenolic acids (chlorogenic, rosmarinic and
protokatechuic) was also markedly lower in the rhizomes. There was a clear relation
between plant age and accumulation of above mentioned compounds. The content of
eleutherosides B, E and A in rhizomes and roots was distinctly higher in four-year-old
plants whereas the content of phenolic acids – in two-year-old plants.
Key words: Biological, eleuthero, rhizomes, roots.
4.28 The Bioactive Diterpenoid Alkaloids from the High Altitude Himalayan genus
Department of Chemistry, Kumaon University Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
Abstract: Aconites are the natives of cold region wherever found all over the world. The
Indian Himalayan region which is considered the Botanical Garden of the world is rich to
host the plants of genus Aconitum. Out of the several Aconitum species found in the high
altitudes of Himalayan region A. balfourii and A. heterophyllum are most frequently used
in the Indian system of medicines and have very high market demand. A balfourii is used
to cure painful conditions such as neuralgia, myalgia, arthritic complaints and migraine .In
China in its traditional Phytotherapy it is used as cardiac tonic. A.heterophyllum is an
important and essential ingredient of several Ayurvedic drugs and best known to cure
different stomach troubles, dysentery as well as vomiting and cough. Surprisingly not
much work has been done on these Himalayan species as far as their chemical
investigation is concerned.Although both species are frequently being used as medicines
but it is interesting to note that A. balfourii is deadly toxic while A. heterophyllum is
edible. A. balfourii is purified by different specific methods before it is taken as medicine.
Working on these herbs 1-3 it has been revealed that A balfourii is rich in extremely toxic
unnatural diterpenoid alkaloids viz: pseudaconitine and veratroylpseudaconitine called
C-19 Diterpenoid alkaloids whereas A. heterophyllum in atisine and atisinol belonging to
C-20 diterpenoid alkaloids. The present status of these herbs and their recent chemical
investigation reports will be discussed.
Key words: Alkaloids, bioactive, diterpenoid, himalayan genus.
4.29 Improvement of the Quality and Quantity of Essential oil of Cumin (Cuminum
Kazemi Saeed, F., Mirza, M. and Sharifi Ashorabadi., E.
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, P.O.Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is an annual plant belongs to Apiaceae
(umbelifera) family. The seeds of cumin are aromatic due to possessing essential oil.
Amount of essential oils is variable between 2.5% to 5%. Main compounds of the essential
oil are aldehyds (up to 60%) including cuminaldehyde , para-menta-1,3-dien-7-al and
para-menta-1,4-dien-7-al and monoterpenes hydrocarbons ( up to 52%). Cumin is the
native of Mediterranean region, but it is cultivated in India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Morocco,
Turkey, Syria, Malt, Sudan, Cyprus and some parts of the Eastern Europe. Cuminaldehyde
as the main compound in essential oil of cumin is a circle aldehyde, with molecular
formula C10H12O and molecular weight 148/20. The compound besides of having anti-
bacterial, anti-viruses and anti-fungi traits is known as a famous anti oxidant stronger than
vitamin C, E and even BHT(BHT is a synthetic composition applied in commercial
essential oils). Besides of medicinal uses, cuminaldehyde is applied as a flavorant. It is
used as a fragrance in perfumery, too. It is also a soothing.γ-terpinen is the most important
monoterpene in the essential oil of cumin. Its formula and molecular weight are C 10H16
and 136/23, respectively. Because of the high value of the compounds of the essential oil,
it is necessary to develop the methods for increasing the quality and quantity of the
essential oil. For this purpose, it is designed to study the effects of the different levels of
soil moisture and nitrogen application on quality and quantity of the essential oil of
cumin.The experiment were performed with three levels of soil moisture including filed
capacity, 2/3 filed capacity and 1/3 filed capacity and four levels of nitrogen including 0
(control), 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha nitrogen as a split plot design in a filed. According to
results, soil moisture had no effect on essential oil amount, while it decreased in further
nitrogen application. The best Quality of the essential oil was observed in 2/3 filed
capacity and 40 kg/ha nitrogen application, so that cuminaldehyde and para-menta-1,4-
dien-7-al increased more than 50 and 46 percent respectively. The results of the research
showed that for achievement of high quality and quantity of the essential oil in cumin, a
suitable ratio of soil moisture and nitrogen must be applied.
Key words: Cumin, Cumnium cyminum, essential oil, cuminaldehyde, soil moisture and
4.30 Studying Chemical Composition of Borage Leaves
Khalida A. Shaker and Wesam S. Elewi
College of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Borage
leaves. The samples were purchased from local market, the percentages of moisture,
protein, fat, ash &fibers were determined ,besides the content of minerals which included
K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn,Pb, Cd, Se..The study was extended to determine the
content of leaves from saturated &unsaturated fatty acids. The obtained results revealed
that the percentages of moisture, protein, fat, ash, fiber were 6.06,0.18, 1.6 ,0.08 and
9.09% respectively ,and for myerstic ,stearic , lenolic acids were 5.45 ,22.44 and 12.34 %
respectively. The results of minerals content determination has showed that the Borage
leaf content of K, Na, Ca, Mg,Mn,Fe,S, P were 285.05 ,83.55 ,74.97 ,2.07 ,0.55 ,1.77 ,0.33
and 0.77 mg/g respectively , while for Cu, Zn, Se ,I were 0.2 ,1.44 ,21.56 ,1.56 mg/g
respectively whereas, for Co ,Pb ,Cd ,were unsensible.
Key words: Borage, leaves, lenolic, myerstic, stearic.
4.31 Lignan and Iridoid Glycosides from the Roots of Cephalaria kotschyi.
Khuraman Mustafayeva1, 2, Riad Elias1, Valerie Mahiou-Leddet1, Tahir
Suleymanov2, Yusif Kerimov2, Evelyne Ollivier1.
Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Ethnopharmacologie, UMR-MD3, Université de la Méditerranée, Faculté
de Pharmacie, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France. 2Pharmacognosy and Botanic
Department, Azerbaijan Medical University, Bakikhanov Street 21, Baku, AZ 1000, Azerbaijan.
Abstract: Cephalaria kotschyi Boiss. Et Hoh. (Dipsacaceae) is an endemic plant of
Caucasus region growing in Azerbaijan. The earlier phytochemical studies reported the
isolation of triterpene saponins, flavonoids, and gentianine type alkaloids from the roots
and flowers of C. kotschyi. In our previous study we described the isolation of iridoid
glycosides, loganin and gentiopicroside from the roots of this plant. Herein we report
together with gentiopicroside and loganin described previously, the isolation of three
iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides: loganic acid, swertiamarine, cantleyoside, three
furofuranic lignans: prinsepiol glycoside, 8-hydroxypinoresinol-4'-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-
hydroxypinoresinol-4,4′-O-β-D-di-glucoside and two triterpene saponins: giganteoside J‟
and dipsacoside B, resulting of an investigation of the chemical constituents of the roots of
C. kotschyi. The plant was collected in Lerik region of Azerbaijan, in September 2005. A
voucher specimen (C 8131005) was deposited at the herbarium of the Botanical Institute,
Academy of Science, Azerbaijan. Air-dried roots (100g) were extracted by percolation at
room temperature with MeOH (1L for 24 h), the obtained solution was concentrated under
vacuum. The MeOH extract (5g) was submitted to Flash Column Chromatography on
polyamide MN SC 6 Macherey Nagel® (70µm), using a step gradient of H2O-MeOH
90:10, 50:50 and 0:100, to give 3 main fractions (F1–F3). The fractions F1, was further
purified by Low Pressure Liquid Chromatography on Prepamatic Chromatospac 10 (Jobin
Yvon) with Lichroprep RP18 Merck® (25-40µm). A step gradient of H2O-MeOH (100:0;
90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 67:33; 65:35; 62:38; 60:40; 50:50 and 0:100, 1L for each) allowed to
obtain 20 fractions Sp1-Sp20. The fractions Sp2, Sp5, Sp7, Sp9 and Sp16 afforded
respectively loganic acid (18mg), swertiamarin (73mg), gentiopicroside (250mg), loganin
(75mg) and cantleyoside (230mg). Purification of the fractions Sp12 and Sp13 by the
means of preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography on Symmetry C18
2O-MeOH (75:25), yielded prinsepiol glycoside
(20mg) and 8-hydroxypinoresinol glycoside (18mg) respectively. The fraction Sp8 was
purified by silica gel CC, Kieselgel 60 Merck® (40-63 µm), eluting with CH2Cl2: MeOH:
H2O (35:12:2) mixture, affording the 1-hydroxypinoresinol diglycoside (6mg). Fraction
F2 (1g) was fractionated by silica gel CC using CH2Cl2: MeOH: H2O (50:16:3) and
(30:13:3) successively as eluent to give dipsacoside B (30mg) and giganteoside J‟ (30mg).
The structural elucidations of the obtained compounds were performed by spectroscopic
analysis, including 2D NMR data and confirmed by comparison with the previously
reported data. NMR spectra were recorded in CD3OD
spectrometer operating at 500.13 MHz and 125,13 MHz. All isolated compounds, except
loganin and gentiopicroside, are reported for the first time from C. kotschyi. The iridoid
glycosides loganin, loganic acid and cantleyoside have been previously reported on
Cephalaria and other genus of the Dipsacaceae family. These compounds are used as
chemosystematic markers for the plants of Dipsacaceae family. The secoiridoid
swertamarin has been previously isolated from Dipsacaceae. The prinsepiol glycoside has
been already reported on C. ambrosioides. Two other lignans, 8-hydroxypinoresinol
glycoside and 1-hydroxypinoresinol diglycoside are reported for the first time from
Key words: Cephalaria kotschyi, iridoid glycosides, lignan.
4.32 Polyphenolic Fractions of Algerian Propolis Reverses Doxorubicin Induced
Acute Renal Oxidative Stress
Lahouel Mesbah and Boutabet Kheira.
Laboratory of molecular toxicology. Faculty of Science, University of Jijel, Algeria.
Abstract: We examined the preventive flavonoids compounds effect of propolis in a rat
renal oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin throughout an analytical and
pharmacological study of the eastern Algerian propolis using Thin Layer Chromatography
(TLC), Ultra Violet-High Phase Liquid Chromatography (UV-HPLC) and Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The pharmacological study was carried
out in vivo on wistar rat pre-treated with propolis extract 100 mg/kg/day for 7 days.
Doxorubicin at 10 mg/kg of body weight was administered intravenously on day 7th.
Serum creatinine concentration, scavenging effect of flavonoids, lipid peroxydation
(MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were measured. Chemical analysis allowed
identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds including pinostrombin
chalcone(38,91%), galangin(18,95), naringenin(14,27%), tectochrysin(25,09%),
methoxychrysin(1,14%) and a prenylated coumarin compound suberosin (1,65%). The
total flavonoid concentration in the propolis extract was 370 mg (quercetin equivalents
QE) /g dry weights of propolis extract (QE/g DWPE). Propolis extract restored the renal
functions and clearly reduced the toxic effect of doxorubicin. These data shows clearly a
protective effect of Algerian propolis extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.
Thus, we can conclude that flavonoids have the ability to protect renal cells by the free radical scavenging
and inhibition of their production.
Key words: Antioxidants, flavonoids, lipid peroxidation, MDA, γGT, free radicals.
4.33 Essential Oil and Fatty Acid Composition of a Tunisian Caraway (Carum carvi
L.) Seed ecotype Cultivated under Water Deficit.
LARIBI Bochra1, KOUKI Karima1, SAHLI Ali1, MOUGOU Abdelaziz1 and
Institut National Agronomique de Tunis. 43, Av. Charles Nicolle-1082, Tunis, Tunisia. 2Laboratoire des
substances bioactives, CBBC, BP 901, 2050- Hammam-Lif, Tunisia.
Abstract: The effects of water deficit on essential oil and fatty acid composition of
Tunisian caraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated. Plants grown from seeds of Menzel
Temime ecotype were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (100% ETc),
moderate water deficit (50% ETc) and severe water deficit (25% ETc). Essential oil
extraction was performed by hydrodistillation. Total lipids were extracted by a solvant
mixture of chlroform/ methanol/ hexane (4:3:2, v/v/v). Analyses were carried out using
gas chromatography-FID equiped with a polar column (polyethylene glycol). Fatty acid
composition revealed that drought reduced significantly seed fatty acid content and mainly
that of the petroselinic one which is reduced by 15 and 20,3% compared with the control
under moderate and severe water deficit, respectively. Thus, the major variation consisted
in a decrease of the unsatured fatty acids in favour of an increase in satured ones. Besides,
the double bond index (DBI) showed significant decrease under the different drought
levels which was more pronounced in plants conducted under severe water constraint. In
addition, drought increased the essential oil yield. The main essential oil constituents were
carvone and limonene. This last showed an increasing of its proportions under water
deficit levels. Thus, water deficit induced a significant reduction in fatty acid content and
an increase in the essential oil compounds.
Key words: Carum carvi L, ecotype, essential oil, fatty acid, water deficit.
4.34 Genetic Variability of Moricandia arvensis L. (DC.)
Messaoud Ramdani1, Azzedine Zeraib1, Takia Lograda1, Pierre Chalard2
Laboratory of Natural Resource Valorization, Sciences Faculty, Ferhat Abbas University, 19000 Setif,
Algeria. 2Ecole nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Clermont Ferrand, Laboratoire de Chimie des
Hétérocycles et des glucides, EA987, 63174 Aubière Cedex 01. 3LEXVA Analytique, 460 rue du
Montant, 63110 Beaumont, France.
Abstract: The hydrodistilled oils from the aerial parts of two populations of Moricandia
arvensis from Sétif region (Algeria), were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC-MS). 30 compounds in the oil of M. arvensis representing 80.8% of the
total oil of Sétif population and 19 compounds of Amoucha population, representing 93%
of the total oil were identified. The analysis showed that the main constituents of the
essential oils are rich in fatty acid (34.1% - 22.1%). The major constituent are palmitic
acid (13.2% – 12.9%), phytol (7.9% – 10.5%). Sétif population is characterized by 3-
butenylisothiocyanate and Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1, 3-p.
Key words: Algeria, essential oil, Genetic variability, Moricandia arvensis, Brassicaceae.
4.35 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of
Messaoud Ramdani1, Takia Lograda1, Zeraib Azedine1, Pierre Chalard2, Gilles
Laboratory of Natural Resource Valorization, Sciences Faculty, Ferhat Abbas University, 19000 Setif,
Algeria. 2LEXVA Analytique, 460 rue du Montant, 63110 Beaumont, France. 3Clermont Université,
ENSCCF, EA 987, LCHG, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand.
Abstract: The genus Pituranthos (family Umbelliferae, Apioidae, tribe Apieae) is
represented by more than 20 species. P. scoparius is used in traditional medicine for the
treatment of asthma and rheumatism. The essential oil of P. scoparius has been described as
antispasmodic. The hydrodistilled oils from the aerial parts of two populations of
Pituranthos scoparius, Saharan species, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 compounds were identified representing 99.93% of the total
oil of P1, and 63 compounds representing 99.68% of the total oil of P2. The analyses
showed that the major constituents of the oils were α-pinene (16.37% – 23.34%) and
Sabinene (14.77% - 18.03%). Using a diffusion method, the oils showed significant
antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(ATCC 27853) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923).
Key words: Pituranthos scoparius, Ombiliferes, antimicrobial activities, essential oil,
4.36 Effects of Barley Flour and Barley Protein Isolate on Chemical, Functional,
Nutritional and Therapeutic Properties of Pita Bread
MUHAMMAD H. ALU'DATT
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box
3030, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.
Abstract: Fortification of barley flour and barley protein isolate in wheat flour at 5, 10
and 15 % levels were carried out to investigate the effects on chemical, functional,
nutritional and therapeutic properties of Pita bread. Protein isolate and globulin, prolamin,
glutein-1 and glutein-2 fractions of barley flour were extracted from barley flour (BF).
Protein fractions and protein isolate were subjected to evaluate protein yield, chemical
composition and nutritional quality of individual fractions. Highest yield and essential
amino acids contents were obtained in barley protein isolate (BPI). SDS-PAGE slab gels
electrophoresis indicated that fortified wheat flour with BPI and BF consist of proteins
coming from wheat flour and barley proteins. The contents of essential limiting amino
acids in bread were increased from 0.14 to 1.14 mg/g for lysine and from 0.095 to 1.73
mg/g for methionine as the ratio of fortification increased from 0 to 15 %. The highest
content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-
inhibitory activity and α-amylase inhibitory activity were found in fortified bread with BPI
at 15 %. Results indicated that bread made from fortification of wheat flour with BF and
BPI at 15 % showed superior chemical, physico-chemical, nutritional and therapeutic
Key words: Barley, chemical flour,, functional, pita bread, protein.
4.37 Standardization of Plant Drugs under Changing Environmental Conditions
Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India.
Abstract: Higher plants are the major source of crude drugs that help appreciably in the
maintenance of human health. Substitution and adulteration practices in crude-drug trade
have necessitated scientific characterization of plants of medicinal importance. The
conventional morphological, anatomical, physiological or genetic parameters, normally
taken into consideration for plant standardization, may no longer serve the purpose;
evaluation of active ingredients of the given plant often becomes indispensable. Medicinal
efficacy of a plant drug may differ depending on its cultivation or collection from areas with
different agro-climatic set up. Moreover, the amounts of active ingredients responsible for
therapeutic action may vary with plant genotype and with the change of habitat, depending
on variation in soil characters and environmental conditions. Even within the same
individual, organ-wise distribution of active ingredients may evince huge variations. The
overall quantity of bioactive compound(s) also varies with the stage of plant development,
plant-nutrition status, and the local environmental conditions. Degradation of environment
may affect not only the quantity but also the composition of active ingredients. This
situation, under extreme conditions, is not unlikely to alter the properties and hence the
degree of effectiveness of the bioactive compounds. Thus, environmental degradation may
have a far–reaching influence on the therapeutic potential of plants known for their
medicinal utility, and this may necessitate consideration for re-fixing the drug doses,
keeping in view the overall situation based on the above mentioned various estimations.
This paper addresses all these aspects on the basis of data collected from relevant studies
dealing with a large number of plants with medicinal importance.
Key words: Environment, plant drugs, standardization.
4.38 Pesticides Residues in some Medicinal Plants and their Products, Jordan
Mufeed Batarseh1, Amani Al-awamleh2, Sahar Arabiat2
Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy 1Research, Mutah University, P.O. Box 3,
Karak-Mutah 61710. Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Amman-Jordan.
Abstract: With the ever-increasing worldwide use of herbal medicines and the rapid
expansion of their global markets, the safety and quality of medicinal plants have become
a major concern for health authorities, pharmaceutical industries as well as for the
consumers (Nan Sun et al. 2007). In Jordan herbal medicinal plants are widely consumed
as fresh, processed or immersing in hot water for drinking. Pesticides residues in herbal
medicinal plants are intensively studied worldwide, but in Jordan there is a lack in such
studies. The present work is aimed to evaluate pesticide residues for most popular and
commonly used medicinal plants and aromatic oils extracts in Jordan. The herbal
medicinal plants will be collected from different farms in high lands and Jordan valley,
and then aromatic oil extraction will be prepared. The pesticide residues will be
determined for the medical plants and oil extracts after optimization of a sophisticated
extraction and clean up procedure using either gas chromatography coupled to mass
spectrometer (GC/MS) or electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Furthermore, for
comparison purposes plant and oil extracts will be collected from local market (herb stores
and fresh plants) and analyzed for pesticides residues too. The detectable levels of
pesticides residue will be compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) as
recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the European Commission
Key words: Medicinal plants, pesticides residues, products.
4.39 Sorption Isotherms, Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Tunisian and
Moroccan Pelargonium graveolens
N. Bahloul 1, M. Ketata 1, 2, E. Ammar 2, N. Kechaou 1, N. Boudhrioua-Mihoubi 1
Groupe de Recherche en Génie des Procédés Agroalimentaires, Tunisia Unité de Recherche : Mécanique
des Fluides Appliquée et ModélisationEcole Nationale d‟Ingénieurs de Sfax, Tunisia. 2Unité de Recherche :
Gestion des Environnements Urbains et Côtier. Institut préparatoire aux Etudes d‟Ingénieurs de Sfax,
Abstract: Pelargonium graveolens has been used as a medicinal and aromatic plant since
ancient times. It has numerous applications in perfume industry, cosmetology,
aromatherapy and food preparation. The essential oil of this plant is partly responsible for
the antiseptic, antifungal and tonic effects. The leaves of Pelargonium graveolens contain
more than 70% of moisture, inducing their rapid deterioration after harvest. The
measurement of their moisture sorption isotherms is essential to determine their optimal
conditions of storage.The objective of this work is to characterize some physicochemical
and biological properties of Tunisian (TP) and Moroccan (MP) Pelargonium graveolens and
to investigate the desorption isotherms of the leaves. The Tunisian pelargonium (TP)
contains higher contents of proteins, ash, fat and carbohydrates (17.37, 9.05, 3.23 and 71.32
g / 100 g d.m., respectively) than the Moroccan one (MP) (16.83, 7.77, 2.93 and 66.6 g /
100 g d.m., respectively). Pelargonium graveolens leaves contain high level of moisture
being lower in the TP (2.88 kg water/kg d.b.) than in the MP leaves (4.4 kg water/kg d.b.).
Therefore, the immediate drying is the most important operation in post harvest processing
to avoid quality losses of these valuable, but perishable plants. Both TP and MP leaves
contain also high amounts of minerals as, Ca (2871 and 2071 mg/ 100 g d.m., respectively),
K (1030 and 775 mg/ 100 g d.m., respectively) and Na (406 and 731 mg/ 100 g d.m.,
respectively). The leaves are characterized by a radical scavenging activity superior than
32%. Desorption isotherms of the leaves follow a sigmoid curve and are of type II. The
difference between the equilibrium moisture contents of the Moroccan and Tunisian plants
at a fixed water activity is not significant for 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C. Therefore, both varieties
of geranium leaves could be dried to the same average moisture content in the temperature
and water activity ranging from 30 to 60°C and from 0.0456 to 0.898, respectively. The
Peleg model is the most suitable for the estimation of the equilibrium moisture contents of
geranium leaves in the investigated ranges of temperature and water activity.
Key words: Desorption isotherms, pelargonium graveolens.
4.40 In Vitro Radio sensitivity Study of Datura sp Seeds for Increased Alkaloid-
Producing Mutant Lines
N. Benslimani1, L. Khelifi2, M. Khelifi-Slaoui2, A. Djerrad1, B. Mansouri1
Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d‟Alger. 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon BP-399 Alger-RP, 16000. 2LRGB, Ecole
Nationale Supérieure Agronomique (ex-INA), Hassen Badi El Harrach, Alger, Algérie.
Abstract: Alkaloid producing plants from the Solanaceae family. These alkaloids are
known to have very important pharmaceutical properties. Moreover, their chemical
synthesis was found to be more expensive than their direct extraction from their natural
source, the plant itself. In addition, their concentration in the whole plant remains low
even among the most productive bodies, both when grown in artificial (in vitro
hydroponics.) or natural conditions. Hence, there is a rising interest for radiation-induced
mutations in the perspective of producing higher extents of alkaloids through the natural
process. In this context, three Algerian varieties of Datura seeds namely: Datura
stramonium, Datura inoxia and Tatula were gamma-irradiated by means of a Cobalt-60
source. The irradiation doses ranged from 5 to 80 Gy. Irradiated and scarified seeds were
afterwards germinated in vitro on a MS-medium in a controlled growth chamber. The
obtained results indicate that the Datura inoxia variety has good radiosensitivity compared
to the two other varieties. Tropane alkaloids (atropine and scopolamine) of both Datura
inoxia control and irradiated seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography. This variety is
expected to be used in an induced-mutation programme for the sake of obtaining mutant
lines that will exhibit increased tropane alkaloid concentrations.
Key words: Alkaloids, datura, germination, mutations, radio sensitivity, tropane, atropine,
4.41 Separation and Purification of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Extracted from
Leaves of Lentisc Using Chromatographic Methods
N.HAMLAT1, and A.HASSANI1,2
Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Produits Bioactifs et Valorisation de la Biomasse, Ecole Normale
Supérieure BP 92 Kouba Alger, 16308 Algérie. Tel : 213 21 29 75 11, Fax : 213 21 28 20 67. 2Centre de
Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-chimiques, Laboratoire de Chimie Organique
Fonctionnelle Faculté de Chimie USTHB/ CRAPC BP248 ALGER.Tel, Fax : 213 21 24 74 06.
Abstract: The lentisc (Pistacia lentiscus) is one of the Arabic and European
pharmacopeia plants which grow in the Mediterranean climate. It plays a fundamental role
in the ecosystems maintenance due to its strong dryness and maquis devastation resistance.
It‟s known of its astringent properties.The leaves are used as infusion to treat several
diseases such as: hypertension, ulcers and diabetics. Within the medicinal plants Algerian
valorization framework, we have been interested in extraction, separation, identification
and purification of flavonoïds and phenolic acids present in leaves of lentisc. The
flavonoïds are extracted by no miscible solvent, they are then analyzed by
chromatographic methods (thin layer chromatography TLC: one-dimensional and two
dimensional on freezed polyamide, chromatography on sephadex colunm, chromatography
on paper and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC by linear gradient). The
results allowed us to identify several compounds such us: quercetin, myricetin, luteolin,
rutin, vetexin, orientin; vanillic acid and cafeic acid.
Key words: Chromatography, flavonoïds, HPLC, lentisc, Pistacia lentiscus.
4.42 Moringa peregrine (Al-Yassar) Seeds Oil from Southwest Jordan
Nasab Kasem Rawashdeh1, Ibrahim M. Rawashdeh 2, Kamal Khairallah1, and
National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan. 2 National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan . 3
National Center for Agriculture Research , Jordan.
Abstract: The edible Moringa peregrine oil was extracted by traditional method used by
the local Bedouins; warming water up to 60 C° and ground the seeds to paste then pour on
warm water separate the oil layer floating on the surface. The crude oil percentage and its
fatty acid composition were determined using petroleum ether (SoxIhet). The separation
pattern of fatty acids was done by GC and compared with the olive oil. The results showed
that Moringa peregrine oil percentage reached (28.1%) and found to contain high levels of
unsaturated fatty acids, especially Oleic acid (up to 78.79%). Linoleic acid (0.47%),
Linolenic acid (0.02%) while in the olive oil Oleic acid (up to 71.75%), Linoleic acid,
(9.25%) and Linolenic acid (0.67%). The dominant saturated acids were Palmatic (8.17%)
and Behenic acid (2.60%) while in the olive oil (12.64%) and (0.12%) respectively.
Moringa peregrine seeds were also founded to contain high level of crude protein that was
determined by Keldhal Nitrogen Method at (20.1%). The oil extract could be useful to
reducing cholesterol and for other industrial and medical applications.
Key words: Jordan, Moringa peregrine, oil.
4.43 Contribution to Study the Flavonoids of Teucrium polium geyrii from the Region
of Tamanrasset (Algeria). Search the Analgesic Activity of Flavonoid Extracts
OUAFI Saida., LAICHOUBI Amine., HAMMANA Elmaamoun
Research Laboratory on Arid Zones (LRZA), USTHB, Faculty of Biology. BPN 32 El-Alia, Bab Ezzouar,
16111, Algiers, Algeria.
Abstract: The flora of Algeria is characterized by its diversity. Mediterranean and
Saharan, estimated at more than 3000 species belonging to several botanical families. Its
species are for the most part spontaneous. Diverse are medicinal plants especially in the
Saharan region. In this work we will do the phytochemical study and research of analgesic
activity of Teucrium polium geyrii from Tamanrasset. In order to isolate and highlight the
main flavonic compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of this plant, by using
different techniques. In Algeria this plant is common in the Saharan Atlas, Hoggar and
less common elsewhere Teucrium polium geyrii is a fragrant plant is much appreciated and
sought after Tuareg, it flavors the tea and has antiseptic, purifying properties.
Infusion treats intestinal and stomach disorders. Is the aspirin of Tuaregs. The plant
material was harvested in the Hoggar in January 2010; the pharmacological tests were
performed on albino mice species (Mus musculus). The evaluation of analgesic activity is
done by injection of acetic acid intraperitoneally in mice that causes a painful reaction
manifested by cramps, which can be reduced by an analgesic product. This study
compares the reduction in the number of cramps after administration of equal doses of the
test product and reference (Aspirin). Flavonoid glycosides were extracted by maceration
water-alcohol (30/70) of powder plant, and a hot hydrochloric acid hydrolysis allows the
release of aglycones flavonics from the O-glycosides flavonoids. The identification of
molecules is by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and NMR. The
determination of phenolic compounds is by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The results
showed that our species is quantitatively rich in flavonoids (flavones, flavonols: 3.26 mg /
g, C-glycosides: 4.17mg / g, Glycosides: 7.43mg / g) and qualitatively (13 flavonoids -
glycosides and free aglycones 03 were identified). Regarding the analgesic activity,
flavonoid extract (44% of reduction) has an activity that is better than the reference
product(48% of reduction) which confirms its popular use.
Key words. Analgesic activity, flavonoid compound, identification, medicinal plant,
Teucrium polium geyrii.
4.44 To Study of Essential Oil and Agricultural Properties of Vetiver (Vetiveria
zizanioides ) in the Southeastern of Mediterranean
S. Kırıcı1, M. Ġnan2, M. Turk3, E. S. GĠRAY3
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana. 2Department of
Field Crops, Kahta Vocational School, Adıyaman University, Kahta/Adıyaman,. 3Department of Chemistry,
Faculty of Arts&Science, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey.
Abstract: Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides ), a plant of the Gramiceae family, is well known
as an eco-friendly tool to prevent soil erosion, and one of the most important raw
materials in perfumery industry. Its roots are usually steam distilled to obtain vetiver oil.
The complex odor profile of vetiver oil is dominated by a woody and special balsamic
tonality. This study was conducted to investigate and determination of essential oil content
and composition and agricultural properties of Vetiver grown at the experiment area of the
Field Crops Department, Çukurova University, Agriculture Faculty, during 2008 and 2009
under Çukurova ecological conditions. Plant height, number of tiller, fresh and dry
herbage yield, fresh and dry root yield, essential oil content of dry root, and composition
of essential oil by GC-MS were determined during autumn. Twenty four components were
detected in the oil from cultivated vetiver. Khusinol (19.15% and 15.67%), b-vetivenene
(9.76% and 8.16%) and dehyro-aromadendrene (7.34% and 9.66%) in the experiment
years were present as the major components in the essential oil.
Key words: Agriculture, essential oil, vetiver.
4.45 Comparative Studies of the Trace Elements Content of some Herbal Tea
Consumed in Jordan
Sati Y. AL-Dalain 1 , Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish 2 and Ahmed, H. Al-Fraihat1
Department of agricultural Sciences , Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa` Applied University.
Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa` Applied
Abstract: Six mineral and trace elements (Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn and Zn) were determined in
the five Samples of herbal teas commercially available in Jordanian Pharmaceutical
market, such as Sahha Fennel Tea (SFT), Sahha Chamomile Tea (SCT), Sahha Herbal Tea
(SHT), Miltea Herbal Tea (MHT) and Miltea Chamomile Tea (MCT). The mineral and
trace elements content of the studied samples showed a wide variability. Mn was not
detectable in SFT and SCT. It was ranged from 1.73 ppb in MCT to 5.95 ppb in SHT. The
highest Cu content was 1.956 ppb in SCT and the lowest value was 0.939 ppb in SHT.
However, it was not detectable in SFT, MHT and MCT. Cd ranged from 6.86 to 26.25
ppb in MCT and SHT respectively. Maximum concentration of Ni was 47.68 ppb in SHT
while the minimum was 6.55 ppb in MCT. On the other hand, Zn Concentration was not
detectable in all studied samples. The results of this study indicated that, that the herbal
teas that are consumed in Jordan did not contain toxic elements.
Key words: Dietary intake, herbal tea, medicinal herbs, mineral, trace elements.
4.46 Determination of the Chemotype of the Pine of Aleppo, Pinus halepensis Mill in
the North of Algeria
Souici Leila1, Tlili-Ait-kaki Yasmina2,, Djahoudi Abdelghani2, Bennadja Salima2
Hadef Youcef 2, Chefrour Azzedine2 and Brinis Louhichi1
Institute of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria. 2Department of
Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, Algeria.
Abstract: The pine of Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) is a conifer of the family of Pinacaes., its
geographical distribution is essentially around the Mediterranean Coasts, and more mainly
in Algeria, in Spain and in Morocco.The pine of Aleppo is considered as a main forest
essence in Algeria. It occupies the biggest forest cover 60 %. Pines are much estimated for
their properties and their multiple manners; the industry, the medical domain, in cosmetic,
in perfume shop and in soap factory. Our research with impact on the pine of Aleppo
(Pinus halepensis) in the Algerian Mediterranean North, at the level of the East (El-Kala),
the Center (Algiers) and the West (Oran). An ethnobotanic investigation in summer made
at the level of three regions of studies with the aim of collecting the maximum of
information about the knowledge and the use; therapeutics of the pine of Aleppo.
Followed by a quantitative analysis (Extraction of essential oil by hydrodistillation) and
quantitative (Identification of the chemical composition and the chemotype by CPG).
Three samples were collected at the level of the regions of study during various periods of
the year (Mars, in May, July, September). The quality variation of essential chemotypes
oil of every harvest depends on several factors: the species and the botanical origin.
Chemotype, the vegetative cycle and other environmental factors.
Key words: Algeria, chemotype, essential oils, pine of aleppo.
4.47 Correlation Between Environment and Essential Oil Production in Medical
Svetlana StevoviĤ1, Dušica ģaliĤ-Dragosavac2, Vesna Surčinski MikoviloviĤ1,
Snežana ZdravkoviĤ-KoraĤ2, Jelena MilojeviĤ2, Aleksandar Cingel2
Department of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Protection, University
Union, 11000, University of Belgrade, Serbia . 2Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for biological
research “Siniša Stanković'“, University of Belgrade, Serbia.
Abstract: Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare, Asteraceae) is one of the most spreaded species and
medical plant on the same time. However, tansy is principally used in tradition medicine
as antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antihelminthic, carminative, antidiabetic and diuretic.
The Tanacetum species are rich in essential oils, bitter components and sesquiterpene
lactones. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be tested through from essential oil
contents. Essential oil helps to easily submit plant environmental stress conditions:
drought, intense radiation, high temperature, heavy metal contents. Also, essential oils are
not constant in the qualitative and quantitative terms. Quality of essential oil depends on
the external environmental condition. Natural selection favors survival of the population
with the composition of essential oil which has a higher adaptive value. The goal was to
measure the quantity and quality of essential oil, as adaptability indicator and to prove the
statement that the plants answer on environmental stress by production of essential oil.The
laboratory experiment is realised by analizing the essential oil contents in tansy from two
completally different locations: one location was the purest environment, but the other
location was the most poluted industrial zone.Essential oil constituents were separated and
identyfied using the GC-MS chromatography.Results showed that the plants react on
environmental stress by higher production of essential oils.In conclusion, elevated content
of the essential oils in tansy on the same time presents the high level of environmental
Key words: Adaptability, environment, essential oil, medical plant, tansy.
4.48 Quantification of Procyanids in Rumex Confertus Underground Organs and
National Pharmaceutical University. Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Procyanidins are a group of oligomeric flavan derivatives (catechins, anthocyanidins and
leucoanthocyanidins), widespread in world Flora. Sven and Bate-Smith noticed, that
leucocyanidin was found in 35% and leucodelphinidine in 19% of investigated
аngiosperms.Catechins are probably even more widespread than leucocyanidins. Six
basic anthocyanidins are often found in plant organs (leaf, flower and fruit of
angiosperms). Cyanidin, delphinidin and pellagronidin are found the most frequently.
According to data from the literature, Rumex confertus rhizomes and roots contain d-
catechin, l-catechin, epi-catechin gallate, catechin dimer; leucopellagronidin,
leucodelphinidin, leucodelphinidin glucoside, leucocyanidin, anthocyanins; fruits contain
catechines: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin. Moreover there are up to 17.00% of tannins
in rhizomes and roots, and more than 7.00% in fruits. A part of them is possibly presented
by the polymeric flavan derivatives. O.K. Kabiev and S.M. Verminichev have
persuasively proven that purified total of catechines and luecoanthocyanidins, obtained
from underground organs of Rumex confertus shows anti tumor activity. The same
authors proved that greater antitumor effect is shown by total drug of
leucoanthocyanidins, that inhibits the growth of implanted to rats Plisse lymphosarcoma
to 50,7 and 84,3%, given intraperitoneally in doses 80 and 150 mg/kg respectively. A
weaker (growth delay of 46,7 – 55,8%) was observed against tumor, Walker
carcinosarcoma (growth delay of 40,3 – 62,2%) and sarcoma - 45 (growth delay of 37,0 –
39,9%), alveolar mucous liver cancer PC-1 with rats (delay of 55,2 -57,2%). At oral dose
of 250 mg / kg the degree of growth inhibition of sarcoma - 180 reached 78,2%. The
drug, which contains catechins and leucoanthocyanidins was more active in rats's
sarcoma - 45 (growth delay of 65,5%) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma of mice (growth
delay of 54,1 – 67,7%). Work carried by Zhuravliov M.S., Abu Zaher Khaled and
Martynov A.V. on the study of antitumor activity of the total of catechins and
leucoanthocyanidins, extracted from rhizomes and roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus, Rumex
pulcher, Rumex dentatus verified researches of Kabiev O.K. and Vermenichev S.M. In
our work we carried out quantification of procyanidins in the underground organs and
fruits of Rumex confertus. Rhizomes and roots for the researches were prepared in the
vicinity of village Borova in Zmievskiy district (Kharkiv region, Ukraine) in 2009-2010
yrs. Quantification was carried out using modified Porter's method, in the basis of which
lies acidic hydrolysis of procyanidins to anthocyanidins. Procyanidins from the roots and
rhizomes of Rumex confertus. Specific index of absorption ( ) of the reaction
product of procyanidins with Porter's reagent was determined for the amount of
procyanidins from Rumex confertus fruits, extracted and purified by preparative
chromatography. 9,10±0,47% and 12,10±0,71of procyanidins respectively were found in
underground organs and fruits of Rumex confertus. Moreover, in the Pharmacology
department of National Pharmaceutical University, under the leadership of prof.
Dragovoz S.M. was proved antioxidant effect of procyanids.
Key words: Fruits, procyanids, quantification, Rumex Confertus.
4.49 Ecological Standards of Medicinal, Aromatic, Spicery and Poisonous Herbs of
Tamara Kacharava, Avtandil Korakhashvili, kacharava Ketevan
Abstract: A rich and unique genetic fund of Georgia represents a natural-historic treasure
calling for permanent conservation-rehabilitation.. The issue is important to our country
while the number of cultural plants and their wild ancestors originate from Georgia as
their primary and secondary hearth of origin. In Georgia those unique medicinal, aromatic,
spicery and poisonous plants are spread which cannot be found anywhere in the world.
The referred above topic results in protection of human health in any country. It is not
necessary to assert the significance of pure natural fermentative medical preparations
made from plants grown in our eco-systems. Natural complex chemical compounds, as a
rule, have less harmful and specific impacts on human body rather than its synthetic
analogues and substances with artificially made structures, thus, enabling their use in cases
of chronic and acute diseases. This can be explained in the way of the process of the vital
functions during ontogenesis period, various substances are formed. Many of these
substances have explicit impact on human and animal organisms. Biogenesis occurring in
plants on the basis of assimilation of simple molecules in systems of extremely
complicated complexes of biologically active substance, goes even beyond the
opportunities of complex modern chemical (synthetic) and plants of Chemical Synthesis.
Purpose is searching for and cataloguing germplasm of the medicinal, aromatic, spicery
and poisonous plants of Georgia, including the unique plants and those on the verge of
extinction, wild and cultural species, establishment of data bank of the present
pharmacological peculiarities to ensure preservation of flora resource and sustainable use
of its components, updating of the seed bank based on differentiated goods value to
facilitate further raw material production and development of pharmaceutical industry as a
basis of project viability. On the base of pharmacological studies (1999-2009) for the
standardization and quality control of herbal medicinal plants, we have developed
recommendations concerning historical and traditional priority – technology of production
of ecologically sound standards of raw materials and products of medicinal, aromatic,
spicery and poisonous plants of our country : Foeniculum vulgate L - essential oils- 3-5%,
flvonoids -0,5%; Valeriana officinalis L - exstracted solids 27,8%, essential oils- 2%,
isovaleric acid 0,91%; Calendula officinalis L –α karotiods – 31mg%, Melissa officinalis
L - essential oils – 0,33%, vitamins C 150 mg%, carotins 7mg%; Carum carvi L -
essential oils – 7,2%; Thymus vulgaris L - essential oils 2,2%, Salvia officinalis L- 2,5%;
Hyoscyamus niger L – alkaloids -0,5%; Datura stramonium L – alkaloids 0,14%, impact
of ecosystems on productivity, quality of raw materials and products is differentiated.
Key words: Ecological, Georgia, medicinal, poisonous, spicery, herbs.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses.
Topic 5: Cultivation of medicinal plants (Conventional and Organic).
5.1 Response of Onion to Nitrogen and Sulphur Application
A. Abd El-Kader 1 H., Abdel Aziz2 ., I. El-Ghandour 2 and B. Singh3
Soils and Water use Dept. National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 2Soil and Water Research Department
Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou-Zabl, 13759, Egypt. 3Norwegian Univ. of Life
Abstract: Field experiment was carried out at El-Saff region , El- Giza governorate ,
Egypt to explore the effect of three rate of nitrogen 20, 40, and 80 Kg N / Acre in the form
of NH4 NO3 and two rates of elemental sulpher(S) (250,S1 and 500,S2 kg/ Acre in two
application methods) on the yield quality , and nutrients uptake of onion (Allium cepa L.)
.Results showed that, the vegetative growth of onion plant, as well as bulbs yield were
increased with the gradual increase of N and S. In case of elemental S, the increase was
only with M1 (Incorporated method). The study revealed that, a considerable response of
onion to macro and micronutrients was significantly observed. How ever, the response to
N3 and S2M1 was more distinct in comparison to the other two N rates and the other rate
of S and M1 application. Ndff determination in whole plant of onion was decreased
parallel to decreasing rates even S applied incorporated (M1) or broadcasting (M2). EFU
by onion bulbs was lower under 20Kg N/ Acre (42.4%) than 80 Kg N/Acre (59.85%). The
nutrient dose that maximized yield (80-500Kg NS /Acre) as well as S as incorporated
Key words: Broadcasting, incorporated, onion, response N and S.
5.2 Using Plant Tissue Culture Techniques to callus initiation from Thymus vulgaris
L. Plant to produce Thymol
AbedAljasim M. Jasim1, Essam FAl .Jumaily2 and Laith Ahmed Al –Shaigy2.
Biotechnology Research Centre Al-Nahrain University –Baghdad. 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Institute for Post Graduate studies – Baghdad University, Iraq.
Abstract: Different explants (leaves, stems and roots) were obtained from seedling of
thyme plant (Thymus Valagaris L.) .These explants were cultured on MS medium
supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 1.5 , 3 , 4.5 and 6) mg / l to callus
initiation. The results revealed that best callus initiation was observed on explants cultured
on 1.5 mg / l . Leaves were superior in callus production as compared to stem and root
explants . The results also showed that the average of callus fresh and dry weights under
light condition were best as compared with dark conditions, to all different explants except
the root which revealed that the best average dry weight was in the dark conditions.
Thymol was detected by using thin layer chromatography method and the value of
retardation factor (Rf) was (0.38) which compared with the value of retardation factor of
slandered thymol compound . Also High Performance Liquid chromatography method
was used to detect thymol substance and to know its concentration in callus induced from
leaves which observed that rotation time of standard compound was identified with
rotation time of thymol substance and it was (5.25) minute also the concentration of
thymol substance in callus was 4.5 gm / kg.
Key words: Callus, thyme, tissue culture, thymol.
5.3 Effect of Organic and Biofertilizers on Growth, Herb Yield and Volatile Oil of
Marjoram Plant Grown in Ajloun Region, Jordan
Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat1, Sati Y.Al-Dalain1, Mohammad Abu Darwish2
Department of Agricultural Science, 2Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Ash-Shoubak University
College, Al-Balqa‟ Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan.
Abstract: This experiment was carried out during two successive seasons of
2007/2008 and 2008/2009 in Ajloun region, to study the effect of organic manure
(farmyard manure and poultry manure at a rate of 75 m3/ha as fertilizer of each)
and biofertilizers (Nitraboein and Halex-2 at a rate of 988 gm/ha of each as well
as their interactions on growth, yield of herb and volatile oil of Majorana
hortensis , L., using drip irrigation system. The results indicated that the
application of a poultry manure as an organic fertilizer to marjoram plants
recorded the maximum values of herb fresh and dry yield, N, P and K contents
and its uptake by herb in the early cut, volatile oil percentage, oil yield/ plant and
per hectare, while in the late cut the highest values in this respect were obtained
by farmyard manure application. Marjoram transplanting treated with halex-2
biofertilizers gave the highest values of herb fresh and dry yield, N, P and K
contents and its uptake by herb in the early cut. In addition to, volatile oil
percentage, oil yield/ plant per hectare, while plants treated with nitrobein
biofertilizers gave intermediate values at different cut in this respect. The
combination of poultry manure and halex-2 proved to be the superior treatments,
which reflected in the greatest influence upon all the studied characters, i.e., fresh
and dry herb yields, mineral contents, highest volatile oil percentage and oil
yield/ plant of marjoram plant, followed by FYM combined with the same
biofertilizers and may be recommended under similar conditions of this work.
Key words: Biofertilizers, Jordan, halex-2, marjoram, nitrobein, Organic, poultry
manure, volatile oil.
5.4 Effects of Gel Extracts of Aloe vera L. on Mitotic Index and Phase Index of Root
Tip Cells of Allium cepa L.
Ali Irfan ILBAS1, Umut GÖNEN2 and Semih YILMAZ2
Erciyes University, Seyrani Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, 2Erciyes University, Graduate
School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Kayseri, Turkey.
Abstract: In the study, effects of gel extracts of Aloe vera L. derived from leaves on
mitotic index and phase index of root tip cells of Allium cepa L. were investigated. In the
pre experiment, 20% gel concentration was determined as EC50. Root tip cells of Allium
cepa were subjected to different concentratinos of Aloe vera gel extract (2, 5, 10, 20 and
40%) for 24 and 48 h. Increasing the concentration of the Aleo vera gel extract decreased
the root length and mitotic index of the Allium cepa. Concentration effect on mitotic index
was more obvious compared to application period. Cytotoxic effect was determined in
both application periods (24 and 48 h) when 40% Aleo vera gel extract was applied. A
strong positive correlation between Aleo vera gel extract concentration and prophase index
and a poor negative correlation between concentration and other mitotic phases
(metaphase, anaphase and telophase) were determined.
Key words: Allium cepa, Aloe vera, mitotic index, phase index.
5.5 Cultivation of Medicinal Plants as a Means of Conservation and Poverty
Alleviation in Developing Nations
Amujoyegbe Bamidele Julius
Department of Crop Production and Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Obafemi Awo Lowo University, Ile-
Abstract: Plants, whether wild or domesticated are fundamental components of
ecosystems on earth. They form the productive bases and the physical structures, support
diversity of animals and other organisms. Human economies are highly dependent on
plants for supplies of material resources, such as food, construction materials, fuel, craft
materials and medicines. The nature of the plant cover significantly influences the quality
of the climate, the availability of water supplies and the stability of the soil. How people
use and manage wild plant resources will significantly influence the sustainability of their
livelihoods and the conservation of their diversity. Cultivation of highly valued medicinal
plants should be creating new dimension in the field of agriculture in developing nations.
The need for developing countries to acquire technologies and techniques for programmed
cultivation of medicinal plants within the cropping system is a current issue.
Key words: Cultivation, developing, medicinal plants, poverty.
5.6 Seasonal Variations in the Essential Oil Composition of Lavandula dentata,
Growing in Eastern Morroco
B. IMELOUANE 1, A. ELBACHIRI 1 J.P. WATHELET 2, H.AMHAMDI 1
Laboratory of physical chemistry and natural resources and environment, Department of Chemistry,
University Mohamed I, BP 717, Avenu e Mohamed VI ,60000, Oujda, Morocco. 2Unity of General and
Organic Chemistry, Faculty of the Agronomic Sciences of Gembloux, Passage of the Prisoners 2, B-5030
Abstract: The chemical compositions of plants are determined by genetic and
environmental factors and their interaction. In this study, we determined the seasonal
variation of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Lavandula dentata growing
in eastern Morocco (Taforalt). Volatile components obtained by hydrodistillation were
investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS. Oil yields increased from December to July. We
examined the evolution of oil composition along the vegetative life of the plant. Major
fluctuations in the composition of Lavandula dentata oil included: I-8,Cineol , beta-
pinene, Pincarvol, Sabinol and Myrtenol. These results show the fast and complex
changes in the chemical profile of Lavandula dentata and a probable interconversion
between the major components. This study calls for attention when using the essential oils
of this plant to know the chemotype that we need.
Key words: Chemotype, essential oil, Lavandula dentate, seasonal variation.
5.7 Variability in Ethiopian Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L): Implications in
Improvement, Cultivation and Utilization.
Beemnet Mengesha, 2Getinet Alemaw and 3Bizuayehu Tesfaye
Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, P. O. Box 198, Shashemene, Melkasa Agricultural Research
Center, P. O. Box 436 Nazareth. 3Hawassa University, P. O. Box 05 Hawassa, Ethiopia.
Abstract: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice, aromatic and medicinal
herb that belongs to the family Umbelliferae. Even though it has got diverse uses and
Ethiopia is a center of primary diversity for the crop, the current knowledge about its
biology, variety development and agronomy are neither complete nor conclusive under
Ethiopian conditions. This hinders the cultivation and utilization of coriander in the
country. To contribute in filling some of the existing gaps, a field experiment was
conducted during the main rainy season of 2007/08 at Wondo Genet and Kokate, southern
Ethiopia. Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications is the choice for this
activity. Data for 15 agronomic and quality traits were measured and statistically tested.
Mean squares from the combined ANOVA reveled a highly significant variation (P<0.01)
among the accessions for 11 of the 15 traits and significant variation (P<0.05) for days to
end flowering while no significant variation (p<0.05) was observed for number of basal
leaves, plant height and fatty oil content. The study revealed the presence of considerable
variability in Ethiopian coriander accessions. Hence, the possibility for further
improvement using these variations is great. Therefore, some of the major economical
traits of coriander which are important for consumption, processing and trade can be
improved for agronomic performance and quality.
Key words: Coriander, Ethiopia, variability.
5.8 Micropropagation of Catharanthus roseus in order to produce Monoterpenoid
Indole Alkaloids in vitro
Benyammi R., Khelifi-Slaoui M., Bakiri N., Harfi B., Khelifi L.
Laboratoire de Ressources Génétiques & Biotechnologies, Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique,
Abstract: The Catharanthus roseus produces monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, which have
high therapeutic interest. The biotechnological approach with in vitro shoot cultures
remains an alternative to the field culture of Catharanthus roseus for the production of
such compounds. In this investigation, Catharanthus roseus shoot were induced from a
cotyledons of seedlings, on semisolid MS containing various concentrations of 6-
benzyladenine (BA : 1.0, 1.5 or 2mg/l). After 40 days, a concentration of 2 mg/l of BA
showed a better average of shoot formation (7 shoots / explant). After shoot formation,
liquid cultures are induced by transferring clusters into MS liquid media. Shoots showed a
quick proliferation and biomass accumulation during a monthly culture cycle, and the
maximal biomass values were reached around day 22 of the culture cycle.
Key words: Catharanthus roseus, in vitro shoot cultures, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids,
5.9 Agroforestry: A new horizon for the cultivation of medicinal plants
Brajeshwar Chandelia and Avinash K. Sharma
Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), New Delhi, India.
Abstract: Agroforestry in India has proved itself as an integral element not only in the
farming system, but also a key component of sustainable agriculture. Poplar and
eucalyptus based plantations intercropped with traditional agriculture crops viz. wheat,
sugarcane, pulses, vegetables, fodder etc are practiced by farmers in the states of Punjab,
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Plains of Himachal Pradesh in India. Apart from traditional
farming in the initial years of plantations, cultivation of medicinal plants intercropping
may be viable alternative cash crops among the farming community at the lateral stages of
plantations. Taking these facts in to consideration, an Agroforestry based experiment was
conducted at Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) during the year 2003-04 to assess
the performance of the medicinal plants viz. kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), tulsi
(Ocimum sanctum), akarkara (Spilanthes acmella) and chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) under
twelve year old plantations of eucalyptus hybrid (Eucalyptus citriodora x Eucalyptus
torellina) grown at the spacing of 3x3 meter. All medicinal plants were raised through
seeds in the month of April 2003 in nursery and then transplanted under eucalyptus
plantations in the third week of June. Only farm yard manure (FYM) @ 2 t/ha was applied
to plots before transplanting and no any inorganic fertilizer was applied. The short
duration medicinal plants except chitrak were harvested in the month of September to
October of the year 2003 and 2004 simultaneously. However, Chitrak (a perennial crop)
was harvested in the month of October 2004 only. The medicinal plants were harvested at
their different physiological phases. Morphological parameters like survival percentage,
plant height, collar diameter, leaf area, biomass yield were recorded along with plants
grown in open field conditions simultaneously. An economic analysis of medicinal plants
cultivation was also done to work out the cost benefit ratio of intercropping. The medicinal
plants were found to be suitable for intercropping with eucalyptus plantations based on
their performance. Thus, present paper discusses the results of this experiment and also the
scope of introduction and cultivation of medicinal plants as under crops with commercial
Key words: Akarkara, chitrak, cultivation, eucalyptus, kalmegh, poplar.
5.10 Agricultural Research Activities in Turkey
General Directorate of Agricultural Research (TAGEM) .Tarımsal Araştırmalar Genel Müdürlüğü
Abstract: Agricultural Research in Turkey is conducted mainly by the Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Universities and
TUBITAK (Turkish Scientific and Technological Council). The Research Organization
under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is consisted of below
components: General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Agricultural Research Counsil,
Research Advisory Committees, Programme Coordinators, Programme Evaluation
Working Groups. General Directorate of Agricultural Research (TAGEM) is the
headquarter of national agricultural research system. Development of research strategy,
determination of priorities and coordination of research programmes are the main
objectives of TAGEM.
Keywords: Agriculture, research, TAGEM, türkiye.
5.11 Investigation the Effect of Cultivation Season and Irrigation Period Inrevenue
Operation and Essential Oil on Salvia officinalis L. ،S. sclarea L. ،S.hypolecua
Benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. in Khojir (Iran-Tehran province)
Ebrahim Farahani,1. Golamreza Naderi Brojerdi2 Zahra.Rafiei Karhroodi3
Scientific member board of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Scientific
member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak. Faculty member
of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of plant protection, Iran.
Abstract: Ecological condition which are different from a region to another as well as
agronomical factors have their own influence on the product yield. In this research the
effect of planting season and irrigation period on shoot yield and amount of essential oil
on Salvia officinalis L. ،S.sclarea L. ،S.hypolecua Benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. have
been tested. Effect of planting season (fall, spring) and irrigation period (no irrigation,
21days irrigation period, 14days irrigation period, 7days irrigation period) in factorial
experiment by using of randomized complete block design were investigated. In each plot,
dry weight plant average and yield, plant height and essential oil percentage and yield
were measured. Treatment averages were compared according to Dankan‟s test. Nearly in
all samples more irrigation period have an absolute positive effect an plant height, wet
weight plant, dry weight plant, essential oil percentage and yield and dry weight yield in
hectare with significant factor of P<0.01.Only in Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil
percentage was not in the above limitations. Approximately in all samples, plants season
(fall) were more effective in above mentioned qualifications and between then (spring,
fall) significant factor at the rate of 0.01 can be recognized. Except in Salvia officinalis L.,
S.hypolecua Benth, Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil percentage & yield, in S. sclarea L.
plant height, did not shown significant difference.
Key words: essential oil, irrigation, khojir research station, Salvia officinalis, Shypolecua
benth. and Thymus vulgaris L. season.
5.12 Effect of Kinetin on Seed Germination of Some Lines of Fenugreek
(Trigonella foenum graecum L.)
Erman BEYZĠ, and Ali Ġrfan ĠLBAġ
Erciyes University, Seyrani Agriculture Faculty, Field Crops Department, Kayseri, Turkey
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate effects of kinetin on seed germination
of Fenugreek in Erciyes University Seyrani Agriculture Faculty in 2010. In this study, 7
Fenugreek lines, was obtained Dicle university agriculture faculty field crops department,
(Hat 1, Hat 3, Hat 18, Hat 23, Hat 29, Hat 33, Hat 34) are used. Dosages of kinetin were
determined as 100 M, 200 M and pure water was used as kontrol. According to results
of the study, increased dosages of kinetin affects root length, root fresh and dry weights
negatively. Effects of kinetin applications on germination rates were not significant.
Inreasing dosages of kinetin decreased shoot length but increased shoot fresh and dry
Key words: Fenugreek, germination, kineti, length, root, seed, turkey.
5.13 Propagation of Tilia argentea by Seeds and Stem Cuttings
Ezz AL-Dein M. Al-Ramamneh, 2Mostafa M. Qrunfleh
Department of Agricultural Sciences, AL-Shouback University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, AL -
Shouback, Maan, Jordan. 2Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University
Abstract: Seeds of Tilia argentea collected from Prince Hashem Garden in Amman were
subjected to different durations of stratification and acid scarification. The seeds were
subjected to cold-moist stratification at 5 °C for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. The effect of
soaking seeds in concentrated (98%) sulfuric acid for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes on the
subsequent germination of seeds was also investigated. Germination percentage of seeds
was significantly raised into 12.50% and 7.5% when seeds were stratified for four months
or soaked in concentrated sulfuric acid for 10 minutes under greenhouse conditions,
respectively. However, seeds firstly soaked in sulfuric acid for 10 minutes and then
stratified for four months recorded significantly the highest germination percentage
(28.75%). Propagation of Tilia argentea by cuttings was also attempted. Softwood
cuttings were taken once during August and twice during September and treated with nine
different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA), viz. 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000,
10000, 20000 and 30000 ppm. IBA significantly improved rooting of cuttings compared to
untreated control. The maximum rooting percentage (31.25%) was recorded for cuttings
taken on the 2nd of September and treated with IBA at 10000 ppm. Cuttings taken on the
2nd of September and treated with IBA at 4000 ppm resulted in the highest mean root
number per cutting (11.52). However, cuttings taken on the 2nd of September and treated
with IBA at 3000, 4000, 5000 and 10000 ppm produced, on the same level of significance,
the highest mean root length per cutting (2.12-2.47 cm). The low overall rooting response
of cuttings (6.25%) collected on the 15th of September and treated with IBA at 5000 ppm
indicates that this date was too late for collecting cuttings of Tilia argentea.
Key words: Cuttings, scarification, seeds, stratification, Tilia argentea.
5.14 Effect of Chemical, Manure and Biological Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil
of Satureja hortensis L.
Farahani Ebrahim1, Melikyan, Andreas2, Naderi Bourjerdi Ghallam Reza3 , and
Faculty member of Tehran Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. 2Vegetable breeding
department of Agriculture Academy.3 Faculty member of Islamic Azad University of Arak. 4 Faculty
member of Islamic Azad University of Arak, Iran.
Abstract: Savory genus (Satureja) is from Labiatae family and has 15 species in Iran from
which nine species are exclusive. Essential oil of different species of Savory because of
having Carvacrol has especial importance. The vegetative shoot of this plant has effective
materials that causes sweating and remove of gout. This plant is anti bloat and helps to
food digestion too. The Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) essential oil uses in cannery and
making beverages industries. Essential oil of this plant has anti bacterial properties and
prevents growth of some types of bacteria. In essential oil of Savory obtained from
distillation, 17 combinations identified that the most of them were Carvacrol (48.1%) and
Gamma Terpinen (38.4%). In order to study the influence of different methods of soil
fertility on performance and essential oil percent of Savory, an experiment with 10
treatments and 3 replications in a CRB design carried out in Khojir station in 15 km from
East of Tehran in 2009. The treatments were including control experiment (without
fertilizer), three levels of chemical fertilizer (N50P40K50, N100P80K100 and N150P120K150),
three levels of manure (10, 30 and 50 ton/ha.) and three levels of biological fertilizer
(Nitroxin, Barvar 2 and mixture of both). The results showed there was significant
difference between treatments with respect of various traits (P<0.01). Studying the
comparison of traits mean including height of stem, yield of flower branch, yield of aerial
stem, essential oil percent and its yield showed the superiority of all fertilizer treatments
than control. The essential oil of entire treatments than control had significant difference
(P<0.05). The second level of manure (30 ton/ha) showed the best yield of essential oil
with 32.4 kg/ha. Application of biological fertilizer than control treatment showed
significant superiority in all of traits.
Key words: Biological fertilizer, essential oil, khojir, manure, Satureja hortensis L, yield
5.15 Effects of Priming by Salsilik Acid on Resistance to Pigweed Allelophatic
Compounds and their Interaction on Germination and Seedling Growth of Cuminum
Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi1, M. Yarnia2, V. Ahmadzadeh3
Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran. 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic
Azad University. 3Agronomy Department, Tabriz University, Iran.
Abstract: Allopathic interaction is one of the main decrasing factors with a complex
mechanism, which influences all growth and development aspects of plants. One of the
most important effects of salisilic acid return to the activity of plant hormones.
Nevertheless, there are not any information in case of effects of the interaction of these
two cases in germination level, so the main goal of this research is evaluating the
interaction between salisilic acid and allelopatic interference. Results showed that
applying the priming by salsilik acid were influenced seed activitied directly. Not only in
normal conditions increased germination and seedling growth of Cuminum cyminum but
also under the interference of allelopatic compounds the decreasing rate were reduced.
This experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design based on a factorial
experiment with three replications in order to evaluate effects of priming with different
times of applying salsilik acid and its interaction with Allopathic compounds in
germination and seedling growth stage. Treatment were factor A (priming with salsilik
acid mμ10-3 and priming with distilled water) and factor B (6,12 and 18 hours) and factor
C (concentration of 1 to 10, or 20% pigweed extract and control). Considering the results,
root length, shoot, dry weight, germination percentage and germination rate coefficient
had significant difference in the 1 percent level, except the seedling lenght extract
allopathic × hormone interaction coefficient and rate of germination the interaction of
hormones and the effect of extracts Allopathic × trilateral showed. These attibute had
significant difference in the 5 percent level.
Key words: Allelophatic compounds, Cuminum cyminum, pigweed, priming, salsilic acid.
5.16 Effects of Priming on Seed Germination of Marigold (Calendula officinalis)
Fatemeh Ganji Arjenaki1, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Reza Jabbari1
Department of Agronomy, Shahed University, P.O.Box: 18151/159 Tehran, Iran. 2Department of
Agriculture Faculty and Research Center of Medicinal Plant, Shahed University, Iran.
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the priming on seed germination of
Marigold( Calendula officinalis .)Experiment carried out in randomized complete block
design with three replications in 2008 at the Research Laboratory of the University of
Shahed, Iran .Treatments were( control ,PEG: Polyethylene glycol 6000 at -3, -6 and -12
bar .)Marigold seeds primed for 24 hour in treatments solution in room temperature and
then transferred to Petri dish for germination. Analysis of variance for laboratory data
showed that priming significantly improved germination percentage ,root and shoot
length ,seedling weight and germination rate, compared to control. Germination
percentage, root and shoot length and germination rate for seeds primed with PEG 3-( bar)
was higher than those for unprimed seeds but seedling weight was statistically similar.
Thus, priming with PEG solution could be used as a simple method for improving seed
germination of Marigold in the Laboratory.
Key words: Marigold, pretreatment, priming, seed germination
5.17 Improving the Overall Quality of Medicinal Crops Following GACP‟s and
Focusing on Post Harvesting Handling Techniques Relating to cGMP‟s
Fletcher, E.J1, R. Mead2, T. Gerecke3, and L. Kandarian5
Strategic Sourcing Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604, 2 United Agri Products, Fresno, CA 97320, 3United Agri
Products, Fresno, CA 97320, and 5Central Valley Plant and Seed, Riverdale, CA 93656.
Abstract: The primary focus for crops cultivated for the medicinal industry in the past
was on increasing biomass production. However there is a growing need to improve
marker constituent levels and overall quality in raw materials to comply with the newly
released cGMP‟s. Adhering to GACP‟s and techniques such as selective breeding, specific
cultural techniques and post harvest handling practices that influence and effect the
development of crop, we can increase the overall quality of the botanical raw materials.
Although the new cGMP‟s do not directly address many of the raw material suppliers, i.e.
growers and collectors, what these suppliers do is important to their customers who must
followed cGMP‟s. Providing raw material of improved quality by following the GACP
guidelines resulting in raw materials that comply with the cGMP‟s also increases the
market value of the crops. I will show and give examples how these techniques impact the
plants during their growth cycles, harvesting and specifically during the post harvest
handling process. Our findings prove that with proper monitoring and management, the
dollar per pound value of the raw material can be enhanced resulting in better returns for
the farmer/grower, and increased quality of the botanical raw materials for medicinal
products in today‟s market. The cGMP‟s will be considered a threshold of quality in
Key words: Botanic, harvesting, medicinal crops.
5.18 Investigation of Biological and Manure Effect on Decreasing Demand Chemical
Fertilizer in Hyssopus officinalis L.) in Arak, Iran
Gholamreza Naderi Broujerdi,1 Andreas Melikyan2, Hamid Madani3, Ebrahim
Farahani4, Sina Taherabadi5
Armenian State Agrarian University, Department of Agronomy. 2Armenian State Agrarian University,
Vegetable breeding department of Agriculture Academy. 3Scientific member of Islamic Azad University
(IAU) – Arak branch, Department of agriculture. 4Scientific member board of Tehran Agriculture and
Natural Resources Research Center. Iran5Expert Agriculture of Iran Combine Company.
Abstract: Phosphor, after nitrogen, is considered as one of the highly consumed elements
for the herbs. This element is involved in all the biochemical process, energy and message
transferring mechanisms, being among the nutritious substance for the plants that has
influence on their growth and performance. Shortage of this element, currently, is
compensated by applying chemical fertilizers. The chemical fertilizers have harmful
impact on the environment and decrease the quality of the agricultural products. This test
was carried out in order to analyze the phosphate solving bacterium type Bacillus lentus
(p5) and Pseudomonas putida (p13) as the organic fertilizers and chemical phosphorus
from the super phosphate Triple source as the chemical fertilizer. The effect of the two
phosphorous factors (phosphor solving bacterium, chemical phosphor) and the medicinal
herb "Hyssop" was analyzed by applying a factorial test as a complete random blocks in
three times during the agricultural year of 2009 in Arak. There was significantly difference
between effect of the main two factors and their interaction with certain strains such as the
height of bush, length of flower branch, number of flower branch, wet shoot yield, dry
shoot yield, seeds yield, percent of essential oil and yield of essential oil per hectare. Of
course, there was not significant difference between the effect of phosphor releasing
bacteria that was examined in certain strains such as essence percentage, also the results
indicated that the application of phosphate solving bacterium had a meaningful effect on
the studied strains, leading into increase of the performance elements parameters such as:
dry shoot yield in phosphor releasing bacteria treatment alone, application of the phosphor
releasing bacteria with 115 kg phosphate fertilizer, yield of essential oil per hectare in
90kg of phosphate fertilizer in the treatments that was used phosphate solving bacterium,
comparing with the chemical treatment and Contour, had significantly difference. There
was at least 50% decrease in consumption of the phosphate chemical fertilizers of super
phosphate Triple source by applying phosphor releasing bacterium.
Key words Phosphate solublizing bacteria, phosphor, hyssop, yield and essential oil.
5.19 Effect of KCN and Temperature on Sesame Germination
Gholamreza Zarei1, Hossein Shamsi1 and Danial Abadikhah Dehali2
Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Maybod Branch, 2Agronomy M.Sc. Student, Islamic
Azad University, Maybod Branch, Iran.
Abstract: Cyanide-resistant respiration is a usual pathway in plants. If plants do this pathway, it decreases
energy producing and finally decreases growth and yield. For increasing growth and yield in plants one of
ways is inhibiting of cyanide-resistance respiration. This research investigates cyanide-resistant respiration
in Sesamum indium on germination stage. An experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of
different cyanide-resistance on sesame in germinating and seeding stage in a completely randomized design
with three replications. Experiment was carried out separately at 15°C and 20°C. Cyanide levels applied
were zero (control), 0.005, 0.001, 0.0005 and 0.0001 M. The following measurements were carried out:
germination percentage, germination index, seedling dry weight, germination rate, 5% germination rate
(D5), 50% germination rate (D50), 90% germination rate (D90) and KCN resistant index. Result showed
there was no significant difference in traits between different concentrations of KCN at 20°C. But there was
significant difference between KCN levels at 15°C. According to results at 15°C the highest amounts of
germination rate, germination percentage, KCN resistant index, and germination index and seedling dry
weight were related to control and the lowest related to 0.005 M. About D5, D50 and D90 the highest
amounts were related to 0.005 M and the lowest related to control at 15°C. It is concluded KCN decreases
germination and seedling growth in sesame at 15°C and with increasing temperature, it shows resistant
Keywords: Cyanide-resistant respiration, sesame, Sesamum indicum, kcn.
5.20 Effect of N and P Fertilizers on Yield and Essential Oil of Matricaria chamomilla
in Tehran, Iran
Gholamreza Naderi Brojerdi1, Ebrahim.Farahani2, Reza Habibi2, Zahra.Rafiei-
Karahroodi3, Seyed mehdi Nabaei3
Armenian State Agrarian University, Department of Agronomy, 2Scientific member board of Tehran
Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Iran. 3Faculty member of IslamicAzad University
(IAU) – Arak branch, Department of plant protection
Abstract: Matricaria chamomilla is an annual, short plant. The leaves are green like the
leaves of dill. The most important activities of Matricaria chamomilla are bactericidal and
antifugal, especially for positive gram bacteria and candida fungi. In this study , the effect
of N and P was studied, each one in 4 levels (totaly 16 treatment) and 3 replication (48
plots) in case of factorial test ,on yield and essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla. The
results showed that N and P fertilizeres have significant effect on the yield of it . this cause
increasing the yeald of essential oil. it has done at different concentrations of N and P
fertilizer, N90 and P67.5 are very suitable for increasing of yield N135 and P67.5 had the best
yields of arial organic and N0P0 had the least yields. Also N and P fertilizers increased
amount of essential oil.
Key words: Essential oil, Matricaria chamomilla, nitrogen.
5.21 Detection of Best Cultivation Time, Plant Concentration, Irrigation Period for
Growth of Airial Parts and Effective Subctances Derived from Medical Plant of Hyssopus
officinalis in Arak Province
Golamreza Naderi Broujerdi1, Seyed Mehdi Nabaei2, Mehdi Changizi2, Zahra.Rafiei2
Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak.
Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran.
Abstract: Medical plants as basic subestance of some drug producers have a special
importance. With a view to world necessity to these drugs the cultivation area of medical
plants are increasing and in our country as strategic plants in without oil economy are
mentioned. Hyssopus officinalis belongs to family lamiaceae. Extracted Essential oil of it
contains pinokamphen, alpha and beta pinen and sesquiterpen alcohols. In this survey
essential factor of irrigation period (A) with 4 level, every 5 days, every ten days, every 15
days and without irrigation and two factors of B in three cultivation time, 4 Apr., 14 Apr.
and 25 Apr. and C in three plant contration 30*30, 40*40 and 50*50 are considered.
According to results best time of cultivation is 14 Apr. The best time for production of
essential oil is 14 Apr. the best time for production of essential oil is 14 Apr, and the best
plant concentration is 30*30 in areas that involved with little water and irrigation problem
the irrigation period of every 15 days can be considered.
Key words: Cultivation, growth, irrigation, medical plant.
5.22 Study the Effect of Sowing Date and Different Cultivated Levels of Nitrogen on
the Yield and Percent of Essence in Safflower
H. Tahmasebi Zadeh1, G.N. Boroujerdi2, M.yousefi 3,I. Farahani4., E. Farmahini5.
Islamic Azad University Arak. 2Faculty member of Islamic Azad University (IAU) – Arak branch,
Department of agriculture, Arak, Iran. 3Expert Iran Combine Co. 4Islamic Azad University Arak
Branch.5Islamic Azad University Arak Branch, Iran.
Abstract: Medicine plants are one of the important plants, to produce primary material in
the pharmacology. Iran has many weather conditions; therefore, this is a suitable place for
cultivating this herb. Safflower is a medicine plant, not also it is a medicine plant; but also
it belongs to the eatable/edible plant‟s type. In the past, safflower was used. Agricultural
Safflower is a one year plant and belong to the kasni family. Oil of safflower has
significant quality. In this oil, amount of Linoleic Acid is between 73 and 85 percent.
Linoleic Acid has many properties, such as, reduce cholesterol, and hardness of blood
vessels. In this research, we evaluate the effect of planting date and chemical fertilizer on
yield and percent of essence (extract) in the herbs. This types belongs to Esfahan region.
This type has no barb. Date of cultivating are (2008/july/10-2008/may/10) and levels of N
fertilizer are (138-98-49). Analysis of statistical calculation is done by MSTAT-C
software. Results show that the effect of date of cultivating on the seed yield, weight of
hundreds seeds, the number of seed in boll, total weight of bush, pure weight of flowering,
thickness of stem, yield of oil, percent of essence and yield of essence was
significant/meaningful and highest yield related to the first cultivate, so that, with use of
weather condition, first cultivating has highest yield. As results showed that, highest yield
belongs to the first cultivating and 138 and 98 kg urea fertilizer. The results show that
different level of on the below characteristic are meaningful/ significance, characteristic of
seed‟s yield, weight of one hundred seed, the number of boll in the bush, total height of
bush, branching, pure weight of physiologically mature level of thickness of secondary
branch , the number of secondary branch, percent of essence, and yield of essence.
Key words: Plant density, essence, Nitrogen, safflower, yield.
5.23 Medicinal Plants Cultivation in Pakistan: Case Study of the Introduction of
Vernonia anthelmentica as Commercial Crop
Habib Ahmad and Muqarrab Shah
Department of Botany Hazara University, Mansehra Pakistan.
Abstract: The need of cultivating medicinal plants as profitable commercial crop is
increasing with the increasing demand of herbal medicine and realizing the need of
minimizing extraction pressure on plants from the natural sources. The introduction of
medicinal plants in the cropping system needs evaluation of the desired germplasm and
transfer of cropping technology to the selected communities. We in WWFP conducted
Training workshop for “On-farm Technology Transfer for Cultivation and Sustainable
Harvesting of Medicinal Plants” during the years 2002-2005. The species used for
capacity building of farming communities included: Matricaria chamomila, Saussurea
lappa, Crocus sativus, Primula denticulata, Podophyllum emodi, Paeonia emodii, Viola
canescens, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Valeraina wallichii, Mucana pruriens, Withania
somnifera, Ocimum basilicum, Vernonia anthementica, Mimosa pudica, Cardiospermum
helicacabum, Lallemantia royleana, Sida cordifolia and Ginkgo biloba. Among these 18
species only Vernonia anthementica found its place in the farming as a marginal Rabi
crop. This paper communicates an overview of the achievements of medicinal plants in
general and in particular the cultivation of Vernonia anthementica, in Mansehra District of
Key words: Cultivation, medicinal plants, pakistan, Vernonia anthelmentica.
5.24 Wild Celery: A Valuable Medicinal Plant but Near to Extinction
Hamed Shafie1, and Fatemeh Najafi 2
Dedesertificatin Specialist, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran, 2 plant breeding Specialist, Zabol University,
Abstract: "Wild celery" with scientific name “Kelussia odoratissima” and local name “Kelos” is one of
pasture plants and is native to Iran, which has been paid to values. Growth of this plant and its growth time
depends on the amount and type of precipitation to the region. In the years that more precipitation occurs as
rain, this plant from the first half of March will begin to grow. Especially in the mountains which are located
in the southern slope, Wild celery growth sooner and faster. But, during the years that the precipitation is
snow, with covered snow melting, Wild celery will begin to grow. Wild celery generally is found in areas
with a minimum height of 2500 meters above sea level and the annual average of more than 450 mm
rainfall and at least 60 percent of its should be as snow falls. Wild celery has medicinal properties and use in
the pharmaceuticals and food consumption and nutrition, with high economic value can also be a good
source of income for local communities and villagers and nomads as well. Today, due to rapid population
growth and desire of individuals for high income, extraction and harvesting of this plant is too much and if
not protected, perhaps decades later it will completely disappear.
Key words: Indiscriminate harvesting, iran, mountains, wild celery, zagros.
5.25 Cell Suspension Culture Establishment of Natural Tetraploid Trifolium pratense
L. (Elçi Red Clover) and Determination of Isoflavanoids in the Culture
Hatice ÇÖLGEÇEN1, Murat KARTAL2, Ufuk KOCA3, H. Nurhan
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, 67100 İncivez,
Zonguldak, TURKEY, Tel: +90 0372 257 4010-1128, 2Ankara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department
of Pharmacognosy, 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara,TURKEY, Tel: +90 0312 212 67 20-1051, 3Gazi University,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 06330 Etiler, Ankara-TURKEY, Tel: +90 0312 202
31 87, 4Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100 Tandoğan, Ankara,turkey.
Abstract: Species such as Trifolium sp. and Medicago sp. from Fabaceae family are
known for their phytoestrogenic compounds. Trifolium pratense, which is cultivated
world-wide have been investigated for its phytochemical characteristics. The main goal of
the study to establish callus and suspension cultures of selected species and compare their
isoflavanoid production. The subject of this study is establishing cell suspension culture
by using previously produced callus cultures of natural tetraploid T. pratense (Elçi red
clover), which is a noteworthy plant for its pharmacological aspects besides their values as
pasture plant cultivated in our country. The seedling were obtained from the the
experimentation garden of Ankara Uni. Faculty of Science. After surface sterilization,
seeds were germinated on hormone-free MS medium. These aseptic seedlings were used
as explants to produce callus production. This callus culture was transferred to the liquid
MS medium to establish suspension culture. Cultures were grown for 20 days were filtered
and the cells were extracted with methanol. The extracts were analyzed by LC and LC-MS
for their isoflavone content (formononetin, biochanin a, daidzein, genistein).
Key words: Callus, culture, isoflavanoids, red clover, tetraploid.
5.26 Effect of Biofertilizers and Organic Phosphorus Amendments on Growth and
Essential Oil of Marjoram (Majorana hortensis L.)
Ismail. A. El-Ghandour1, Yehia G.M. Galal1, Enayat M. Desouky2, Rawahia A.
Arafa2 and Abeer M.M. Abou Seer1
Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Department of Soil and Water. Egypt. 2Al-Azhar
University, Faculty of Science (Girls Branch), Botany (Microbiology) Department, Egypt.
Abstract: The effect of bacterial inoculation (biofertilization) and application of faba bean
straw and sheep manure considered by the authors to be organic phosphorus sources to
marjoram plants that cultivated in field experiment of Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas,
Egypt was studied. Faba bean straw and sheep manure were added at rate of 1500 kg P/ ha
of both residues. Residues were incorporated into the soil one month prior to marjoram
cultivation. Marjoram (root cutting) was inoculated with either B. polymixa and/ or
Bradyrhizobium sp.The results showed that, growth parameter of marjoram plants were
positively affected by bacterial inoculation as well as organic phosphorus sources at three
cuts. The herb and oil yield were the highest in case of the combination between sheep
manure and B. polymixa at the 2nd cut than in control. Nutrient uptake of marjoram plants
positively responded to bacterial inoculation and the concerned organic phosphorus
sources. The chemical composition of marjoram essential oil did not change due to the
bacterial inoculation or applied residues, but the percentages of certain constituents were
Key words: B. polymixa, Bradyrhizobium sp., marjoram, organic phosphorus.
5.27 Seed Germination of Persian Shallot as a Function of Temperature, Length of
Storage and Sulfuric Acid Treatment Duration
J. Mohammadi1, J.A. Olfati-Chirani2, S.A. Khasmakhi-Sabet3, M.Golshani4 and S.N.
Islamic Azad University, Abhar branch, Horticultural Department , Iran -Islamic Republic. 2University of
Guilan, Horticultural Department, Rasht, Iran-Islamic Republic.3University of Guilan , Horticultural
Department, Rasht , Iran -Islamic Republic.4University of Zanjan , Horticultural Department, Zanjan , Iran -
Islamic Republic. Islamic Azad University, Abhar branch, Horticultural Department , Iran -Islamic Republic.
Abstract: Persian shallot (Allium aflatunense,L.) belongs to Alliaceae family and is one
of the important edible alliums in Iran . Since Persian shallot grows as a wild plant only in
some mountains of Iran , very little information is available about different aspects of this
species especially in seed germination needs. The aim of our research was to study the
relationship between different temperatures, seed age and duration of sulfuric acid
treatment on Persian shallot seed germination. Interaction between above factors had a
significant effect on the germination and emergence percenaget after 60 and 90 days. Due
to present approaches, suitable condition for Persian shallot seed germination is
scarification of one year old seeds with concentrated (98%)sulfuric acid for 15 minutes,
and stratification at 4 degree centigrade. In fact Persian shallot seeds need both
scarification and stratification for seed germination improvement.
Keywords: Allium aflatunense,L. germination, Persian shallot, scarification, stratification.
5.28 Effect of Spraying Zinc and the Extract of the Liquorices Roots of on Growth
and Flower Spanish Iris bulbs Iris xiphium L.
Jamal Ahmed Abbass, Mushtaq Talib Hammdi
Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Kufa University, Iraq.
Abstract: Iris bulbs are one important medicinal plants and has many uses, the plant has been included for
the first time in the Pharmacopoeia of America between 1820 and 1895, native to North America, the view
of aromatic oil and resin. Used to remove toxins from the body mainly it increases urination and bile
production, and has a laxative effect of the stomach and treatment hypersensitive skin. Some believe it helps
to reduce weight. This research was conducted in a private nursery (Worood Al-Najaf
nursery) in Najaf city through 2008\2009 season to study the spraying effect of Zinc and
Liquorices roots extract and their interaction growth and flowering of Spanish Iris (Iris
xiphium L.). Factorial experiment was conducted in (3x3), first factor is three
concentrations of Zinc (0, 15, 30 mg.L-1), second is three concentrations of Liquorices
roots extract (0, 1.5, 3 g.L-1) in complete randomized blocks design (R.C.B.D.) with three
replicates. Results showed spraying zinc in concentration 30 mg.Zn.L-1 was significant
effected in growth and flowering characteristics of plant, whereas increasing of total
leaves numbers, leaf area, percentage of dry leaves weight, total chlorophyll content of
leaves and diameters of flowers stem compared with untreated bulbs. In addition to
increasing leaf content of carbohydrate, Zinc, phosphorus. Spraying liquorices roots
extract at concentration 3 g.L-1 was significant effected in growth and flowering
characteristics of plant, whereas increasing of total leaves numbers, leaf area, total
chlorophyll content of leaves and diameters of flowers stem compared with unsparing
plants. Spraying plants at concentration 30mg Zn.L-1 and 3g.L-1 of liquorices roots extract
was increased significantly of total leaves number, leaf area, total chlorophyll content of
leaves, diameters of flowers stem and leaf content of carbohydrate, Zinc, phosphorus
compared with unsparing bulbs which gave the lowest values. The highest averages of
flower stem and leaf content of carbohydrate (20.23cm and 8.40 mg.kg-1) as compared
with (18.03cm and 4.67 mg.kg-1) in control plants.
Key words: Extract, flower, iris bulbs, roots, zinc.
5.29 Effect of Bacterial and Fungal Elicitors on the Production of Active Compounds
in Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Callus Cultures In vitro
Khaleel I. Rashid and Kadhim M. Ibrahim
Technical Institute of Baquba, Dyala, Iraq College of Science/Al-Nahrian University. Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract: The yield of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus from secondary
products was studied. Callus was initiated from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog
medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg/l of dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5
mg/l of benzyl adenine (BA). Callus cultures were treated with biotic (bacterial or fungal)
elicitors at different concentrations. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of active
compounds was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The
most abundant compounds found in untreated callus cultures were, quinoline, phytol,
cineole, camphor, verbenone, borneol, bornyl acetate, ferruginol and isocarnosol. Higher
percentages were obtained from callus treated with 2 ml/l of the fungal elicitor extracted
from Fusarium oxysporum and the most abundant compounds were, cineole, camphor,
verbenone, borneol, bornyl acetate, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and terpineol. Fungal
elicitor was the most effective in stimulating secondary products in rosemary callus as
compared with the bacterial elicitor extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
untreated callus (control).
Key words: Bacterial, elicitors, fungal, rosemary, secondary compounds.
5.30 Response of Sage (Salvia offcinalis L.) to Selenium and Organic Fertilizers
Khalid A. Khalid
Department of Cultivation and Production of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Research Centre,
Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Abstract: Sage (Salvia offcinalis L.) herbs were enriched by selenium using Sodium
selenate (Na2SeO4), and/or sheep manure application. Solutions of Sodium selenate at 2, 4,
6 and 8 mg L-1 +10, 15, or 20 m3 feddan-1 (4200 m2) were added on the Sage plants. Yield
characters, essential oil content, chemical constituents of essential oil, Se, N, P, K content
and uptake rate of Se-N- P- K were estimated. Greatest yields, accumulations of essential,
major compounds biosynthesis, nutrient content (Se-N-P-K) and uptake of Se and N were
obtained in the 20 m3 of sheep manure + 8 mg L-1 of Na2SeO4. The highest mineral
uptakes for P and K were observed in the 20 m3 of sheep manure + 6 mg L-1 of Na2SeO4.
Key word: sheep manure, selenium, yield, essential oil, nutrient content.
5.31 Effects of Elicitation and Permeabilization on Hyoscyamine
Production Via Datura Hairy Roots
Khelifi L., Zarouri B, Amdoun R., Morsli A., Harfi B., Khelifi-Slaoui
LRGB/ENSA, EL Harrach, Algiers, Algeria.
Abstract: This study focused on the production of tropane alkaloids (hyoscyamine)
through biotechnology process which is commonly used to enhance production of
secondary metabolites of interest. To do this, hairy roots of 3 species of Datura were
obtained following genetic transformation of hypocotyls using A4 strain of Agrobacterium
rhizogenes. The results show differences both between species studied than between the
induced root lines. This variability affects both growth of hairy root and their alkaloid
content. The B5 medium is more favourable for the production of hyoscyamine (0.4 mg/20
ml). In addition, the elicited hairy root with 1 to 2 g / l NaCl produces hyoscyamine 3
times more than the control. Furthermore, yeast extract and jasmonic acid hasn‟t shown a
positive effect on the accumulation of hyoscyamine in this study. The permeabilization of
the hairy roots with Tween 20 liberates at least 25% of hyoscyamine in the culture
medium facilitating hyoscyamine extraction and maintaining alive hairy roots.
Key words: Alkaloids, Datura, elicitation, Hairy roots, Hyoscyamine, permeabilization.
5.32 Effect of Nitrogen Rates, Plant Density and Cultivation Regions on Seed and
Essential Oil Yield of Cumin (Cumin cyminum L.) Under the Climatic Conditions
Lorestan province- Iran
Khosro Azizi1, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Saeid Heidari3
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Lorestan.2Department of Agronomy,
College of Agriculture, University of Shahed, 3Department of agronomy and plant breeding, college of
agriculture, University of lorestan, khorram abad -Iran.
Abstract: According to climatic condition and extension of medicinal plants like cumin
(Cuminum cyminum) , this experiment was conducted to study effects of cultivation
regions in 3 levels ; tropical , temperate and cold of lorestan province –Iran , different
levels of Nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on growth , yield and essential oil of cumin
in the form of split plot per place on the basis of RCBD Design with 4 replications in 3
regions of lorestan province – Iran ; Pol-e Dokhtar (tropical region) , Khoram abad (
temperate region) and Azna (cold region) in 2006- 2007 crop year. Nitrogen fertilizer as
main plot had 4 levels; 0, 25, 50 and 100 kg of N per hectare and plant density as sub plot
had 3 levels; 80, 120 and 160 plant/m2. Extraction of essential oil was done by Clevenger
and its quantitative analysis had been done by GC-MS QP5050S himadzu system. Results
showed that there were significant differences among 3 regions of cultivation for yield,
seed yield components, biological yield, percent of essential oil and harvest index (HI) at
1% level. Yield, seed yield components and essential oil percent was affected by N
fertilizer at 1% level. Maximum number of umbels per plant (39.94) , seed per umbel
(9.19) , the highest biological yield (1878 kg/ha) , seed yield (903.00kg/ha), 1000 seeds
weight (4.37g) and essential oil percent (2.07%) were related to 50 kg of N per ha.
treatment and max. HI. equal to 50.53% was related to 25 kg of N per ha. treatment.
Max. number of umbel per plant (37.51), max. number of seed per umbel (8.03), max.
number of seed per plant (303.51) and max. 1000 seeds weight (4.19g) were related to 80
plant/m2 density and the highest seed yield (758.80 kg/ ha.), biological yield (1656kg/ha.),
max. HI. (74.70%) and essential oil percent (1.87%) obtained from 120 plant/m2 density.
Temperate region was the best for all traits except for 1000 seeds weight. The highest
1000 seeds weight was related to cold region. Main compositions of essential oil were
cuminaldehyde, paramenthe -1, 3, D. N. -7 al and paramentha – 1, 4, D. N. 7- al.
Maximum cuminaldehyde obtained from 80 plant/m2 density without N fertilizer
application. Maximum of the sum of the paramenthe -1, 3, D. N. -7 al and paramentha – 1,
4, D. N. 7- al obtained from 120 plant/m2 density with 50 kg of N fertilizer per ha. Finally,
120 plant/m2 density with 50 kg of N fertilizer per ha. treatment in temperate region had
maximum essential oil percent (2.69%) and also high seed yield (1050kg/ha.) was
recommended as the best treatment.
Key words: Cumin (Cumin cyminum), essential oil, nitrogen fertilizer, plant density.
5.33 Effects of Biofertilizer Application on Yield, Yield Components and Essential
Oil in Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
M. Amini Deheghi1 , H. Ramazani2 and Kivan Agahia3
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Center of Research Plant Medicine, Shahed University.
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University,.3Agronomy Department,
Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Biofertilizer Application in Medicinal Plants Production in Sustainable
Agriculture With aim of remove or reduce the chemical input in order to reach to quality
increasing and sustainability of yield is very important. The main aim of this study
determining the effects of Biofertilizers on quantitive and quantitation yield on fennel.The
experiment was conducted during 2008 in field Research station in shahed university,
Tehran, Iran. The factors were Mychorizal inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculated)
Phosphor biofertilizer (Barvar-2) (inoculated and non- inoculated) and Phosphor fertilizer
(0, 50, 100 kg/ ha). The experiment design was factorial experiment in the base of
randomized complete blocks design with eighteen treatments and three replications. Also,
one plot was allocated to control in each replication and only chemical fertilizers (NPK:
90, 60, 90 kg/ha) were used. Data obtained from control plots were used for comparison to
other plots. Results showed that the highest umbel no/ plant, claw no/ plant, Biomass Dry
plant, Biomass Dry total/ ha, essential oil yield, obtained in plots with Barvar-2
treatment.The highest umber no/plant, claw no/plant with inoculated Sebacina vermifera
treatment Mychoriza. And lower Biomas dry one plant, Biomass dry total/ ha and 1000
seed weight with inoculated Piriformospora indica treatment Mychoriza.The highest claw
no/plant, seed yield, biomass dry one plant, biomass dry total/ha and essential oil yield
with 100 kg/ha phosphates treatment but umbel no/ plant and 1000 seed weight in 50
kg/ha phosphates fertilizer treatment was higher of 100 kg/ ha phosphates fertilizer
treatment.The result of study, inoculation with phosphates fertilizer and barvar-2 fertilizer
treatment was significant in 1% as 1000 seed weight, essential oil yield, seed yield and
claw no/ plant but umbel no/ plant significant in 5%. The highest biomass dry one plant,
biomass dry total/ ha, essential oil yield, umbel no/plant and claw than instance treatment
and seed yield and 1000 seed weight NPK was heights mentioned traits.
Key Words: Biofertilizer, barvar-2, essential oil, fennel, mychorriza, phosphor fertilizer,
5.34 Priming Effect of Seed Size and Convolvulus arvensis L.Weed Extract
Treatment on Germination and Seedling Growth of Medicinal Plantago psyllium
M.B. Khorshidi Benam1, M. Yarnia2, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi3, V.
Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch. Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic
Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch. Iran 4 Agronomy Specialist,
Tabriz University, Iran.
Abstract: An experiment was performed to evaluate priming effect and seed size and
composition region major Convolvulus arvensis L.allelopathic damage on the Plantago
psyllium germination and growth in vitro. The results showed that priming had significant
effect in reducing the allelopathic impact of compounds. In this test, germination
percentage and germination rate coefficient of psyllium seeds and leaf area were
allelopathic sensitive traits, but priming declined the severity of the allelopathic
compounds effect strongly. Despite of not existing significant effect of 20 hours priming
in the control level on traits, but in terms existing allelopathic compounds (especially ivy
shoot extract with higher negative power), Convolvulus arvensis L. extract always have a
positive effect on resistance to allelopathic compounds. The results also showed that the
extract probably only reduce the growth of tendril roots and have no effect on dry matter
accumulation. In addition, although seed size had no effect on germination of seeds under
control, but the allelopathic interaction effect were less tiny seeds than big seeds.
Key words: Allelopathic compounds, Convolvulus arvensis L. priming, psylle, seed size.
5.35 The Effects of Varying Phosphorus Doses on Yield and Some Yield Components
of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.)
M. Tuncturk1, R. Tuncturk1, B. Yıldırım1
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yuzuncu Yil, 65080, Van-Turkey.
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different phosphorus
doses (0, 20 and 40 kg/ha) on yield and some yield components of black cumin (Nigella
sativa L.) in Van ecological conditions in 2006 and 2007. Field trials were designed by
Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications at the experimental fields of
Agricultural Faculty of Yuzuncu Yıl University. In the study, plant height (cm), the
number of branch (branch/plant), the number of capsule (capsule/plant), the number of
seeds in the capsule (seed/capsule), thousand-seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg/ha) were
determined. According to statistical analysis, significant differences were determined
among the phosphorus doses applications for the number of capsule, thousand-seed weight
and seed yield. Seed yield increased by increasing phosphorus doses. According to the
results, the highest values were obtained from the application of 40 kg P/ha for seed yield
(597 kg/ha) and thousand-seed weight (2.48 g). The highest mean values for the number of
capsule (5.68 capsule/plant) from 20 kg P/ha doses application.
Key words: Black cumin, medicinal plants, phosphorus, seed, yield.
5.36 Effect of Extract Allelophatic Weed Chenopodium album Salsilik Acid Priming
under Aging Condition Seeds on Germination and Seedling Growth Foeniculum
M. Yarnia1, E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi2, M.B.Khorshidi Benam3, V.
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. 2Islamic Azad
University, Malekan Branch. Iran. 3Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch. 4 Agronomy Specialist,
Tabriz University, Iran.
Abstract: Currently importance of medicinal plants lost their earn. However, lowering
factors intensity medicinal crops, such as the stress factors will increased. Now a days
medicinal plants become more important, even though yield decreasing factors of plants
such as stress cousing factors will increase. Weed interference is the major problem of
crop production. This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the interaction of
allophatic compounds of one of the major weeds of the region Chenopodium album on
germination and seedling growth of Foeniculum vulgare under conditions of aging seeds
to different reactions in response of the priming and aging allelophatic seeds in laboratory
conditions, so the effect of allelophatic compounds, priming and quality on damage
control of allelophatic compounds were evaluated. This experiment arranged in
completely randomized design based on factorial with three repllications. treatments
included seeds (agining seeds and healthy seeds), different types of priming (priming
salsilik acid, hydropriming and control) and total weed Chenopodium album extract ( 1 to
15 and control). The results of variance analysis of germination percentage, seedling
length, seedling dry weight, germination rate index, R/S were showed significant
difference for the interaction of agining and different concentrations of extract pigweed on
germination percentage at 1%. The results showed that applying priming by salsilik acid,
the germination rate and seedling growth were incresed 12% and 21 in compare of the
control. Treated with salsilik acid were decresed the germination rate and seedling growth
32 and 43 percent respectively, even in the condition of presence of allelophatic
componds. Effect of aging on seed germination and seedling growth were 9 percent more
than the effect of compounds in compare with allophatic. Most allophatic effects were
observed in radicle length, while the influence of aging was in the length of seedlings.
Key words: Aging, allelophatic compounds, Foeniculum vulgare, priming.
5.37 Effects of Different Rates of N Fertilizer on Physiological Indices of Growth and
Yield Components of Cumin
Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Abdollah Mollafilabi2 and Hadi Shoorideh2
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Center of Research Plant Medicine, Shahed
University. 2Azad Islamic University of Torbat-e-Jam, Department of Agriculture, P.O.Box 95715-9,
Abstract: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is one of the most important medicinal plants
and is one of the non-oil items for export. It has devoted about 40000 ha of Khorasan
lands for its cultivation. Despite of its extensive cultivation, unfortunately, few researches
have been conducted on its fertilizers, and on its other agronomic aspects. So, effect of
different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, and 200 Kg N/ha) was investigated on Cumin
growth indices, yield and yield components in the statistical method of R.C.B.D with four
replications. Characters measured were: Total of dry weight (TDW), leaf area index (LAI),
leaf dry weight (LW), Crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio
(LAR), leaf weight rate (LWR), specific leaf area (SLA), relative growth rate (RGR).
Growth parameters were calculated during six growth stages by harvesting samples from
leaf area and dry weight and determination of regression coefficients. On the basis of
obtained results, in the early stages of growth, due to low use of N by plant, nitrogen has
less effect on growth indices and by advancing in time, and development of growth stages,
rate of N use increases in plant and LAI, CGR, LWR, and LAR, and SLA have increased
and among rates of N, difference was observed. NAR of photosynthetate and RGR during
Cumin growth showed decreasing trend, as well. With respect to obtained results, 100 kg
N/ha, had lowest effect on number of umbel, biomass, 1000 seed weight, and yield and
150 Kg/ha N had highest effect on 1000 seed weight and yield. Highest biomass and
number of umbel was obtained in 200 Kg N/ha.
Key words: Cuminum cyminum, medicinal plant.
5.38 Evaluation of Some Drought Resistance Criteria in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum
Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Abdollah MollFilabi2 and Fatemh Abedin3
Department of Agronomy and Research Center of Medicinal Plant, Shahed University, 2Department of
Agronomy Khorasan Research Center of Food Science and Technology, 3Azad University, Iran.
Abstract: Cumin is one of the most important herbal drug crops used in traditional foods.
It needs low water for growth cycle, and grows in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Two
experiments under drought stress and normal conditions were performed. Leaf water
potential, osmotic potential, harvest index and stress susceptibility index (SSI) were
studied on cumin landraces. Sarvestan-e Fars, Tabriz and Sabzevar landraces were
distinguished as tolerant landraces. Cluster analysis with single linkage method, classified
genotypes into three groups. Sabzevar, Sarvestan-e Fars, Tabriz and Khorasan2-374
landraces made the first group. Second group included Zeirkoh-e Quen, Qunabad and
Ferdous landraces. Kerman landrace, alone, was located in the third group.
Key words: Cumin, drought resistance, Cuminum cyminum L.
5.39 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Soil Characters on Growth and Essential Oil of
Thymus vulgaris L.
Majid Amini Dehaghi1, Alireza Dadkhah2 and Kivan Agahia3
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences and Medicinal Plant Research Canter, Shahed
University. 2Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Ferdowsi University. 3Agronomy
Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran-Iran.
Abstract: Experiment was carried out at field of Medicinal Plant Research Canter in Karaj
city (Iran) in 2007. Four net N fertilizer levels were used including 0, 50, 100 and 150
kg/ha. The garden thyme aerial parts were harvested in full blooming time. In order to
drying, the samples were placed at shade (room temperature). The aerial parts essential oil
was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS.
Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on essential oil of Thymus
vulgaris so that plants grown at 100 kg/ha net nitrogen fertilizer had the highest essential
oil (1.57% (v/w)). The N levels had a significant effect on growth traits, essential oil and
its composition. The maximum (15.3%) and minimum (2.5%) content of thymol were
observed at 100 kg/ha and 0 kg/ha of N level respectively. There was also positive
correlation between N fertilizer and carvacrol content. The maximum (14.2%) and
minimum (8.6%) contents of carvacrol were related to 100 kg/ha and 0 kg/ha of N level
respectively. The results showed that there were significant correlations between chemical
character of soil and medicine ingredients material. There were positive correlation among
essential oil percent and Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous elements.
Keywords: Essential oil, metabolites, nitrogen fertilizer, Thymus vulgaris L.
5.40 Immature Harvesting of Medicinal Plants from Natural Forests of Central India
and Its Impact on Raw Material Quality
Manish Mishra and P.C. Kotwal¹
Research Associate,Sr.Gr., Indian Institute of Forest Management,
¹Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal (M.P.) India.
Abstract: The tropical dry deciduous forests of central India are known to have rare
germplasm of the medicinal species i.e Aonla (Emblica officinalis), Safed
musli(Chlorophytum spp.), Kali haldi (Curcuma caesia), Satawar (Asparagus racemosus),
Baibirang (Emblia tsejaram-cottom), Sarpgandha (Rauvolfia serpentina) etc. The rural
poor, tribals and other forest dependant population harvest the fruits, roots, tubers etc.
much before the maturity and sell them in raw form in the local markets. During the
survey of different natural forest areas of central India (Madhya Pradesh- Katni district;
and Chattisgarh- Dhamtari district and Maharashtra-Nagpur district), it was observed that
due to increasing demand of Ayurvedic medicines and raw materials, the primary
collectors harvests fruits, tubers of commercially important medicinal species like Aonla,
safed musli, Baibirang, Sarpgandha, Satawar, Kali haldi etc. at unripe stage. The harvested
raw material are kept in direct sunlight or rains, in sub-standard godown, having dust,
fungus, termites and rats etc. which adversely impacted the raw material quality as well as
medicinal properties. The report broadly examines the raw material quality of few
medicinal species of central India on the basis of organoleptic evaluations like color,
shape, size, smell etc. The raw material quality of the medicinal plant is also adversely
impacted due to less weight of the unripe fruits/roots etc; bad and small shape of fruits and
roots, less potency due to infection because of unripe collection; bad smell and taste;
smaller size of fruits/roots etc. The present study provides a valuable tool for those who
depend on macroscopic assessment techniques for assessing raw produce quality (of
medicinal plants) and hopefully will encourage others to incorporate this simple, yet
highly effective technique.
Key words: Harvesting, forests, medicinal plants, quality.
5.41 Investigation of Genetic Variation and Relationship between Cytogenetic
Parameter on Silybum marianum
Mansourh Sarrami, Hossein Zeinali2, GHolamreza Bakhshi Khaniki3
Department of Biology, Payame Noor university, Tehran. 2 Department of Medicinal Plant, Research
Center of Agriculture, Esfahan,3Department of Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, Payame Noor university,
Abstract: This investigation was carried out on different nine populations of Silybum
marianum. The base number of chromosomes in total studied populations were equal
x=17. All investigated populations were diploid. On based of two ways Stebbins table,
eight populations located in the second class and one population located in the third class
that indicated number population 9 has more asymmetric than others. Analysis of variance
showed significant differences for the total chromosome length, the largest chromosome
length, sum of small arms, sum of long arms, interchromosomal index, asymmetric index,
coefficient of variation centromic index.(p<0.01), arm ratio (p<0.05). Factor analysis
introduced two factors that justify nearly 88 percent from total variation among data. In
the first factor, difference of relative length, interchromosomal asymmetry index had
highly load factor and named as asymmetric factor. In the second factors, total
chromosome length, sum of long arms had highly load factor and named as length
chromosome factor. Cluster analysis grouped populations in 4 groups. The least Euclidean
distance observed between Mashhad and Semirom population and the highest Euclidean
distance was between Meshkinshahr and Mobarakh. Analysis of variance on traits among
of clusters showed significant differences for all traits among groups. Mashhad, Semirom
and Molasani populations in the first group had at least traits than other investigated
population. Kashan and Braan shomali population in the third group were better from total
chromosome length, sum of small arms, sum of long arms, the largest length of
chromosome than other investigated population. Meshkin shahr population located in the
forth group had maximum amount of difference relative length, inter chromosomal
asymmetry index, asymmetric index, variation coeffeicent of centromic index and arm
ratio other populations in the group others.
Key words: Chromosome, cluster analysis, karyotype, Silybum marianum.
5.42 Economic Culture, Extension, Educational, Medicinal Plant Cultivation Mentha
piperita in Province Arak, Iran
Masoud yousefi1 Gholamreza Naderi Boroujerdi2 -Ebrahim.Farahani 3
MohammadReza .Hojt Shamami 4- –Roohollah Hasanzadeh5
Expert Iran Combine Co . 2Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of
agriculture, Arak, Iran, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center. Iran. 4PhD. Student Of English
Translation. 5Faculty member of Payame Nour University.
Abstract: In this project 1500 square meters land for cultivation of medicinal plants
pepper mint foot Salz 1385 season in the fields of Islamic Azad University of Arak was
considered (selected because of this plant, adaptation to climatic conditions Province, low
cost production, market Card appropriate internal and external, a few years these plants,
and income yielding multi (sold dry tendon, production and sales slip, sweat-making, and
production of oil - seasoning - T-Bag) is. scion desired in May 1386 plan were planted in
the earth. for cutting cultivation of the mint (Ryzvm and root) were used. scion Game on
the stack distance of 40 cm with a dual time was under cultivation to increase the
percentage of green product. the with that of farm soil is class 3 and the average was about
soils, so the soil irrigation once in 7 days was considered. during the implementation
process to enhance the plants did not use any fertilizer. the existence 2 on field weeds in
the first year and once in the second year under the weed was September 86 in plant height
between 35 to 40 cm of variables. Stem number produced between Dec. 13 had 17
different numbers. Of the mean number of leaves per plant, leaf production plant in the
first year between 50 to 60 leaves were observed. And in II mean leaf production per plant
between 90 to 100 leaf is different. Ryzvmhay production per plant between 15 to 20
numbers is counted in the first year. Yield produced shoot fresh weight in the first year of
mint Mrzh (1500 sqm) and 750 kg in the second year is 1100 kg. So that more Price per kg
shoots pepper mint 4000 Rls are internal market. 1500 square meters for the first year of
3,000,000 Rials ha with a yield of 5 tons of shoots in the first year net income will be
equivalent to 20 million rials. In the second year yield 5 / 7 tons per hectare more shoots
will get the equivalent of 30 million rials Mdkhals will. Agriculture in the third and fourth
performance of this plant 20 percent to 30 percent will increase in times of economic ha
yield of very appropriate and was yielding is also significant. So that the second year of
this project with a total of 5 students education courses attempted economic culture of this
plant in the central province have in 1387. So that cultivation of this plant in the province
5 / 1 ha in 1387 and in 1388 to 5 / 3 ha increased the price and good profits are forecast
this plant cultivation of this plant in 1389 to 7 hectares in the province reached. Now this
plan and promote training and research continues for the students and place design farm
incomes above the measurement units were supplied sweat. Good extension that reflects
the central province of media (radio and television was with) Results and suggestions
plants of economic plan are the cultivation of this plant during the 2 years were the result
of plant cultivation in the central province of Wayne fit any climate conditions is
compatible province. Drksht Bhtrast the cutting of this plant (roots Ryzvm and division)
should be used. The best plant density for the economic cultivation of this plant density is
30 30 because in addition to increasing the density of the second product in the amount of
plant growth Weed largely reduced. Experiment proved that this plant grown in rocky
soils with texture or abandoned lands can also be economic.
Key words: Cultivation, culture, economic, educational, medicinal plant, Mentha piperita.
5.43 Effects of Different Levels of Phosphorous and One level of Nitrogen Fertilizer
and Biological Phosphorous Fertilizer (BARVAR2) on Yield, Yield Components and
Essential oil of Matricaria recutita
Maysam Alijani1 and Majid Amini Dehaghi2
Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Shahed University. 2Agronomy
Department, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences and Medicinal Plant Research Canter,
Shahed University. P.O. Box: 18151/159, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: In order to inspect the effect phosphorous in three levels (0,30,60 p2o5, Kg/he)
fertilizer and Urea in one level (80 N, Kg/he) and biological phosphorous fertilizer on the
yield and Essential oil production of the planted experimental Chamomile in the form of
factorial on the basis of Randomized Complete Block design in three replication was
conducted research field of Shahed university. Results shows that phosphorous fertilized
treatment in respect of yield a significant difference was and the most yield related
60kg/he phosphorus by producing 452/93 number of flower and 7/74 gr in per bush the
highest yield in comparison whit control treatment by producing in contrast ,500/4
number of flower and 11/06gr in per bush have had minimum amount of yield and dry
weight respectively with respect to this , so the most convened treatment for maximum
yielding, NP2 by use of 30 kg phosphor and80 kg Nitrogen by biological phosphorous
fertilizer in each hectare is recommended with respect of Essential oil amount significant
difference was seen between different treatments so, in any way 80 kg of Urea and 30 kg
of triple super phosphate is recommended for the amount of yielding and Essential oil
percent in Chamomile.
Key Words: Chamomile, phosphorous, nitrogen, biological phosphorous, essential oil.
5.44 Effect of Harvest Time on Essential Oil Composition of Thymbra spicata L.
Growing in Flora of Adıyaman
Memet ĠNAN1, Muzaffer KIRPIK1, Saliha KIRICI2
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program, Kahta Vocational School, Adıyaman University., 02400,
Adıyaman, Turkey. 2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agricultural, Çukurova University., 01330,
Abstract: Thymbra spicata L. is an aromatic shrub growing wild in different regions of
Turkey. This plant has traditionally been used in different purposes by local settlements.
Leaves of Thymbra spicata were collected from Kahta district of Adıyaman (684 m, 370
43‟ N, 380 39‟ E) in three different harvest time as follows: before flowering (10 May
2010), in flowering (21 May 2010) and after flowering (10 June 2010). Essential oil
contents of the plant samples were determined by Hydro-distillation in Clevenger
Apparatus with three hours. Composition of the essential oils was also determined by Gas
Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). All the laboratory analysis was achieved
in three replications. In conclusion, the highest and the lowest essential oil contents of
Thymbra spicata were obtained from the full blooming harvests (% 3,56) and after
flowering (% 3,38), respectively. The lowest essential oil content was found in post
flowering harvest (% 3, 10). Besides essential oil contents, essential oil composition of
Thymbra spicata was also affected by different harvest times.
Key words: Composition, essential oil, harvest, Thymbra spicata.
5.45 Mycorrhizal Inoculation for Increase of Growth and Secondary Metabolite
Production during Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, Herbs and Vegetables
Miroslav Vosátka1,3, Jana Albrechtová 1,2,3, David Püschel1, Marcela Kovářová1 and
Research Centre of Bioindication and Revitalisation, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the
Czech Republic, 252 43 Pruhonice, Czech Republic. 2 Department of Experimental Botany, Faculty of
Science, Charles University in Prague, CZ. 3Symbiom Ltd. Sazava 170, 563 01 Lanskroun, CZ.
Abstract: Mycorrhizal fungi are being used as biofertilizers and growth enhancers in
commercial cultivation of numerous crops. During last few years, however, there is
increasing focus on non-nutritional effects of mycorrhiza in particular enhancement of
production of secondary metabolites. Inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi has
potential and capacity to support growth and yield and change pattern or increase
significantly contents of phytohormones, contents of essential oils, sugar contents and also
antioxidant capacity of crop tissues and fruits. Mycorrhizal inoculums had been
formulated to target these desirable plant parameters and several plant species including
vegetables, herbs and medicinal plants were tested in pot and field trials to assess the
effects of mycorrhizal inoculation. Particular interest was paid to cultivation of knotweed
Reynoutria sp. where factors like growing media, plant clone, inoculation with fungi,
mechanical stress imposed on plants had significant effects on production of reservation
and other stilbenes like piceid, emodin etc. Potential of using mycorrhizal inoculation in
practical cultivation of medicinal plants is discussed in respect to use this biotechnology
for substantial enhancement of target compound production. Authors acknowledge support
of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic via the grants 1M0571, Eurostars
Microfruit (E!4366) project, COST project Mycotech OC09057 (Action No.870) and the
project of Ministry of Industry and Trade FR-Tl1/299.
Key words: Cultivation, growth, herbs, medicinal plants, mycorrhizal inoculation.
5.46 New Approaches in Biotechnology and Organic Farming of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants: Potentials and Future Strategies in Egypt
Mohamed Fathy Salem
Lecturer of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Consultant of Organic Farming,
Department Environmental Biotechnology, Head of Medicinal Mushroom Research and production Unit,
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, GEBRI, Minufiya University, Sadat
Abstract: There is a great demand for our agriculture systems in Egypt to be changed
completely. This means to cultivate our endemic flora in Egypt to be fruitful for both
farmers and agribusiness for pharmaceuticals production, especially for certain epidemic
diseases, like kidney failure, liver cirrhoses and cancer, etc. This necessitates registering
and protecting our plant flora, and fauna. In addition, we need more and more research
work about the active ingredient compounds for this important flora. The last decade
introduced a significant growth of activities in the field of organic farming. This has been
linked to an increased awareness regarding both, environmental protection and food
safety. These activities have reflected in agricultural practice and scientific exploration
Nowadays, there is a great need for good and safe food in Egypt. This presentation
concentrates on four main aspects: (1) The potential of biotechnology in medicinal plants
production. (2) The potential of organic farming in medicinal plants production and
marketing worldwide. (3) Using of medicinal plants as food additives. (4) Using certain
medicinal plants as animal feed additives.
Key words: Approaches, biotechnology, medicinal plants, organic.
5.47 In vitro Juniper Plants Formation from Multiplication of Buds
Mozahim K. Al-Mallah1 and Sumood H. AL-hadeedy2
Biotechnology Dep. College of Educatioin, University of Mosul. 2Forestry Dep. College of Agriculture and
Forestry, University of Mosul. Iraq.
Abstract: Eastern Juniper trees or shrubs represent one species of Juniperus Genus which
are the largest genus of Cupressaceae family, this family produces volatile oils that most
important economicaly which used often medically. Results showed vegetative
multiplication of shoots from one bud in culture media (MS). so this culture ( MS)
examined by adding the following concentration of Benzyl Adenine BA ( 0.0 , 0.5 , 1.0 ,
2.5 , 5.0 , 7.5 ) mg/l and the media with 1.0 mg/l of BA stimulate vegetative growth of all
buds and recorded multiplication of 100%. Also the same media stimulated callus
initiation at a time the callus regenerated of new shoots and its fitness for rooting of
juniper plantlets. This study aimed to overcoming difficulties of germination and
rooting transplants of this species.
Key words: Buds, formation, juniper.
5.48 The Role of Medicinal Plants in Rural Livelihood Improvement and Ecosystem
Sustainability in CWANA.
Nasri Haddad1 and Ahmed Amri2
Regional coordinator, West Asia Regional Program. 2Head of Genetic Resource Section, International
Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) .
Abstract: This paper present information on the contribution of medicinal and aromatic
plants to the livelihoods of rural people and to the sustainability of the ecosystem.
Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising commodities for reducing rural poverty in
the CWANA region because of their higher water use efficiency and relatively higher
economic return per unit area compared to traditional crops. Medicinal and aromatic plants
(MAP)-based livelihood systems are often mediated by the market forces and/or related
directly to employment and income of the poor people. Supporting small farmers to grow
and market non-traditional agricultural commodities, like medicinal plants and herbs, has a
very positive impact on agricultural growth, rural employment and leads to poverty
reduction in rural areas. Improved management of this natural resource can make a bigger
contribution to local economies, subsistence health needs and biodiversity conservation. It
was found that MAP and other biodiversity based livelihoods can not only become
poverty reducing they can also be made socially equitable and gender balanced. There is
now broad consensus that cultivation offers the best prospect for conserving many
medicinal plants currently found in the wild. In addition to maintaining or expanding
supply, cultivation is seen as facilitating enhanced species identification and improved
quality control, as well as species improvements.
Key words: Ecosystem, improvement, medicinal plants, rural livelihood.
5.49 In Vitro Production of Colchicine from Callus and Cell Suspension Cultures of
Wild Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feib
Nidal M. Daradkeh1, Rida A. Shibli2, Feras Alali3, Ibrahim M. Makhadmeh 4
National Center for Agriculture Research and Extension, Baqa'a, Jordan. 2Deaprtment of Horticulture and
Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan;3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan
University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan. 4Department of Plant Production, Faculty of
Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology.
Abstract: The medicinal value of colchicum is due to the presence of colchicine, the main
alkaloid, which was isolated from all species of colchicum which is widely used in
breeding studies and as drug to treat gout. Callus and suspension cell cultures are of the
most valuable commercial sources for the synthesis of medicinal substances. In the current
study callus was induced from seeds of Colchicum hierosolymitanum Feib. Seeds were
inoculated on the surface of MS media supplemented with 0.45 µM 2,4-
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under dark conditions. Friable callus from the fourth
generation was transferred to liquid MS media supplemented with 0.54 µM 1-
Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to form cell suspension. Cells were successfully
subcultured every 27 days on the same liquid media supplemented with 0.54 µM NAA. (-
)-Colchicine was identified in callus and in cell suspension of Colchicum
hierosolymitanum by performing HPLC analysis. Colchicine alkaloid was highest (0.09
mg g-1DW) at 0.1 M of sucrose on the fourth week. No (-)-colchicine alkaloid was
detected in callus grown on sucrose free media. Cell suspension had 0.012 mg g-1 DW (-)-
colchicine from suspended cells grown under dark.
Key words: Callus, cell suspension, colchicine, HPLC analysis.
5.50 Organic Vs Chemical Fertilization of Medicinal Plants: A Concise Review of
Nubila Yehya Mohamed Naguib
Department of Chemistry, Jazan College of Medicinal Sciences, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
P.O.B. # 114 Jazan, KSA.
Abstract: Traditionally, medicinal plants are collected from areas where they are wildly
and naturally grown. Many factors, however, have invited and necessitated their
cultivation such as global phenomenon of desertification, raised global temperature,
excessive harvesting, to count only few of the factors that threaten the existence of such
plants and that would lead, if left unattended, to their extinction. In researches, chemical
fertilization and plant hormonal applications were primarily tried to stimulate growth or to
increase the medicinally active ingredients in plant extracts. With the thrust and
international interest in organic cultivation, researches in growing of medicinal plants have
shifted to the use of organic supplementation instead. The present paper; is intended
to review some researches performed by the National Research Center (NRC) Egypt to
elaborate the benefits of organic cultivation of medicinal plants compared to other
researches using chemical and/ or hormonal treatments.
Key words: Fertilization, medicinal plants, organic, review.
5.51 Response of Achillea millefolium cv. “Proa” to different Moisture Ccontent of
Soil: Essential Oil Content and Chamazulene Rate
Özgür TATAR1, Angel KONAKCIEV2, Çiğdem SÖNMEZ1, Emine BAYRAM1,
Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, Izmir-TURKEY. 2 Bulgarian Academy
of Science, Institute of Organic Chemistry, Sofia-Bulgaria. 3 Bulgarian Academies of Science, Institute of
Abstract: The species of Achillea millefolium group is one of the valuable medicinal
plants since chamazulene content of their essential oil. Response of A. millefolium cv
“proa” to different water applications in terms of essential oil and chamazulene production
of plants were investigated in the frame of a joint project between Turkey and Bulgaria.
Plants were grown in a climate chamber where air condition was controlled and soil
moistures of the pots were regulated for different treatments as well. Essential oil rate
increased when insufficient water applications for most of culture plants were treated (20
% and 80 % of soil water holding capacity). Chamazulene rate in essential oil of the plants
increased while soil moisture decreased. In order to optimize chamazulene production of
the plants, different response of essential oil content and composition to the soil moisture
should be considered.
Key words: Achillea millefolium, Proa, chamazulene, water, essential oil.
5.52 The Effects of Varying Nitrogen Doses on Yield and Some Yield Components of
Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.)
R. Tuncturk1, M. Tuncturk1, and V. Ciftci
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Yuzuncu Yil, 65080, Van-Turkey.
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the effects of different nitrogen doses
(0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg/ha) on the yield and some yield components of black cumin
(Nigella sativa L.) in Van ecological conditions in 2006 and 2007. Field trials were
designed by Completely Randomized Block Design with three replications at the
experimental fields of Agricultural Faculty of Yuzuncu Yıl University. In the study, plant
height (cm), the number of branch (branch/plant), the number of capsule (capsule/plant),
the number of seeds in the capsule (seed/capsule), thousand-seed weight (g) and seed yield
(kg/ha) were determined. In conclusion, the effect of nitrogen doses on the yield and some
yield components were statistically significant except for thousand-seed weight and the
number of seeds in the capsule. Plant height, the number of branch, the number of capsule
and seed yield increased by increasing nitrogen doses. According to the results, the highest
values were obtained from the application of 60 kg N/ha for seed yield (575 kg/ha), the
number of capsule (7.5 capsule/plant) and the number of branch (4.51 branch/plant).
Key words: Black cumin, medicinal plants, nitrogen, seed, yield.
5.53 Effect of Different Nutrition Methods of Iron and Nitrogen Elements on
Essential Oil and Chemical Composition of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Reza Jabbar1,, Majid Amini Dehaghi2, Ali .M. Modares Sanavi3, Kayvan Agahi4
Department of agronomy and plant breeding, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, 2Department of
agronomy and medical plants research center, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, Tehran.
Department of agronomy, Agricultural College, University of Tarbiat modares. 4Department of agronomy
and plant breeding, Agricultural College, University of Shahed, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Nutrition plays a key role on the amount of essential oil compounds among
medical plants. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the different application
methods of Iron and Nitrogen nutrition elements on essential oil and chemical composition
of thyme. The experiment was carried out at research fields of medical plants, University
of Shahed, Iran, in 2008. The effect of Iron and Nitrogen elements on thyme seedlings was
assayed separately by conducting two randomized complete block designs with four
replications. Treatments included soil and foliar application of these elements. Results
showed that Nitrogen foliar application increased the vegetative yield, amount and
percentage of essential oil, and chemical compositions of thyme. On the other hand,
application of Iron had a suppressing effect on the studied traits.
Keywords: Thyme (Thymus vulgaris).
5.54 Effect of Harvest Times in Different Growth periods of Dry Matter Yield and
Quantity of Essential Oil in Menthe piperita Drgyah Pharmaceutical in Arak, Iran
Roohollah Hasanzadeh1, Gholamreza Naderi Boroujerdi2, Gilda Rabiei3, Noshin
Faculty member of Payame Nour University.2Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak
branch, Department of agriculture, 3Bashgah Pajoheshgran javan IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak
branch, 4Bashgah Pajoheshgran javan IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch. 5Expert Iran Combine
Abstract: The use of plants to treatment on human life is the time. Man of all time
historic plants had no choice but to resort. Although the past half a century of chemical
and synthetic drugs was introduced, but extremely harmful to their works quickly their
lives because the plants were reconversion. Iran to seek pardon from the brilliant history of
medicine, talent potential geographic, climatic (11 of 13 climate Global climate), Vdamnh
daily temperature changes (50 º C) and sunny 300 days a year, with 8,500 plant species
from 10 to 15 percent that it comprises plants. Peppered mint plant drug with the scientific
name gramineous plant Mentha Piperita, perennial Lamiaceae family and contains two
types of stem with leaves of the creeping underground cross, elliptical, sharp, serrated, and
slightly covered with Kirk, a length of 4 to 7 cm and 3 cm instead of 2. All parts of air
conditioning plant and the smell is fragrant smell, but if you are Jvydh, in addition to the
smell of oil, feel the chill is in the oral mucosa. Stem of this plant, square miles and red
purple to violet, or is willing to. Flowers in the months of August and appearing in the
Persian month Shahrivar, rose more or less clear or purple are willing to violet. Scientists
believe these plant-Blood Prince is true. That in fact this plant a natural cross of 2 species
M. viridis and M. aquatica is Project Summary: This project peppery mint plants in the
fields of natural resources Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Arak cultivated
were used. Part of the farm, pepper mint in order to implement the severance plan
Vtymarha tests three harvesting date (A) before flowering, during flowering and after
flowering is Tuesday now harvest treatment (B) morning and afternoon and evening of the
three Total 9 treatments Total project which is repeated Contains plot is 27 In this
experiment, statistical factorial design most basic design randomized block design was
used. Finally, the notes conducted Vasans capture and statistical analysis revealed the
highest yield and pepper mint oil plant in the plant leaves and stem essential oil lowest
available and the best harvest time highest percentage of pepper mint oil and dry matter in
treatment and flowering time is morning Statistical analysis: Based on information
harvested Zyz described results were announced Reviews graph harvest time (morning)
day performance peppermint essential oil plants of the plant showed precocious
performance in different plant essential oils in the morning than in other harvest times
(afternoon - evening). Performance of essential oil (withdrawal morning) in leaves is
higher than other organs. Reviews graph harvest time (noon) the day of the performance of
essential oil plants of the plant shows peppery mint. Performance in the different plant
essential oils in the interpretations PM & after Zhrkmtr Azmlkrd is harvested in the
morning. Performance in the essential oil (interpretations of PM & after noon) in leaves is
higher than other organs. Chart review of harvest times during the day at different stages
of plant growth performance peppermint essential oil in leaves of plants showed
precocious. Highest yield of essential oil in leaves to plant growth stages of flowering time
is Vbrdasht morning. The lowest oil yield in leaves to plant growth stages after flowering
time after Vbrdasht AM. Effects of harvesting at different growth stages of plant organs
shows the highest essential oil when the leaves of flowering plant essential oil are
Vkmtryn percent after flowering.
Key words: Dry matter, essential oil, growth, pharmaceutical, Quantity, yield.
5.55 Assessment of Diversity of Essential Oils and Cultivation Potential of
Coridothymus Capitatus (L.) Reichenb. Fil. in Jordan
S. Saifan1, M.Duwayri2, F. Alali3
Directorate of biodiversity, genetic resources and medicinal plant, National Center for Agricultural
Research and Extensin, 19381, Amman. 2Department of plant horticulture and agronomy, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Jordan. 3Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan
University of Science and Technology. Irbid, Jordan.
Abstract: Coridothymus capitatus (L.) Reichenb. fil., is an aromatic and medicinal plant
growing wild in Jordan and locally known as Za‟tar Farisi. Diversity and potential
cultivation study comprised fifteen wild populations of Coridothymus capitatus. Essential
oils were quantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry techniques. Significant diversity was obtained among wild Coridothymus
capitatus populations. Thymol percentage ranged from 0.03 to 0.57 %, and carvacrol
percentage ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 %. Populations showed average dissimilarity of
10.68. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmatic Mean (UPGMA) cluster
analysis revealed thymol and carvacrol chemotypes. Monthly quantitative changes in
thymol and carvacrol were obtained. Coridothymus capitatus populations introduced for
cultivation showed a good stand and potential toward producing dry herbage yield (3046
kg/ha). Cultivated populations showed phenotypic variation in the investigated traits, and
also variation in relation to their essential oil content. Thymol percentage ranged from
0.01 to 0.90 % and carvacrol percentage ranged between 0.10 and 0.87 %. The genetic
diversity among cultivated population was estimated at the molecular level using
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 235 bands were
scored using ten selective primer combinations. Five groups of Coridothymus capitatus
were identified by the UPGMA clustering indicating genetic variation among
populations.The results obtained pave the road for a potential commercial and large-scale
cultivation and essential oil production from Coridothymus capitatus species.
Key words: Assessment, cultivation, essential oils, jordan, reichenb.
5.56 Responses of Basil Plant to Various Concentrations of P Nutrition
Sadrollah Ramezani1 and Fatemeh Ramezani2
Department of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Basil is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, is used all
over the world, and includes many species. One of the most important commercially
grown species is Ocimum basilicum L. The present study describes the effects of
phosphorus fertilization on the essential oil content, fresh and dry weight, plant and flower
cluster height and chlorophyll content of basil. Field experiments were conducted during
2008 year in the Experimental Farm of Shiraz University located in the southwest region
of Iran (a clay silt loam soil, a semi-arid moderate climatic area). The experiment was
established as Randomized Block Design with three replications. In this study six
Phosphorus levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 %) at two time of plant growth (20 and 60 % full
flowering) by foliar spray method were examined the effects of yield and related
components in basil. The dried herb of basil was subjected to water distillation (hydro
distillation) for 3 h using an all glass Clevenger-type apparatus, to extract oil according to
the method recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia. According to the results,
phosphorus spray treatments had marked effects on the essential oil content of basil.
Application of phosphorus significantly increased the essential oil content. The treatment
of 2 % produced the highest essential oil content (0.93 %) in aerial parts and 10 %
treatment produced the maximum amount of plant and flower cluster height (54.33 and
Key words: Basil, chlorophyll, Essential oil, fresh and dry weight, plant height.
5.57 Effect of Different Harvest Dates on Growth Characteristics of Aloe barbadensis
Saeid Hazrati1, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi Sarvestani 1, and Sadrollah Ramezani2
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, 2Department of Horticulture
Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Abstract: To investigate the effect of different harvest stages on growth
characteristics of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), an experimental was carried out
at faculty of agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran under
greenhouse conditions during 2008 and 2009 years . The experimental design
was a randomized complete block with 4 replications. The treatments were
three harvest times including before flowering, early flowering and full flowering. Harvest
time was arranged in 12, 16 and 18 months after planting. The results showed that the
different harvest stages had significant effect on some growth characteristic of aloe vera.
The lowest and highest leaf length were obtained at the before flowering and full
flowering, respectively. Significant difference was observed between treatments in the
weight and diameter of leaf, so that maximum of these traits were obtained in early
flowering. Also, harvest at early and full flowering resulted in the highest
fresh and dry weight of gel, respectively. However, some traits such as leaf width,
dry matter weight surrounding gel and gel weight to total leaf ratio were not affected by
treatments. In general, the best time for harvest is early flowering to obtain the economical
yield of aloe vera.
Key words: Aloe vera, flowering, harvest date, leaf, yield.
5.58 Effect of N Fertilizers and Spacing on Yield and Quality Essential Oil of
Thymus Vulgaris, Iran. Arak
1 2 3 4
Said Hassan pour , Mojtaba Jafarzadeh , Hadi Shafiei , Gholamreza Naderi Broujerdi
Department of agriculture and natural resources, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak. 2Faculty
member of IslamicAzad University Brujerd branch. 3Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) –
Arak branch. 4Faculty member of IslamicAzad University (IAU) – Arak branch, Department of agriculture,
Abstract: Pharmaceutical plants have outstanding importance as the main sources of raw
materials for pharmaceutics factories. Since these medicines have low side-effects if any,
in comparison with chemical medicines, human being is more inclined to use plant-based
medicines so that large medicine producer countries have implemented extensive
researches about its processing and proper applications in pharmacology industry. Thyme
(Thymus Vulgaris) is woody perennial plant belonged to mint family.Its effective material
i.e aroma is produced and stored in growing stand of the plant. To date, more than 36
terpenic and terpenoidic combinations of the aroma have been identified among which the
most important are Thymol and Carvacrol. These two materials especially Thymol have
strong anti-bacterial and anti-fungus effects beside their effective application in coughing
treatment and as anti-oxidant and natural food preservative agents.The present study was
implemented to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer and density effects on quality and quantity of
Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) aroma. Two factors influences including nitrogen fertilizer
(0,75,150 kg/ha) and density (13.2,6.66,4.44 m2) were evaluated using factorial test on
random plots with four repetitions in Pharmaceutic Plant Research Station depended on
Arak Agricultural Jihad and Natural Resources Research Center. Both factors effects and
their interrelations on some traits such as bush height , bush wet weight , bush dry weight ,
aroma percent , Thymol percent , Carcacrol percent, wet matter function per ha , dry
matter function per ha , aroma function per ha , Thymol function per ha and Carcacrol
function per ha were examined. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer application lowered
the wet weight function, dry weight function, aroma function, Thymol function and
Carvacrol function in statistically meaningful manner. Additionally, density reduction
caused the increase of bush dry and weight (bush unit) , bush aroma percent(in density
2.13 bush/ha) and aroma,wet matter and dry matter functions per ha (in density 2.13
bush/ha).There were no correlation between nitrogen quantity and some traits such as bush
wet and dry weight, aroma percent , bush height , and Thymol and Carvacrol percents. The
increase of nitrogen fertilizer impaired some other traits.The increase of density resulted in
bush wet and dry weights (single bush) and aroma percent to increase but it increased
Thymol function per ha.
Key words: Aroma, carvacrol, thyme, thymol.
5.59 Effect of Fertilization on the Amount of Oil from the Fennel Plant
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mosul- Iraq.
Abstract: Fennel is a medicinal plants known that it was mentioned in old medical books
as well as stated in the books of prophetic medicine (Al – Sunnah), fennel used to Vhoavid
in flu, asthma, and cough and relieve intestinal cramps. and can take plants or seeds
,boiled and filtered and then used as needed A field study was carried out in the fields of
the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul, in two different soil texture
,the first is Silty loam and the second is Clay loam , with a combination of fertilizer
(Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) ( K0 k20, K40, - Po, P20, P40 and , NO, N60.N120
) The results showed that the amount of oil obtained from the distillation of seeds suited
positively correlated with levels of fertilizer added, especially in low levels while the best
combination to obtain a higher amount of oil production in the soil was in the first
treatment , N120KP30 K20 The amount of oil, 53.42 liters / ha, while the amount of oil in
the soil when the second treatment N120KP30 K40 .The amount of oil in this treatment
36.76 liters / ha, while the amount of oil in the treatment comparison without fertilization
(12.58 and 10.56) for Silty Loam and Clay Loam respectively . These results indicated the
importance of fertilization and Soil Texture in the production of oil from, medical Fennel
Key words: Fennel plant, fertilization, oil.
5.60 Response of Aloe vera L. plant to Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization
Shadia Kotb Ahmed
Head of department of medicinal and aromatic plants, Horticultural Institute ARC Egypt.
Abstract: Field trials were done in the experimental Farm of medicinal and aromatic
plants department in 2006-2007 and 2008 to study the effect of calcium supper phosphate
with three rates and potassium sulphate with two rates on the vegetative growth and active
substance of Aloe Vera. The data indicate that, the different treatments of Fertilization
have significant effects on increasing vegetative growth and the yield of leaves. As for
active ingredients, the different fertilizations have significant effects on the Aloin content
and Mucilage percentage.
Key words: Aloe vera L., phosphorus, potassium.
5.61 In Vitro Propagation and Secondary Metabolites Production in Wild
Germander (Teucrium polium L.)
Tamara S. Al- Qudah1, Rida A. Shibli2, Feras Q. Alali3
Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, 2Department of Horticulture and Agronomy, Faculty of
Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and
Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan.
Abstract The current study aims to increase the mass production of Teucrium polium L.
by in vitro propagation. Micropropagation of T. polium was initiated from axillary buds.
Axillary buds were surface-sterilized and inoculated on the surface of half strength
Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 2.0 mg l-1 Gibberellic acid (GA3).
MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 6-Furfurylaminopurin (Kin) and 0.1 mg l-1 1-
Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used for multiplication of mother stock obtained from
developed seedlings. Proliferation was experimented with different levels of Kin, 6-
benzyladenine (BA), or Thiadiazuron (TDZ). Highest proliferation of T. polium was
obtained when BA and Kin were used at (2.0 and 1.6 mg l-1; respectively). TDZ gave
maximum shoot proliferation at 0.8 mg l-1. Rooting was experimented at different levels of
Indol-3-butric acid (IBA), Indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) or NAA. Highest root number (15.9)
and length (6.9 mm) was achieved at 0.8 mg l-1 NAA. IBA and IAA failed to promote root
induction. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 75% survival and grown
in the greenhouse. In vitro and in vivo grown plants were analyzed for essential oil
production. In vitro grown T. polium on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BA
and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA gave higher oil yield (0.40% w/w) than that grown on hormone-free
MS media (0.18% w/w). In vivo (wild) grown T. polium produced different oil yield when
collected in April (0.55% w/w) and October (0.47% w/w). -caryophyllene, identified by
Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis, was used as a marker compound. In vitro grown T.
polium on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BA and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA yielded
higher -caryophyllene (3.0% w/w) than in vivo (wild) grown T. polium collected in April
(0.4% w/w). No -caryophyllene was detected from either in vitro grown T. polium on
hormone- free MS media or in vivo (wild) collected in October. Gas Chromatography-
Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify other components of in vitro
cultures and compared with in vivo grown plants.
Key words: -caryophyllene, essential oil, in vitro propagation, Teucrium polium.
5.62 Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Fennel (Foenivulum vulgare mill.) Germplasm
in Pakistan Assessed by Rapd Markers
Zahid, N.A. Abbasi, I.A. Hafiz
Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. Pakistan.
Abstract: Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.) is an important well-known aromatic and
medicinal herb. It is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of Pakistan up to an altitude
of 2000 m and grown as annual crop. Fifty accessions of fennel were collected from
different parts of Pakistan and evaluated for important characteristics like seed
germination percentage (germination %), days to initiation of flowering, plant height, stem
girth, nodal distance, umbel diameter, days to 50% maturity, days to harvesting, seed yield
per row, weight of 100 seeds and harvest index (%). Genomic DNA of the accessions was
extracted through CTab method and subjected to RAPD analysis in order to ascertain their
genetic diversity. Twenty-four out of 30 decimer primers generated 145 clear bands and
70 (48 %) were polymorphic. Sixteen primers OPA-01, OPA-03, OPA-04, OPA-05, OPA-
07, OPA10, OPA-11, OPA-14, OPA-15, OPA-18, AC-11, AC-14, AC-15, AC-16, AC-18
and AC-20 gave polymorphism for different characters. About 66.6% of polymorphic
primers generated the highest index to resolve genetic diversity even in small number of
accessions. Genetic variations among different accessions also show variability ion
morphological characters. Seven accessions from Punjab, three from NWFP, one from
Balochistan and one from Northern Areas of Pakistan had appeared with promising
Key words: Fennel, genetic diversity, germplasm, markers.
5.63 Effects of Plant Population Density and Harvesting Age on Leaf, Essential Oil
and Artemisinin Yield of Artemisia (A. annua ANAMED)
Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center Addis Ababa Sub Center, P.O. Box 395, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to examine the effect of plant population
density and harvesting age on leaf, essential oil and artemisinin yield of A. annua at
Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center from March, 2001 to December 2002 E.C.
The experiment consisted of factorial combinations of four harvesting ages (four, five, six
and seven months after transplanting) and five levels of plant population density (6,944,
10,000, 15,625, 27,777 and 49,383 plants ha-1). The design was split- plot with three
replications. Harvesting age was assigned to main plot and plant population density on sub
plot. The effect of harvesting age and population density were assessed by analyzing data
on stem number, plant height, number of main branch, leaf area index, shoot dry weight,
dry leaf yield, harvest index essential oil content, essential oil yield, artemisinin content
and artemisinin yield. Result revealed that interaction effect of harvesting age and
population density was significant on stem number plant-1, stem number ha-1, plant height,
leaf area index, shoot dry weight plant-1, dry leaf yield ha-1, harvest index and artemisinin
yield. Dry leaf yield plant-1 and artemisinin content was affected significantly by
harvesting age and population density; and branch number plant-1, essential oil content and
essential oil yield was affected significantly by plant population density. In this study
maximum dry leaf yield of 3.15 t/ha was attained at planting density of 27, 777 plants ha-1
harvested at 5 MAT. Essential oil yield of 19.2kg/ha was also recorded at planting density
of 27,777 plants ha-1regardless of harvesting ages. The maximum artemisinin yield of 10.9
kg/ha was obtained at planting density of 27,777 at 7 MAT. There was no significant
artemisinin yield increment above this density. Therefore, optimum dry leaf, essential oil
and artemisinin yield can be achieved by planting at density of 27,777 plants ha-1; and
harvesting at 5 MAT for dry leaf yield and 4 to 7 MAT for essential oil yield. Since
artemisinin yield is increased up to 7 MAT, it is difficult to know the optimum limit.
Therefore, further investigation needed. It is also recommended that, these results are from
only one season at one site and hence such studies may be repeated to reach at concrete
recommendations. Further more, planting time, fertilizer requirement, irrigation
requirement, drying condition and processing technique should be addressed to obtain
optimum yield of the crop.
Key words: A. annua, population density, harvesting, leaf biomass, essential oil.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 6: Climate change and the ethno-botanical sources.
6.1 Climatic Changes Effect on the Essential Oils Yield and Chemical Composition
of lavandula stoechas at National Park of El kala, Country of Ain Khiar, North-East
I. Fellah¹, A. Djahoudi², Y. Tlili-Ait Kaki ², A. Chefrour², and L. Brinis¹.
Biotechnology and Plants Amelioration Laboratory - Biology Department, ²Pharmacy Department-
Medicine Faculty, Badji Mokhtar University-Annaba.
Abstract: Our research has been conducted on an aromatic and medicinal plant,
Lavandula stoechas at National Park of El Kala, country of Ain Khiar, North-East of
Algeria. This work was focused on a qualitative and quantitative essential oils study and
antibacterial study as well. Tree harvests of Lavandula stoechas were realised during three
months (March – April – May). Essential oils extractions of each harvest and chemical
caracterisation and antibacterial activities study have allowed us to gather the follow
results: Difference in the yield between the three harvests was often conditioned by
climatic changes, there was a difference in chemical essential oils composition. Results of
aromatogramme showed a real activity for the tested samples. This was reported by
literature. However, this activity differs in function of the harvest period, concentration
and type of bacteria targed. Then, essential oil of Lavandula stoéchas may be used either
as disinfectant of surfaces (subjects- hands), urinary disinfectant or epidermal disinfectant.
Key words: Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, essential oil, Lavandula
6.2 Effect of Planting Dates and Organic Fertilization (Humus) on Vegetative Yield
in Sweet Basil Plant Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum L.
Saad A. Ihsan
Pharm. College – Babil University, Iraq.
Abstract: Two experiments were performed during spring 2009 in two locations in Al
Najaf District in Iraq to study the effect of three planting dates and spraying with three
concentrations of organic fertilizer (Humus) on growth parameters and vegetative yield of
sweet basil plant (Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum L.) . The experiments were designed
in randomized complete block design in three replicates with two factors , the first three
planting dates (15/3/2009 , 1/4/2009 , 15/4/2009) and the second three organic fertilizer
concentrations (0, 3, and 6 ml. L) , the means were compared according to Duncans test on
probability of (0.05). The first date increased significantly on the other dates in all growth
parameters that studied for the two locations , also spraying with fertilizer concentration of
(6 ml. L) increased significantly in all the growth parameters in the two experiments with
the two locations also. The results of the interaction between the two factors showed that
the first date plants and the spraying with organg fertilizers at concentration of (6 ml.L)
gave the higher values for each vegetative growth parameters and the quality of yield
characterstics of the basil plants in the two locations respectively.
Key words: Fertilization, Ocimum basilicum, planting date, vegetative, sweet basil.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 7: Impact of cultivation and gathering of medicinal plants on biodiversity.
7.1 Some Weeds Playing Important Role as Medicinal Plant and Existing in the
Pastures of Turkey
A. Esen CELEN, Emine BAYRAM
Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.
Abstract: There are many pasture weed species from different families in Turkey‟s
pastures. Most of these weeds are dangerous and they can negatively affect animal health, quality
and quantity of the animal products. At the same time, these pasture weeds can affect the existence and
health of the pasture vegetation and they can decrease the production capacity of pastures.
At the other hand, these weeds contain some compounds such as alkaloids, glycosides and
some other effective substances and because of this; they can be used as medicinal plant in
Turkey. In this paper, some weeds used as medicinal plant existing in the pastures of
Turkey will be described.
Key words: Medicinal plant, pasture, turkey, weed.
7.2 Evaluation of plants endemic to Pakistan as a potential source of cultivated
medicinal plant species
Abdul Majid, Habib Ahmad, Azhar Hussain Shah and Muhammad Fiaz
Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra Pakistan.
Abstract: Pakistan is considerably rich in its flora having about 6000 flowering plant
species. Among these, 2000 species have been reported as medicinal plants. The number
may be even more as many areas are unexplored with respect to ethno medicinal
knowledge. Majority of the population is dependent on crude drugs from plant origin for
basic health care. Ayurvidic, Unani and Folk medicinal systems are practiced successfully
and thus, the dependency on medicinal plant material is more evident. Generally material
is obtained from wild collection and cultivation practices are very less. Such collections
are the great threat to the medicinal plant population and thus the rate of unavailability of
the drugs is very high. Considerable number of drugs has been replaced with the
substitutes with no or very poor therapeutic effects. One of the important plant groups are
endemic species. These are the species having less distributional range with small
population size. These can be good source of certain active constituents as the phenomena
like polyploidy etc. are involve in the evolution of these populations. Endemic species in
this way may have more amounts of certain active ingredients. Because of their less
availability, very few of them have been evaluated chemically. Pakistan has considerable
number of endemic plant species. About 400 plant species are reported as endemic to the
country. Half of them are restricted to small ranges while others are found with in
comparatively broad ranges. In present work, these endemic species have been evaluated
for their medicinal value. A total of 76 endemic species have been recorded as being
utilized by various communities as medicinal source. These are practiced for various
ailments. Collection of the material is made from wild only. Even a single species could
not be reported as being cultivated for medicinal use. Ten of the species are reported as
commercially available in market. The exploitation from the wild has made the availability
of these species very difficult and substitutes are being used. A few of the species have
been analyzed phytochemically with good results. It is concluded that the introduction of
cultivation practices with respect to these species is utmost need because this is the only
way to conserve these species so that they may be utilized in future with more better
Key Words: Pakistan, endemic plants, medicinal value, cultivation.
7.3 Morphological and Anatomical Study of Two Medicinal Plants from
Adel Nadjib Chaker, Habiba Boukhebti and Rachid Sahraoui
Laboratoire de valorisation des ressources végétales VRBN, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science,
UFA – Setif – Algeria.
Abstract: Labiatae family contains around 200 genera and 4000 species, fast majority
have economical values due to their use as medicinal plants. Large number of its genera
considered as a source of active substances especially essential oils. Among these is genus
Mentha from which we choose two species, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium to carry
out morphological and anatomical studies. Our study shows similarities and differences
between the two species. They are both herbal plants and have squared forms of cross-
sections of stems, with differences in their inflorescences. However, M. pulegium has a
particular feature which is the presence of lacunar parenchyma tissues in all sections.
Trichomes were present on the epidermis of stems and leaves and they are unicellular or
multicellular which form either glandular or protective cells. Their difference in number
and form is clear between the two species as well as their differences in different parts
depending on the age of the plant.
Key words: Labiatae family, morphological and anatomical studies, Mentha spicata,
7.4 Defining Collecting Protocols to Improve Gene Bank Diversity of Genus Mentha
L. in Spain
David Draper Munt
Departamento de Biolog?a Vegetal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agr?nomos, Universidad
Politécnica de Madrid. Av. Complutense s/n. 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to design a collection strategy in Spain, identifying
sampling areas to ensure greater genetic diversity of Mentha L., both intraspecific and
interspecific, and to minimize collecting fieldwork. The main objective of any wild-
species gene bank is not just to preserve a large number of species, but also to maximize
for each species the genetic diversity contained in the accessions in an efficient way. Spain
is one of the most biodiverse countries in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) in Europe.
This important biological heritage must be preserved both for the use of their own country
and for future generations. Because of this, is necessary to provide conservation measures
both in situ and ex situ to ensure conservation of these genetic resources. Spain houses
over 2000 MAP samples spread over different gene banks considering ex situ
conservation. In spite of this, there are important gaps in the collections when compared
with the available diversity. One of the most striking gaps referred to the genus Mentha is
that in spite of being represented in Spain for 13 taxa (including hybrids), only represents
0.01% of the samples preserved ex situ. This is paradoxical given the commercial
importance of its species and hybrids as MAP. This genus has been neglected in collecting
missions but is widely distributed across the country. The methodology applied involves
the use of Geographic Information System tools (GIS), based on species presence data
taken from herbarium records and georreferenced before incorporated to GIS. We used
Worlclim environmental and relief layers to identify the most extreme as well as centred
environmental population for each species. The results indicate that the species whose
populations have higher out of range values are M. aquatica and M. pulegium. The
intraspecific approach to priorize populations emphasizes the importance of collecting
plant material in the province of Almeria (Southeast Spain) due to the presence of at least
four taxa populations in this province. Results also show that sampling in Galicia
(Northwest Spain), will increase the collection in three taxa. Other provinces of interest
include M?laga, Granada, Cordoba (all in the South of the country) and Girona (Northeast
Spain) to complete the collection with the species M. cervina, M. arvensis and M. spicata.
Thus, this strategy will permit to design a stratified sampling method to maximise the
genetic diversity collected, minimising the field effort.
Key words: Genetic diversity, mentha, spain.
7.5 Intraspecific Variability in Hypericin Content and Productivity of Hypericum
maculatum Crantz growing Wild Under Different Management Regions
I. Salamon1, B. Taylorova2
Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, 01, 17 th November St., SK-
081 16 Presov, Slovakia. 2Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature Sciences,
Constantine the Philosopher University, 1, Tr. A. Hlinku, 065 01 Nitra, Slovakia.
Abstract: The intraspecific variation in the hypericin content and productivity was studied
in wild populations of Hypericum maculatum Crantz growing in Levocske Mountains
under Slovak climatic conditions. The plant material for hypericin studies was collected
during the full flowering stage from five mountain meadows under two different
management regimes (with management and no management). The soil samples from each
locality were analysed. Dried Hyperici herba was extracted to methanol and the content of
naftodiantron derivates was determined by the spectrophotometric method (Ph. Eur. 6) and
expressed as hypericin. Hypericin content in Hyperici herba during the stage with fully
opened flowers varied from 0,161 – 0,196 %. Measurements of plant production to assess
the yield were made at the end of vegetation period. Fresh and dry weight was recorded to
estimate the biomass. The dry weight varied from 26,11 g/m2 – 65,34 g/m2. The results of
evaluation showed the higher total yield in meadows without management.
Key words: Biomass, hypericin, management, Hypericum maculatum, crantz.
7.6 Most Wıdely Traded Medıcınal and Aromatıc Plants of Turkey
K. Husnu Can Baser
Anadolu University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey
Abstract: Flora of Turkey which is rich and diverse is well documented in 11 volumes.
Being in a geography with land in two continents under the influence of three different
climates and at the junction of three phytogeographic regions, its natural diversity blended
with cultural richness, throughout centuries has brought about a wide inventory of useful
plants. This lecture will focus on the most widely traded medicinal and aromatic plants of
Turkey. They include opium poppy, oregano, thyme, sage, sideritis, rose, laurel, anis,
licorice,gypsophila, salep, etc. which have been used and traded since ancient times.
Information on their uses and export figures will be given.
Key words: Aromatıc plants, medıcınal, turkey, wıdely.
7.7 Morphologic and Genetic Variability of Helichrysum italicum/microphyllum
Complex in Sardinia
L. Carta2 & S. Melito 1, D. Rau3, A. Porceddu3, I. Camarda1
Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. 2 Department of Botany, Ecology and Geology. 3 Department of
Agronomy and Plant Genetic. University of Sassari.
Abstract: The genus Helichrysum Miller is largely widespread in the Mediterranean
countries and in Sardinia island, grows frequently in different environments: dry cliffs,
sandy soils, garrigues, degradates areas, from the coast to 1800 m of altitude. The high
morphologic variability of several phenotypic characters (leaves, branches and capitula)
complicates its taxonomy. Helichrysum has significant ecological and pharmacological
properties and there is a great interest for its potential uses. Even though significant
ecological and pharmacological properties have been attributed to the essential oils of
Helichrysum species, the taxonomy of this genus needs further investigation. In Sardinia
two endemic species have been clearly discriminated (H. montelinasanum Schmid and H.
saxatile Moris), however the identification of H. italicum (Roth) Don seems to be still a
controversial issue. H. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman is considered the most common
subspecies of H. italicum. A genetic approach was begun in this research to explore
evaluate and complete the study genetic variability and the evolutionary processes shaping
the genetic structure of the genus Helichrysum in Sardinia. About fifty locations were
selected to collect the corresponding native population samples, guided by the support of
Global Information System (GIS) at 1:25000 scale. Every population included 6 samples
randomly collected; information related to each population (habitat, altitude, UTM ED50,
soil, main species) was registered. Samples of cultivated plants are also analyzed. AFLP
(Amplified Fragments Length Polimorphysm) was used to valuate the genetic variability
among more then 300 Helichrysum italicum/microphyllum genotypes. Two AFLP primers
combinations were used to explore the variability of Sardinian genotypes. Preliminary data
suggest the presence of separated genetic groups. Further studies considering ecological
and pedological parameters will be performed to complement the phylogenetic and
molecular analysis of the Helichrysum italicum complex in Sardinia.
Key words: Ecological, gene, morphologic, variability.
7.8 Collection, Conservation and Use of some Medical and Spice Plants of Armenia
Margarita Harutyunyan, Alvina Avagyan, Marina Hovhannisyan
Armenian State Agrarian University, # 74 Teryan Str., Yerevan 0009, Armenia.
Abstract: Due to the landscape diversity and climate and relief characters the Armenian
flora existing on a territory of about 30 000 km2 is extremely rich in different species and
forms and comprises about 3,600 species of vascular plants, which makes about half of
entire Caucasian flora. The essential part of it is presented by medical plants that from the
ancient times helped human to win a victory over wounds, diseases and even senility. The
medicinal plants make more than 10% of Armenian flora, contain vitamins, valuable
organic acids, proteins, enzymes, microelements, etc. and therefore have been used by the
local population in folk medicine from the ancient times. About 50 species of medicinal
plants are the main active agents in folk medicine and used pure, as well as in different
mixtures, they are used both professional and amateur cookers as flavouring or even main
dishes. Most of these species is collected in nature or cultivated in small plantations.
Moreover according to preliminary assessment made by researchers theoretically about
800 species in the Armenian flora can be used as medicinal and aromatic plants. However
because of raised human impact, increased pests and diseases virulence, climate changes
and environmental disasters, as well as non regulated gathering from the nature many
populations of medicinal and spice plants are now threatened. The establishment of
monitoring systems, reliable conservation both in situ and ex situ and sustainable use of a
gene pool of local medicinal and spice plants are priority issues requiring feasible
solutions. In some extent the Laboratory of Plants Gene Pool and Breeding of the
Armenian State Agrarian University is dealing with these issues. Since it's establishing in
1981 the Laboratory is dealing with study of crops and their wild relatives and ex situ
conservation of cereals, grain-legumes, vegetables, medicinal and spice plants. The seed
collection missions are organized annually and aimed at precise definition of habitats,
identification of possible changes in populations composition and number as well as
collection of traditional knowledge of utilization of medicinal and spice plants of local
origin. Some data on existing accessories of medicinal and spice species are available
through European catalogue – EURISCO. Nowadays the most of the widely used
medicinal and aromatic plants are growing in natural ecosystem, but cannot be collected in
commercial quantities. Further activities in expansion of utilization of the medicinal plants
are aimed at creation appropriate conditions for their production in conventional or
Key words: Armenian flora, aromatic, medical, spice plants.
7.9 Sustainable Use and Conservation of some Endemic Medicinal Plant Species in
Mikatadze-Pantsulaia T., Barblishvili T., and Khutsishvili
Tbilisi Botanical Garden and Institute of Botany, 0105, Botanikuri street 1, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Abstract: Georgia‟s flora is estimated at 4,100 vascular plant species, one-fifth of which
are endemics. The country holds a great number of species of medicinal value, with over
700 species utilized in Georgian traditional medicine and 200 species registered in the
official pharmacopoeia. Hundreds of Georgian plant species are threatened with extinction
or serious genetic erosion. Many species of medicinal plants in Georgia are gathered from
the wild and in some cases are heavily exploited, potentially threatening their continued
existence in nature. This makes urgent the subject of development of methods for
cultivation of threatened medicinal plants. Structural aspects of seed fromation have been
investigated in 5 plant species of Georgian Flora: Cyclamen colchicum (Albov) Albov;
Dioscorea caucasica Lipsky; Paeonia caucasica (Schipez.) Schipez.; Gymnospermium
smirnowii (Trautv.) Takht.; Convallaria transcaucasica Utkin ex Grossh.; Helleborus
caucasicus A. Br.. Data on curative properties and uses of species under study are found in
the oldest Georgian and foreign written sources and medicinal books. Propagation
capacity of these species was evaluated. Ex-situ conservation works have been carried out.
Seed bank is created for species under study and seeds deposited at the Caucasus Regional
Seed Bank and the duplicates sent to the Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, UK. Seed collection, processing and deposition in seed bank was
performed using the techniques described in (Bowers B.G., Bowers B.G. 1998; Baskin F.
and Baskin. C., 2002). Collection of seedling of these species is created on the
experimental plot of the Department of Plant Conservation.
Key words: conservation, seed reproduction, germination, seed bank.
7.10 Economic Importance for The Production and Marketing of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants in Egypt
Mohamed Abdel Wahab Abu Nahoul
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt.
Abstract: Egypt is one of the oldest countries that produce medicinal and aromatic plants
in the world. The total area cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants in Egypt about 62.60
thousand acres, about 188 million pounds is the Egyptian exports value of these plants,
representing about 3.83% of the total Egyptian agricultural exports value in 2009. Given
the importance of the sector of medicinal and aromatic plants (herbs and spices) in Egypt,
will shed light in this lecture on ways to improve the marketing situation of the sector,
whether in Egypt or in the global markets and the most important European and the U.S
markets. The results of an analysis of the development of marketing to this important
sector in the Egyptian economy through the following: Study the production of medicinal
and aromatic plants in Egypt, study of the most important problems of the marketing
chain (quality and experience absent of the farmers and lack of awareness of farmers to
harvest the appropriate deadlines), review the problems related to post-harvest operations
(particularly drying, storage and screening), highlight the manufacturers sector (the
number of manufacturers in the sector, sizes, and their whereabouts as well as the
technology used in manufacturing and the types of products that are traded), and review
of the marketing chain to this sector (from the production process to the final consumer in
the domestic market and in global markets).
Key words: Economic, egypt, importance, marketing, medicinal plants.
7.11 Identification and Conservation of Important Plant areas for Medicinal,
Aromatic and Economic Plants in Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range.
Mohammad Al-Yemeni, Hassan Sher and Arif H. Shah
Department of Botany, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi
Abstract: A study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in
different ecologically and economically important sites in Hindukush-Himalaya Region of
Pakistan. IPAs are the most important places in the world to study wild plant diversity
which can only be managed on specific sites. Several such plants are used in traditional
medicine. Needless to say that traditional herbal medicine supported and till date it
provides basic healthcare to many more people worldwide, as compared to conventional
medicine. World Health Organization (WHO) launched global recommendations and
programs for global integration of herbal medicine in health care system. To achieve such
a goal, proper identification of medicinal plants, the conservation of sites where such
plants are grown naturally, is considered essential. In several countries, well planed
research projects, and official moves are part of contribution to Target-5 of the Global
Strategy for Plant Conservation. In current study, sites selection was made in Hindukush-
Himalaya mountain range where each site met the minimum requirements: (1).
Exceptional botanical richness for a biogeographic zone; (2). Presence of medicinal wildly
growing herbs with threatened species of global or regional concern, and (3). Presence of
threatened habitats with medicinal and economic importance. It is worth mentioning that,
the selected sites possessed: (i). Most valuable medicinal and economic plants for local
livelihood, (ii). Wild germplasm; (iii). Traditional knowledge about remedies and folklore
medicinal uses of plant species along with the understanding of their collection,
cultivation, management and conservation was available in the elderly tribal population of
different areas under study. WHO well documented that 80% population of Africa still use
medicinal plants in their primary health care? The popularity of herbal drugs in the Middle
East, Indo-Pak subcontinent, China, Japan, Europe, South America and in other developed
countries is increasing day by day. Scientific surveys already concluded that growth and
harvesting of medicinal plants are the main income source for different tribes living in
remote areas. However, commercial harvesting threatened the availability of more than
15000 medicinal plants and posed a serious problem as regards biodiversity conservation
issues are concerned. During current study, besides the complex natural interactions
between plants and other organisms, medicinal and aromatic plants, and their inter-
dependence under environmental severity, along with the knowledge of local inhabitants
and significance of landscape, was also taken into consideration for effective conservation.
The results of current investigations will be presented in detail.
Key words: Aromatic plants, conservation, himalaya, plant areas.
7.12 Medicinal Orchids of Bangladesh and their Conservation Status: Exploitation
Vs Reproductive Failure
Mohammed Kamrul Huda1, and C. C. Wilcock2
Department of Botany, University of Chittagong. Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh. 2School of Biological
Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
Abstract: Twenty six orchid species was found medicinally important and used by the
tribal people of Bangladesh to treat different diseases. Some of the medicinally important
orchid species has been investigated in different areas of Bangladesh to study the natural
fruiting success, effects of post pollination and pollinia removal as well as capsules
structure both in the field and Orchidarium of Chittagong University. Factors affecting
natural reproductive success of some medicinally important Orchids have been studied.
On the contrary, different exploitation processes were observed in the present study to find
out the possible reasons of rarity in the studied species. Natural fruiting success was found
not so satisfactory in the natural habitat especially in epiphytic orchids with compare to
terrestrial counterpart. Pollinia removal alone in emasculated flowers causes early floral
abscission in the most studied orchids reveal that orchid flowers shorten the life span after
losing pollinia as the flowers have been turned into male sterile. Some species were found
self incompatible in our study indicating the rarity of orchids. A comparative study on
capsules of orchids showed the variation in size and shape of capsules in different studied
orchids. Cross pollinated capsules were found larger and heavier than self and
geitenogamous pollinated capsules in the different orchid species proving their potentiality
to be diversified in the nature. Reproductive failure may be one of the major reasons for
the depletion of medicinally important orchid species in nature. However, collection of
orchids for its ornamental values, medicinal uses, research purposes and logging off the
host trees were found major reasons for losing the population as well as the diversity. So
natural reproductive failure and artificial exploitation of orchids make the situation more
complicated and seems as a competition which resulting the rarity of the orchid species.
Key words: Bangladesh, conservation, exploitation, medicinal orchids, reproductive.
7.13 Assessment of Plant Availability in the Commercial Markets for Medicinal
Plants and Plant Parts of Cairo (Egypt) Using Diversity Indices
Monier M. Abd El-Ghani & Rim S. Hamdy
The Herbarium, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
Abstract: An emergent trend in ethnobotanical studies has been the use of quantitative
methods to describe patterns of plant use and availability in surveys or assessments of
natural resources (Prance et al., 1987; Cunnighham, 2001), thereby allowing for a more
rigorous statistical approach to the discipline. Among the main benefits of this approach:
(1) greater depth to understand the subject, (2)a conscious attempt at reporting and
refining collecting methods, (3) ability to describe more precisely the results of surveys,
and (4) economy and description of patterns in the data. A relative increase in the
commercialization of medicinal plats in Egypt as well as in many other neighboring
countries is obvious, and resulted in over-harvesting and, in some cases, near extinction of
some valued indigenous species. Several factors have estimated the rise, including: (a) a
rapidly growing and urbanizing population, (b) the affordability, accessibility, and
acceptability of traditional medicine over western medicine, and (c) low level of formal
education especially in rural areas. These factors together have resulted in the commercial
exploitation of economically valuable plants by commercial gatherers to obtain an income.
The harvesting of medicinal plants was formerly the domain of trained traditional medical
practitioners, renowned for their skills as herbalists and diviners. With the advent of
urbanization and the consequent commercialization of traditional health care, however, the
demand for medicinal herbs has increased. As a result, harvesting has become the domain
of untrained, and often in different, commercial gatherers with no other income source.
This work is planned to identify the species being traded in Cairo markets, the plant parts
harvested, the suppliers of the plants, and the sources of supply. This study will attempt
also to broaden the spectrum of diversity indices to include measures of richness, evenness
and diversity with the goal to apply IUCN conservation measures for each medicinal plant.
Key Words: Diversity, egypt, quantitative ethnobotany, medicinal plants, survey.
7.14 Initial Assessment of Medicinal Plants Across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast
Mounir Louhaichi1, Amin Khatib Salkini1, Hasan Estita2, and Suliman Belkhir2
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo –
Syria. 2Agricultural Research Center (ARC) – Libya.
Abstract: The Libyan Mediterranean Coast is characterized by its rich biodiversity. These
natural resources constitute a source of income for many poor rural people. Several multi-
purposes plants are used for extraction of essential oils for cosmetic and pharmaceutical
uses, honey-bees pasture, ornament, feed, food, etc. However, this biodiversity and
particularly major medicinal plants are in danger of extinction, which is due to a
combination of many factors including global climate change, overgrazing, uprooting and
wood cutting. To address these concerns, it was necessary to set some goals for the
mitigation of the Libyan Coast biodiversity depletion. Amongst the anticipated activities
1) Ex-situ conservation of important plant genetic resources in the national genebank, 2)
establishment of field genebank in the two major agro-ecological zones and 3)
conservation of each specimen in the national herbarium. In collaboration with ICARDA,
ARC Libya has conducted collection missions for inventorying and collecting seeds of
multi-purpose plant species. The field visits took place during the spring/summer 2010
where 26 sites across the Western and Eastern coast areas of Libya, which cover a wide
range of geographical areas and ecosystems including mountain areas (Jabal Gharbi and
Jabal Akhdar), valleys, plains, protected areas, salty lake reserve (Al Hesha) and road
sides were surveyed. During the collection mission, a total of 133 species belonging to 30
families were recorded. The most dominant family was Chenopodiaceae (27%), followed
by Fabaceae (14%). Only 27 species with pharmaceutical benefits were encountered.
Among the medicinal plant Fabaceae and Lamiaceae families were more prevailing with
30% and 12% respectively. Major medicinal plants were classified into three classes
depending on their life form and aspects of uses. For instance, trees such as pods and roots
of Acacia tortilis are used to treat skin infections, allergic dermatomes and as a vermifuge;
Parkinsonia aculeata is used as an antipyretic and to treat diabetics; pods of Ceratonia
siliqua are used as a laxative and have demulcent qualities. Leaves and flowering tops of
Coridothymus capitatus are used as a bronchoantispasmodic and to treat asthma. Other
herbs such as Datura inoxia is used as an antispasmodic, narcotic and hypnotic. Seeds of
Citrullus colocynthis incite abortion, and are used as a laxative and vermifuge. Leaves and
flowers of Marrubium alysson are used for colds, coughs and asthma. Nevertheless,
further steps are needed to enhance the capacity building toward the conservation of this
biodiversity. First a comprehensive inventory and mapping of all potential medicinal
plants in Libya and their status should be maintained up-to-date. Decision makers should
develop clear policies for the protection/conservation, production, transportation and
marketing of medicinal plants. In particular a national program for seed collection and
conservation of key medicinal plants in the national genebank should be based on
scientific standards. Furthermore, medicinal plants that are commonly used by the poor
rural communities to improve their livelihood should be given a high priority.
Key words: Assessment, libya, medicinal plants.
7.15 Review on the Most Important Medicinal Plants that Present in Wadi Araba
Desert South West Jordan
Nawash, Oraib Saleh
Higher Council for Science and Technology, PO Box 36, 11941 Amman-Jordan.
Abstract: This paper reviews the most important medicinal plants present in the desert of
Wadi Araba in South-West Jordan. The flora in this area was investigated by many
botanist and plant ecologist but the analysis of the medicinal and economical value of
those plants is still lacking. Many of those plants are also common in the deserts of other
neighboring countries such as Arabic gulf countries, Egypt, Palestine and Sudan. From
those medicinal plants are: Calligonum comosum, Artemisia judiaca, Moringa peregrina,
Ochradenus baccatus, and Salvadora persica. Most of those species are still used by the
local inhabitants however; the traditional and indigenous knowledge of the medical
utilization of those plants is poorly recorded and is suffering from dramatic erosion
besides the biological erosion. Consequently, further investigations regarding the value of
native medicinal plants and the documentation of its traditional ethnopharmacological
knowledge is an indispensible priority in Wadi Araba in particular and in the Arabic world
in general. The aim of this review is to gather information about scientific literature
concerning the indigenous knowledge of the most important medicinal plants that present
in Wadi Araba fragile desert ecosystem in order to; (1) draw attention of the share holders
in the pharmaceutical industry in Jordan and beyond about the important medical values
of those plants (2): emphasize the importance of documenting the ethnopharmacological
knowledge as a part of the cultural heritage and (3) preserve the biological diversity from
Key words: Wadi Araba, medicinal plants, genetic erosion, indigenous knowledge,
7.16 Medicinal Plants Diversity in the Flora of Langaroud of Iran
Seighali N.,2Ghomi M., 3Zaker S., 4Ramezanighara M. ,5Karimi P.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University ,Parand branch, Parand ,2,3
Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University ,Parand branch , Parand , Tehran..4 Department of
chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University,Parand Islamshar, islamshahr, Iran.5Department of
Enviroment, Maysore University,Maysore, India.
Abstract: A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with the seven families, viz., Asteraceae,
Poaceae , Fabaceae, Brassicaceae , Rosaceae,Lamiaceae and Apiaceae as an initial study.
These families are represented in the flora with 157 species (i.e. 48% of the total species),
and individually with 37, 33, 22, 19,17,16 and 13 species respectively. Of these, 72
species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows:
22, 5, 8,7,15, 9 and 6 respectively. The Asteraceae has the highest number (22) of
medicinal plants among them. The medicinal properties and uses of each species are cited.
This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation
priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Iran.
Key words: Diversity, medicinal plants, flora, conservation, Iran.
7.17 Threatened Ethnomedicinal Plants of South Africa: Red-Listed Species,
Conservation „Hot Spots‟ and the Impact of Harvesting
School of Animal Plant & Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits,
2050, South Africa.
Abstract: Ten percent of South Africa‟s indigenous flora are known to be used for
traditional medicine, and 3% are regularly traded in large traditional medicine markets in
urban areas such as Durban and Johannesburg. Unsustainable harvesting practices have
resulted in notable declines in the abundance and distribution of many species, and 4% of
the country‟s flora are threatened with extinction as a result of exploitation for the
extensive, commercial, cross-border trade in traditional medicine. A further 2% of species
are of conservation concern. The threats to species used for traditional medicine were
recently evaluated and completed as part of South Africa‟s landmark publication the “Red
List of South African Plants, 2009” – an assessment 20,456 plant taxa according to 2001
IUCN Red List criteria. The threatened medicinal plants include 14 Critically Endangered,
18 Endangered and 48 Vulnerable species. Two species are already extinct in the wild,
including Encephalartos woodii. Medicinal plants are challenging to assess according to
IUCN Red List criteria because many popularly traded species are widespread, occur in
hundreds of locations, and thus don‟t qualify as threatened using the restricted-range
criteria. Therefore, most medicinal species could only be assessed using the population
decline criterion, however these information are rarely published, difficult to obtain and
mostly sourced via personal communications with knowledgeable experts. Several
conservation „hot spots‟ were identified during the course of the research, namely areas in
South Africa that have the most number of threatened medicinal plants. There is a trend
towards more vulnerable species being restricted to a band along the eastern coastline of
South Africa, whereas less vulnerable species extend from the coast to the interior of the
Key words: Ethnomedicinal, harvesting, plants, threatened, south africa, species.
7.18 The Biological Properties of Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus) Grown in the
Ecological Conditions of Gasiantep, Turkey
Yusif ZEYNALOV1 and Ali ÖZKAN2
The Botanical Garden of Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality. 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts
and Sciences, Kilis 7 Aralik University, Kilis, 79000.
Abstract: Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial plant which belongs to the
Asteraceae family and 50- 180 cm in height. It grows wild in Southern Europe and the
Mediterranean region. Its leaves are long and partial in many parts and blue-purple in
color. It has a virgate stem and it is hairy. It has pharmaceutical importance regarding that
it contains a huge amount of vitamin A and B and it roles as a solvent for liver diseases,
dissolving the harmful fat in the human body as well as preventing cirrhosis. Artichoke
has being produced in Gaziantep since 2001. Its seeds are sown in the months of January
and February. It has 99 % germination ability and the seedlings germinated from the seeds
bloom abundantly until the 25th of May and the end of June. After the flowers fully open,
the seeds become completely mature in the following 1, 5 months. Artichoke is not
affected by the bitter cold in Gaziantep. Artichoke preserves its green color. Therefore, it
is widely used for landscaping. Artichoke can be utilized both cultivated and planted in the
extensive lands in the pharmaceutical and food industries. At the same time, it is important
in feeding animals during the winter and summer seasons, of which there is a lack of
nutrients. In this respect, artichoke is one of our important plants.
Key words: Artichoke, Cynara scolymus, cirrhosis, liver diseases.
7.19 The Effect of Esential Oil of Saccocalyx satureioides Coss. et Dur On the Growth
of Ascochyta rabiei and the Production of Solanapyrone A
ZERROUG, M.M1. and LAOUER, H2.
Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biologie, University of Sétif, 19000, Sétif,
Algeria.2Laboratory of Valorisation of Natural Products, Department of Biology, University of Sétif, 19000,
Abstract: Essential oils represent very complex mixtures of compounds, mainly
monoterpenes and sequeterpenes. Although in some plant species one main constituent of
the oil may predominate, in many no single compound predominates and instead, there is a
balance of various components. Essential oils are known to; possess a variety of biological
properties including antimicrobial activity. Most of the work on the antimicrobial effects
of essential oils has been performed on human pathogens, spoilage micro-organisms, and
dermathophytes, with very little research on phytopathogenic micro-organism. In this
study the effect of and Saccocalyx satureioides essential oils was test against the growth of
Ascochyta rabiei and the production of solanapyrone A by the fungus. The essential oil
was extracted by water distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The oil was first dissolved
in water containing tween 80 (10% v/v) at a solution concentration of 10 % (w/v). two ml
of this solution was added to 28 ml of CDCLM medium and a series of dilution was
made, form 0.6% (6 mg/ml) to 0.01875 % (0.1875 mg/ml) with three replicates for each
dilution. The medium was inoculated with 30 l solution (107 spores /ml) of Tk21 isolates
and incubated at 20 C for 14 days. After incubation, the dry weight was obtained by
filtering the mycelium through four layer of muslin and dry at 70°C four for 72 h. The
culture filtrate of the fungus was partitioned three times with 1/3rd volume ethyl acetate,
and taken to dryness on a rotary evaporator at 35 C. The residue was dissolved in 2 ml
methanol and analysed by analytical high performance liquid chromatography. After 14
days the mycelium was collected and the dry weight measured. A. rabiei did not grow at a
final concentration of 6 and 3 mg/ml, at 1.5 mg/ml and 0.625ml there was little growth of
the fungus with a dry weight of 8 mg and 42 mg respectively compared to the control with
519 mg dry weight, but there was no solanapyrone A produced.
Key words: Antifungal activity, Ascochyta rabiei, essential oil, Saccocalyx satureioides.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 8: Industrial utilization of medicinal plants.
8.1 Study the Possibility of Using Jojoba Oil as a Fuel Enhancer
Al Kadhem Niyaf N., Al Samerraei Khulood W., AlDoori Zainab K., Al Dulaimy
Ahmed and Abbasi Noor N.
Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University.
Abstract: Jojoba (Simmondsia) seeds were collected from the plant cultivated in Iraq. Oil
of Jojoba was extracted by mechanical method in Biotechnology Research Center (Al
Nahrain University). Separatory the oil was mixed with ethanol in a step for preparation of
biofuel. After the separation by extracted funnel, gas oil was added in different ratios :(
0:100, 40:60, 60:40, 100:0) Jojoba oil : gas oil ratio , to achieve the combustion process.
After estimation of pollutant produced from the oil combusted in an (engine 2.5 HP)m
using gas analyzer the results showed decrease in the percentage of atmosphere pollutant
(including :Co,H2S, So2 …etc) to 50% in a ratio 40:60 Jojoba oil: gas oil, the other
important results using scanning electron microscope, examining the filter papers that
exposed to the combustion pollutant is the fibers that were deformed and denatured in
Key words: Fuel enhancer, jojoba oil.
8.2 Producing of Date Paste (phoenix dactylifera L) with Powder from Three
Aromatic Plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum), Common Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
and Anise (Pimpinella anisum ): Physicochemical Characteristics of Date Paste
Amina Hasnaoui1, Mohammed Aziz Elhoumaizi1, Abdeslam Asehraou1, Souhail
Besbes2, and Hamadi Attia2
Laboratoire de Biologie des Plantes et des Microorganismes, Université Mohamed 1er Oujda
MAROC.2Unité Analyses Alimentaires, Département de Biologie, Ecole Nationale d‟Ingénieurs de Sfax,
Abstract: In morocco, the date palm (phoenix dactylifera L) constitutes an important part
of the Sahara environnement since it plays an important role in the protection of interplant
cropping systems and stabilization of the ecological system. In addition to human
consumption and animal feeding, the date palm assures a wide range of utilization
products. Most of the premium quality dates are either consumed fresh or in ripened form.
Several efforts have been made to identify alternatives uses of low quality dates such as
date syrup date jam, vineagre, date past etc.This study attemped to produce a date paste
with the addition of powder of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum) ,common fennel (
Foeniculum vulgare) and anise seeds( Pimpinella anisum) to add value of second-grade
dates(with a hard texture and small caliber) from Aziza bouzid date palm cultivar,
growth in Figuig oasis of Morocco. Dates have been cleaned, steamed, destined,
macerated and 5% (5g / 100g of date paste) of fennel powder, 5% of anise
powder and 5% of sesame powder were added to convert the components to
semi - solid form known as paste with approximately 20% moisture content and a water
activity below 0.60. Results showed that "date paste could be considered as a potential
source of sugar but also of fibre and phenolic compounds which have many health
benefits. The addition of these three plants has improved the organoleptic quality and
texture of the date paste which presented a higher overall acceptability compared with
common date paste. These results revealed essential information that could promote the
commercialization of date past.
Key words: Anise, chemical composition, date paste, sesam, fennel.
8.3 A Study of Dispersion of Medical Species in Filter-Packages
Kyslychenko O.A., Bondarenko A.S., Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V.
National University of Pharmacy.
Abstract: Development and introduction of remedies on the basis of domestic plant raw
material is the actual task of pharmaceutical science. Technology of phytoteas includes a
few stages, each of which differs the row of features and needs scientific ground. It
includes such aspects as, for example, the degree of grinding down the plant raw material,
duration of interfusion of multicomponent vegetable mixtures. That is important because
the ground up particles of plants have a different size, form, specific mass, density, and
hereupon, ability to stratification. We studied dispersion of more than 30 types of plant
raw material which is planned to the issue in filter-packages, different morphological
groups of raw material: leaves, herbs, flowers, fruits, bark and underground organs. The
conducted researches showed that correlation of stems, leaves and flowers in fractions of
herbs which are studied, differs for different plants. It is connected, first of all, with
morphologo-microscopical description of plants (tomentose, sizes of leaf plate, by
character of inflorescence and structure of flower et cetera). In vegetable objects,
correlation of stems, leaves and flowers is in direct ratio to the size of particles: with the
increase of dispersion of raw material maintenance of stems (it is much more difficult to
reduce them to fragments) diminish and maintenance of leaves and flowers, which mainly
contain bioactive substances, is increased. But there are species of medical plants which
do not submit this conformity to the law. So, the grass of yarrow in all of factions is
presented mainly stems, that is related to the presence at this plant of thick, branching stem
and small foliage by the size, and similarly shallow (not more than 5 mm), numerous
small baskets of the stems collected on an apex in a compound corymb. At the increase of
dispersion of leaves and flowers the exit of bioactive matters from them is increased, that,
in same queue, influences quality of water extractions which were got from this type of
raw material. For a morphological group of herbs it was set that with the increase of
grinding down rises at factions percentage of flowers and leaves and maintenance of stems
goes down. It is set that in filter-packages dominant fractions for a grass are parts of raw
material with a size of 2,0-0,5 mm; for a bark are 2,0-1,0 mm; for fruits are 2,0-0,5 mm,
rhizomes with roots are 2,0-1,0 mm.
Key words: Filter-Packages, foliage, leaves, medical plants, stems.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 9: Medicinal plants in ethno-veterinary practice and animal nutrition.
9.1 Comparison study of Measurement of Sheep Meat Tenderness Fed on Medicinal
Plants by a Device Manufactured Locally with Chemical, Physical and Sensory
Abdulrazzak A.Jasim1, 2Amera M.S. Al-Rubeii, and 1Muddaffer K.Abdulla
Mechanized Agriculture Department, 2Animal Production Department Agriculture College, Baghdad
Abstract: Equipment used to measure meat tenderness was designed and manufactured
similar to Warner_Bratzler shear force devices .This device measures meat sample strips
(10*1.3 cm cross-section) shear force with stenless steel blade at shear angles 10° .This
blade moves by hydraulic pressure on longitudinal axis of the meat sample. Units of
measurement appear as kilo paskal (Kg/cm2) on gradually scale. Many measurements have
been taken: chemical measurements such as, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), protein
solubility of myofibril and collagen contain. And some physical measurements such as,
fragmentation index (FI), and fiber diameter. As well as, sensory evaluation (flavor,
juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptance) for samples. Two types of sheep meat were
used: Inferaspinatus and Semimembranosus muscles from sheep feeds on medicinal
plants: Nigell Sativa and Rosemary as comparing with control diet. Show the comparative
effects in meat tenderness, and the measurement accuracy of the device. The results were
showed appositive correlation between the chemical, physical and sensing tests with the
shearing force measured by the device. The meat from sheep feeds on medicinal plants:
Nigell Sativa and Rosemary more tender than meat control diet.
Key words: The device used to measure meat tenderness, sheep meat, and medicinal
plants chemical, physical and sensing tests.
9.2 Effect of Nigella Sativa Supplementation and Different Levels of Rume
Degradable Nitrogen on Quality Characteristics of Karadi Lambs Meat
Amera M. S. Al–Rubeii, Shaker A.Hassan, M.J.H. Al–Tamemmy
Dept. of Anim. Res., College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad , Baghdad , Iraq.
Abstract: Twenty four individual Karadi male lambs were used , they were 7 months old
Their average weight was 34.70 kg , lambs divided into 6 groups , 4 lambs to group (T1-
T6) , The diets were formulated to be given 60% feed concentrate and 40% barley straw
treated with NaOH ( 60% concentrate : 40% roughage ratio ) , This experiment were used
to investigated the effect of two levels of NIGELLA SATIVA (NS) (0 and 7.5 g / kg dry
matter) and three levels of RUMEN DEGRADABLE NITROGEN (RDN) (1.0 , 1.3 and
1.6 g / MJ of ME) on the quality characteristics of meat of their carcasses . Lambs were
slaughtered after 9 weeks, then carcasses chilled were for 24 h at 2 cº . After that, several
measured were taken in including: quantity and quality characteristics of meat of their
carcasses such as: The chemical analysis of leg, water holding capacity (WHC), pH,
physiological fragmentation index (FI) thiobarbituric acid(TBA) , myoglobin
concentration , cooking loss and thaw loss percentage, total plate count (TBC)and sensory
evaluation characteristics of Longissimus Dorsi . Results could be summarized as follows:
NS significantly increased percentages of moisture , protein , ash and reduced fat
percentage of leg's meat. Occurrence improved in water holding capacity (WHC%)
consorted with decreased of Fragmentation index (FI%) and increased volume of filter
Water by addition of NS and increased level of RDN and this was reversed on improved
of tenderness. NS supplementation and high level of RDN reduced Thiobarbituric Acid
(TBA) , and NS supplementation was reduced Total Plate Count (TBC). NS
supplementation and level of RDN Improved the sensory evaluation characteristics of LD.
Iinteraction between NS and RDN significantly improved many characteristics in this
experiment. We can be concluded from this study that using Nigella Sativa with different
levels from Rumen degradable nitrogen were improved the quality characteristics of their
carcasses from Karadi lambs.
Key words: Nigella Sativa, Lamb, meat, rumen degradable nitrogen.
9.3 Ethnopharmacological Application of Medicinal Plants Against Veterinary
Arshad Mehmood Abbasi*, Mir Ajab Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad and Muhammad
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: Present investigation was conducted to document ethno pharmacological
application of medicinal plants against veterinary ailments in remote areas of Pakistan
including Indo-Pak, Pak-Afghanistan, Pak-China, and Pak-Iran borders. Semi-structured
interviews and observation were used to collect data from traditional veterinary healers
residing in these remote sites. Eighty seven medicinal plant species belonging to 46
families were recorded for their applications against veterinary diseases. All plant species
were indigenous to the study areas. Dysentery, diarrhea, indigestion, gas trouble,
constipation, colic, worms, ulcer, wounds, scabies, sores, infections of mouth, throat,
lungs, foot, hooves; fever, cough, lactation, unequal memory glands, weakness, mastitis,
arthritis and urethra prolepsis were frequently reported veterinary ailments. Forty one
plant species were reported in more than two conditions. Commonly used routes of drug
administration were oral and dermal. Validation of these ethno veterinary practices for
their quality, efficacy and standardization of doses and screening for active substances that
may lead to the discovery of some new, safer and cost effective medicines.
Key words: Ethnopharmacological application, medicinal plants, veterinary ailments.
9.4 Secondary Metabolites of Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus
MAXIM.) and their effect on Biochemical Parameters of Poultry
Blascakova, M., Poracova, J.
Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University, 01, 17 th November Street, 081 16
Abstract: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) is one of the
promising medicinal plants. It is significant for its secondary metabolites, called glycosides – eleuterosides.
Secondary metabolites (eleuterozid B, C, D, syringaresinol, sesamin), contained in the plant
possess a wide range of beneficial effects on human organism and animals. Eleutherococcus senticosus
MAXIM. has antioxidant, antiglycemic, anti-stress, antibacterial, immunostimulating effects, it has also the
ability to reduce insulin levels, it has an inhibitory effect against free radicals. In the model experiment
(8 weeks) we observed the impact of dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the level of
triglycerides and cholesterol in blood serum of laying hens Hisex braun hybrid. In the model
experiment 15 pieces of laying hens of Hisex Braun hybrid were included. Laying hens were divided into
three groups - control group (CG = 5 pcs), I. experimental group (EGI = 5 pc), in which the extract of
Eleutherococcus senticosus was added (eleuteroside B 0.71% 1.14% eleuteroside E, the extraction
agent 30% ethanol) at a concentration of 0.1% / kg, II. Experimental group (EGII = 5 pc) in which the
extract was added at a concentration of 0.5% / kg. Observed parameters (triacylglycerol and cholesterol) in
blood serum were determined before the administration of the extract (1 st measurement), after 4th week (2nd
measurement) and after 8th week experiment (3rd measurement). Laying hens were kept in three storey
battery cage and fed with a feed mixture HYD - 06 until 3rd week of experiment, from 4th week of
experiment hens were fed with a mixture HYD – 10. Feed and water were available ad libitum.
Low-molecular substances - triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the blood serum of poultry were determined
using automatic analyzer ADVIA 1200 (Siemens, Germany). The achieved data were processed by computer
program MS Excel 2003. Individual parameters were evaluated using non-parametric analysis of variance -
Kruskal - Wallis test. To find the differences we used the Dunn test in program UNISTAT version 4.53h
anad Statistica v. 6. In the statistical evaluation of triglycerides using the Kruskal - Wallis test we found
significant changes (p <0.05) between control and I. experimental group (12.823 mmol. L-1, 5.518 mmol. l-
1) where a decrease of values in I. experimental group was observed . Other significant changes (p <0.05)
were monitored between I. and II. Experimental group in 2nd measurement (5.518 mmol.l-, 11.388 mmol. l-
1), where we observed an increase in levels of values in II. Experimental group in which more extract of
Eleutherococcus senticosus was administrated. Also significant changes (p <0.05) between control group
and II. Experimental group in 3rd measurement were monitored (15.032 mmol. L-1, 11.338 mmol. L-1), the
decrease in values in II. Experimental group was found. . We assume that the longer duration of experiment
will lead to significantly higher statistical importance of triglycerides and cholesterol in laying hens with a
dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus of a dose higher than 0.5% / kg.
Acknowledgements:This research is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education
SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120023
Key words: Biochemical, metabolites, parameters, poultry, siberian.
9.5 Herbal Extracts and their Effect on Production Parameters of Poultry
Blascakova, M.1, Poracova, J.1, Zahatnanska, M.2, Mydlar, J.
Excellence Centre of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University, 01, 17 th November Street, 081 16
Presov, Slovakia, 2 Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Department of
Education, 01, 1 Novem7th ber Street, 081 16 Presov, Slovakia.
Abstract: Herbal extracts and essential oils are suitable and promising sources in
production of healthy food of animal origin. Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM. and
Matricaria recutita L. belong to the natural antimicrobial substances which affect against
exhaustion, stress; have hypoglycemic, immunomodulating, antibacterial and
antiflammatory effects. Significant antiflammatory effects of Matricaria recutita L.
conditioned by chamazulen and α- bisabolol accelerate the treatment of inflammatory diseases
of the mouth, throat, skin and mucous membranes. In the model experiment (8 weeks) we focused on the
influence of herbal extract (Eleutherococcus senticosus MAXIM.) and essential oil (Matricaria
recutita L.) on the eggs of 32 Hisex Braun hybrid laying hens,which were kept in three storey battery
cage and divided into three groups. In first model experiment laying hens were divided into control group
(CG1 = 5 pc) and experimental group (EG1 = 5 pc) in which dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus
(eleuteroside B 0.71% 1.14% eleuteroside E, the extraction agent 30% ethanol) was administrated at a
concentration of 0.1% / kg. In the second experiment laying hens were divided into control group (CG2 = 8
units) and experimental group (EG2 = 8 pieces) in which essential oil of German chamomile was applied
into feed mixture (bisabololoxid A, B and bisabololoxid bisabolonoxid to 3% farnesen 43 ± 2% , bisabolol
20 ± 1% chamazulen 4.6 ± 0.2%) at a concentration of 0.1% / kg. To 3 rd week of experiment laying hens
were fed a feed mixture HYD - 06. From 4th week of experiment laying hens were fed a mixture of HYD -
10. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Laying of eggs was monitored daily in both experiments. The
achieved data were processed using program MS Excel 2003. Individual parameters were evaluated using
nonparametric analysis of variance. For statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test in program
Statistica v. 6. was used. Administration of dry extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus and essential
oil of German chamomile into feed mixtures had no effect on laying of eggs of hens. Statistical significance
between control and experimental groups were not confirmed in the experiments. We assume that the reason
was a short period of experiment (8 weeks) or low concentration of extract and essential oil (0.1% / kg) in
feed mixtures. The aim of our work was to reveal the effects of two plants (Eleuterococcus senticosus
MAXIM., Matricaria recutita L.) which encourange appetite, do not endanger health, enhance
the immune system and antimicrobial system of poultry.
Acknowledgements:This research is supported by the Agency of Ministry of Education
SR for the Structural Funds of the EU, the project: ITMS 26220120023.
Key words: Hens, herbal, extracts, laying poultry.
9.6 Effects of Supplementation Gibberllic acid ,Vitamin D3 , Fennel Seeds to Diet of
Aged Laying hens on some Productive and Physiological Parameters
Dhia Khalil Ibrahim,2 Waleed M. Razuki, 1Hala Abdul- Hameed Mousa Ali
Animal Resources Dept. College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad2 Agriculture Research -Ministry of
Abstract: Large economic lost occurs each year with fewer eggs production, poor egg
quality (soft shells or shell-less eggs ) and impaired skeletal integrity of aged laying hens .
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of supplementing
Gibberellic Acid (GA3), Vitamin D3 (D3), GA3 + D3 and Fennel seeds (FS) to aged laying
hens diets on some productive and physiological parameters . Four hundred and fifty
Lohman Brown laying hens at 73 weeks of age were used. Hens were randomly assigned
to five treatments (T1-T5) and each treatment contained three replicates (30 hens/replicate).
The experiment was included two periods: the first period was continuous for 8 weeks
(73-80) weeks, hens fed diet (contain 15.1% crude protein and 2800 Kcal ME/ Kg diet .
The treatments as follow: T1 control , birds fed diet without supplementation , T2 birds fed
diet supplemented with 40 mg GA3/ kg diet , T3 birds fed diet supplemented with 500 IU
D3 / kg diet , T4 birds fed diet supplemented with 40 mg GA3+ 500 IU D3 / kg diet and T5
birds fed diet supplemented with 0.3% FS , and the second period of experiment
(recovery period) all the hens fed control diets T1 for 4 weeks. The results revealed that
average egg production percentage (H.D%), were increased significantly, ( p<0.05) in T3
in some treatment periods and recovery periods whereas, T5 increased only in recovery
periods compared with T1. There were significant increase in relative egg shell and shell
thickness in T2,T3,T4,T5 in most treatment and recovery periods compared with
T1,whereas yolk cholesterol reduced significantly in T3,T4,T5 during treatment periods
compared with T1, meanwhile there were a significant (P<0.05) increase in calcium,
phosphors , estradiol hormone level in blood serum of hens of treatments T2,T3,T4
compared with control group T1 at the end of recovery periods for calcium and phosphors
and at the end of treatment periods for estradiol hormone. The supplementation of
GA3(T2) , D3(T3) ,GA3 + D3 (T4) and Fennel seeds (T5) to diet caused a significant
increase in level of protein blood serum in T4,T5 at the end of treatment periods and
glucose level in T2,T3, while there was a significant decrease in cholesterol level in T3,
T4,T5 at the end of treatment periods compared with T1 , whereas albumin level was not
affected in treatments groups. There were a significant increase in tibia calcium content in
T2, T3, T4 and calcium retention in T3, T4 at the end of the recovery period in compared
with T1. We can concluded that there were some improvement in some productive and
physiological parameters especially eggs shell percentage and thickness, calcium retention
and calcium contain in tibia bone and estradiol hormone as a results of supplementation
GA3,D3,GA3+D3 , Fennel seeds to diets of aged laying hens.
Key words: Calcium, gibberllic acid, fennel seed, hens.
9.7 In Vivo and In Vitro Studies Related to Antibacterial and Antiviral Effects of
Mentofin® Essential Oils
Elie K. Barbour, Rindala G. El-Hakim, and Ryan H. Yaghi
Dept. of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences
American University of Beirut, Beirut-Lebanon.
Abstract: Two objectives are included in this study. The first objective of this work is to
evaluate the impact of eucalyptus and peppermint essential oils (Mentofin®) in the
protection of the respiratory system of broilers against controlled challenges by
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and/or avian influenza virus H9N2. Seventy 1-day-old
broilers were reared in 7 groups (10 birds/group) up to 1 week of age. Group 1 was the
control (nontreated with Mentofin and unchallenged); challenged groups were Group 2
(non-treated with Mentofin and MG challenged), Group 3 (Mentofin treated and MG
challenged), Group 4 (non-treated with Mentofin and H9N2 challenged), Group 5
(Mentofin treated and H9N2 challenged), Group 6 (non-treated with Mentofin and
MG/H9N2 challenged), and Group 7 (Mentofin treated and MG/H9N2 challenged). At 1
week of age, an intratracheal challenge of the birds with MG (2 hemagglutination units/0.5
mL/bird) and/or H9N2 (2 hemagglutination units/0.5 mL/bird) was given to specific
groups mentioned previously. Essential oils of Mentofin were administered for 6 days,
effective 1 day post-challenge. Histopathological observations were concluded at 6 days
post-challenge and revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in microscopic tissue
lesions of birds treated with Mentofin in comparison to birds deprived from this treatment
but challenged similarly. The significant (P < 0.05) reduction in microscopic lesions
included a decrease in tracheal deciliation in MG- and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a
decrease in mucosal hypertrophy in MG-, H9N2-, and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a
decrease in goblet cell degeneration in MG and MG/H9N2-challenged birds, a decrease in
mucus accumulation in MG-challenged birds, and a decrease in heterophil infiltration in
MG/H9N2-challenged birds. The second objective of this research is to determine the
safety and virucidal activity of different levels of Eucalyptus-peppermint essential oil
(Mentofin ®) against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) in
presence and absence of 1 % skim milk. All five concentrations of Mentofin® (2.78x10-3,
2.78x10-2, 2.78x10-1, 2.78, 13.9, and 27.8%) were safe when administered in 0.1 ml/chick
embryo, resulting in 100% survival of embryoes. The virucidal activity against AIV
started at the Mentofin® concentration of 2.78x10-1 % and 30 minutes contact time at
room temperature, only in the absence of skim milk. The complete virucidal activity in
presence and absence of skim milk, against AIV and NDV occurred at the 2.78%, and
13.9%, respective concentration of Mentofin®, using the 30 minutes-contact time. The
need for a higher concentration of essential oil to inactivate the NDV (13.9%) in
comparison to a lower concentration needed to inactivate the AIV (2.78%) is discussed at
the level of differences in the structure of the two viruses.
Key words: Antibacterial, antiviral, essential oils, mentofin®, vivo, vitro.
9.8 The Effect of Supplementation Different Levels of Anise (Pimipnella anisum)
Seeds to Diet on Layer Performance
Firas .M.Al-Kilani and Sinbul .J.Hamoudi
Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agric -Baghdad University.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at poultry station, State Board of Agriculture
research, Ministry of Agriculture, to study the effect of supplemental Anise seeds to the
laying hens diet. A total of 480 white Hy-Line laying hens 30 weeks old were used in this
study from 4/12/2007 to 1/7/2008 they were randomly distributed to 4 treatment . Anise
seeds were supplemented at levels of 0.2 , 0.4 and 0.6 % and compared with the control
group for 210 days .The result showed a significant (p> 0.05 ) increase in egg production
percentage ; accumulative egg number , egg weight. Egg mass, feed conversion ratio and
egg interior quality. The result showed also a significant (p>0.05) decrease in mortality
and E.coli. Staphylococci in intestines and colon, in Anise seeds group compared with the
Key words: Anise, layer performance, seed.
9.9 Updating the Italian databank on Ethnoveterinary Medicine
L. Viegi, R. Vangelisti
Department of Biology, Botany Unit, Via L. Ghini, 5, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
Abstract: Folk veterinary practices are well known throughout the world and played an
important role in Italian agricultural society in the 19th and 20th centuries (many herbs
were used to treat sheep, cattle and pigs). Some ethnoveterinary plants are still used in
Italy in several rural areas. Here we provide additional information on traditional
veterinary practices in Italy, obtained by examining all references on folk remedies for
animal care appearing in the literature since 2003. In our previous paper we gathered
information on more than 280 plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine (256 species and 71
families). We have now identified more than 580 plants (different taxa: species, subsp.,
var., and undetermined species), corresponding to 535 species, belonging to 98 families
including Fungi, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae. The family with the
most medicinal plants is still Asteraceae (11%), followed by Lamiaceae (7.6%), Fabaceae
(7.4%), Poaceae (6%), Apiaceae (5.1%), Liliaceae (4.6%), Rosaceae (4%) and
Ranunculaceae (3.7%). We confirmed the preponderance of Asteraceae reported in folk
botanical literature. Therapeutic uses recorded in the census accounted for more than 60%
of all uses; prophylactic uses exceeded 7%. Some plants were used for ichthyotoxic (6%)
and others for magic (1.46%) purposes. Internal and external uses accounted for 60% and
34%, respectively. In detail, plants were exploited for the following properties, in
decreasing order of frequency: as regulators of reproductive function (e.g. Alchemilla sp.,
Hedera helix, Helleborus viridis), digestives (e.g. Allium sativum,, Cytisus scoparius,
Sambucus sp.), antibacterial/disinfectant (e.g. Nicotiana tabacum, Urginea maritima,
Valeriana officinalis), anti-inflammatory (e.g. Arum italicum, Linum usitatissimum,
Malva neglecta, M. sylvestris), antiparasitics/antihelminthics (e.g. Colchicum autumnale,
Delphinium consolida, Veratrum album /Arthemisia absinthium, Calamintha nepeta, Ruta
angustifolia), vulneraries (e.g. Helleborus lividus subsp. corsicus, Hypericum perforatum,
Malva parviflora), ichthyotoxics (e.g. Anthirrinum majus, Euonymus europaeus, Teucrium
chamaedrys), repellents (e.g. Cestrum parqui, Euphorbia helioscopia, Helichrysum
italicum), and so forth. Herbal remedies used for hundreds of years by people in Italy, as
well as in the rest of the world, can be put to commercial use, but traditional knowledge
should be validated, to verify the safety and efficacy of the treatments.
Key words: Databank, ethnoveterinary, medicine.
9.10 The Effect of Supplementation Different Levels of (Thymus vulgris L.) to the
Diet on Layer Performance
Luma.K.Bander , Sunbil .J.Humode, Firas .M.Al-Khilani and Raad.f.Hamed
College of Agric. Baghdad university, State Board of Agric Res. Ministry of Agriculture. Baghdad-Iraq.
Abstract: An experiment was conduct at poultry station for Agriculture. State Board of
Agriculture research, Ministry of Agriculture. A total of 400 Lohman laying hens 30
weeks old were used . They were randomly distributed to 4 treatments. A Thymus vulgris
L. were supplemented at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 % and compared with the control group
for 100 days. The result showed. A significant ( P<0.05) increase in egg production
percentage , accumulative egg number , egg weight , egg mass , feed conversion ratio and
egg interior quality. There was a significant (P<0.05)decrease in mortality percentage and
total bacterial E.coli , staphylococci in intestines and colon , in Thymus vulgris L group
compared with the control group.
Key words: Layer performance, Thymus vulgris.
9.11 Phyto-Veterinary Medicines Used by Local Communitied in District
Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan
Muhammad Zafar, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Mir Ajab Khan and Mushtaq Ahmad
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: The Mountains of District Abbottabad (Northern Pakistan) are endowed with a
diverse plant wealth. The current communication gives the results of an ethnobotanical
survey of the area for documentation of medicinal plants used to cure different ailments of
animals. In this region Bakerwals and other migratory herders utilize herbal remedies for
the treatment of their livestock. Periodic field trips were undertaken during 2001-2005 to
various rural and distant areas of district Abbottabad.Information on the utilization of local
plants used for curing common animal/livestock ailments was obtained through interviews
of herders, shepherds, and others that work with farm animals. The treatment inventory of
a healer typically includes 7-10 types of diseases. The most frequent diseases are
diarrhoea, after birth rtetion, prolapse of uterus, constipation, fever, foot and mouth rot,
colic, indigestion, blood in urine and fever etc. A total of 46 plants within 31 families were
identified for treatment of a variety of animal diseases.
Key words: Abbottabad-Pakistan, phyto-veterinary medicine.
9.12 The Effect of Essential Oils from Medicinal Plants (Sage and Oregano) on
Poracova, J.1, Blascakova, M.1, Maity, S.2, Zahatnanska, M.3
Excellence Center of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and
Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia. 2 Centre for Environmental Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, India. 3
Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia.
Abstract: Health and nutrition of the animals are important for the profitable production of pig with high
quality of meat1 within a competitive market. It is well established that the application of medicinal plant
could enhance the health status of the animals2. However, several investigators reported environmental
effects as well as genetic approaches on animal production industry 3-5. In order to attain quick growth the
essential oils from Sage and Oregano (medicinal plant) were applied to the food of crossbred piglets Slovak
White x Pietrain in a dose of 0.05% (Treated group, TG, n = 7). At the time of weaning and post weaning
piglets were nourished with a feed mixtures ČOS1 and ČOS2. Essential oils were analysed by Gas
Chromatography in Sage [cineol (15 ± 1%), thujon (24 ± 1%), borneol (18 ± 1%)] and in Oregano [carvacrol
(65 ± 3,0%), thymol (16 ± 1,5%)]. Parameters for productivity (weight, natality, morbidity and mortality)
were monitored daily and evaluated on the 21 st, 28th, 32nd and 42nd day of treatment to the pigs. A
statistically significant increase in the body weight was recorded in treated group with
respect to control for whole experiment. It is concluded that modern chemical and
synthetic world demands plant based product for their therapeutical 6, antimicrobial 7,
antioxidative 8, hypocholesterolemic 9, stimulatory effect 10 and high productivity 2 to
lead better life.
Key words: Essential oils, sage, oregano, pork, production.
9.13 Biochemical Response in Piglets after Application of Essential Oils from Sage
(Salvia officinalis L.) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)
Poracova, J.1, Maity, S.2, Blascakova, M.1
Excellence Center of Human and Animal Ecology, Presov University in Presov, Faculty of Humanities and
Natural Sciences, Presov, Slovakia, 2Centre for Environmental Studies, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, India.
Abstract: Plant extracts contain various molecules with intrinsic bio-activities on animal
physiology and metabolism (Kamel, 2001). Health and productivity of livestock are
important economic factors influencing pig production. However, application of herbal
formula is also responsible for the well being of animals (Cheng et al., 2004; Wu et al.,
2004; Markowska-Daniel, Pejsak, 2006) and subsequently leading to productivity. Several
earlier investigators (Śliwa et al., 2006; Holovská et al.,2009; Kimáková, 2008) reported
the impact of various natural and chemical compounds on total cholesterol, glucose and
electrolytes in blood serum of animals. In order to find out the growth stimulators, essential oils
from Sage (cineol 15%, thujone 24%, borneol 18%) and Oregano (carvacrol 65%, thymol
16%) were applied to feed (ČOS 1 and ČOS 2) of Slovak white noble breed x Pietrain at
the age of 28 days) at a concentration of 0.05%/ kg. To determine the lipid metabolic
pathway (cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL), blood samples were collected from both the
control (CG = 6) and treated group (TG = 7) of piglets. Present study demonstrated a
statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in concentration of triacylglycerides (CG = 0.79
– 1.59 mmol.l-1, TG 0.79 – 1.25 mmol.l-1, P <0.05) and HDL (CG = 1.33-2.33 mmol.l-1,
TG = 1.48-1.85 mmol.l-1, P < 0.01) and total cholesterol in treated animals with respect to
the control during 28th days of experiment. It is concluded that essential oils from Sage
and Oregano have the potential to decrease triacyglycerides levels in the blood of piglets
important to enhance body weight and livestock productivity of animal.
Key words: HDL, oregano, piglets, Sage, triacylglycerides.
9.14 Effect of Artemisia Herba Alba Extract on the Infection with Heterakis gallinae
compared with Albendazole in Turkey
Seddiek, Sh. A1, Ali, M. M. A.2, Khater H. F.3 and El-Shorbagy, M.4
Animal Health Research Institute (Benha-Branch -Avian Diseases Dept.,) 2 Animal Health Research
Institute (Biochemical & Nutritional Deficiency Diseases Dept.,) 3 Benha University, Faculty of Vet. Med.
(Parasitology Dept.) . 4 Benha University, Faculty of Vet. Med. (PoultryDiseases Dept.), Turkey.
Abstract: Sixty (60), one-day old large white turkey poults (males) were divided into four
equal groups and randomly allotted in their cages. Group 1 was neither infested nor
treated, considered as a negative control. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with 500
embryonated eggs of Heterakis gallinae (using stomach tube) at one-day old. Group 2 was
not treated and regarded as a positive control (infested and none treated). On day 25 post
infestation and for three successive days, group 3 was treated with Albendazole
suspension 2.5 % (20 mg /kg B. wt.) and group 4 was treated with crude aqueous extract
(CAE) of Artemisia herba alba (0.4 g /kg B.wt.) in drinking water. The turkey poults were
fed balanced ration and weighed weekly for 6 weeks of age, and the weight-gain and FCR
were calculated. The clinical signs and post mortem lesions were described. The heterakis
eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and adult worm burden of H. gallinae were counted
immediately before treatment and on the 7th day after treatment. Some biochemical and
histopathological changes were recorded. The results revealed that the eggs per gram of
faeces (EPG) and worm burden in the caeca were nearly absent in the turkey poults of
groups 3 and 4 when compared with the group 2 on the 7th day post-treatment. The weight,
gain and FCR were improved in group 4 when compared with groups 2 and 3 at the end of
experiment. The levels of ALT, AST enzymes, and creatinine and uric acid levels were
significantly increased in group 3 when compared with group 4. While the total protein
and albumin levels were significantly decreased in group 3 when compared with group
4.The histopathological examination revealed that the liver of turkey poults which infected
with H. gallinae and treated with Albendazole suspension (2.5 %) showing mild vacuolar
degeneration in the hepatocytes. Meanwhile the liver of turkey poults which infected with
H. gallinae and treated with Artemisia herba alba extract showing no degenerative
changes in the hepatocytes which seem apparently healthy. These results clearly indicate
that there was no adverse (toxic) effect of Artemisia herba alba on the liver cells, resulting
in an improvement of the growth performance of turkey poults besides its good
anthelmintic effect on the heterakis worms. The Artemisia herba alba aqueous extract is
then considered as a good anthelmintic alternative therapy and recommended in the
control of heterakis infestation in poultry industry, since it is effective and cheap.
Key words: Albendazole, extract, infection, rtemisia herba alba.
9.15 Compared Between Anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.) and Roselle Flowers
(Hibiscus sabdariffa) by Their Affected on Production Performance of Broilers
Sunbul J.Hamodi1 and Firas M.Al-Khalani2
College of Agriculture, Baghdad University. 2Poultry Research Station/Agricultural Research /
Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq.
Abstract Four hundred twenty unsexed broiler chicks Cobb were used to study the effect
of two source of medicinal plants (Anise seed , A and Roselle flower ,K) supplementation
on productive performance ,dressing percentages ,internal organ weights,abdominal fat
and bacteria count (E.coli and Staphylococci )in small intestine and colon . The broiler
chicks Cobb were divided into three equal groups with four replicate (35 bird in each)fed
three diets ,Diet 1 (control group) contain none of the feed additives.Diet 2 and 3 (group 2
and 3) contain 6kg/Ton from A and K , respectively.The results revealed significantly (p
<0.05 )inceases in live body weight ,body weight gain,fedd consumption,feed conversion
ratio, production index and significantly (p <0.05 ) reduction in mortality in A and K
treatment groups as compared with control group .Dressing percentage ,liver and heart
weights supplement groups (A and K) were significantly (p <0.05 ) increased ,while
abdominal fat were significantly (p <0.05 ) reduced as compared with control group.
However non significant differences(p>0.05) were shown across treatment groups in
gizzard weight.The weights of primary carcass cuts (breast,thigh and drumstick) of
supplemented groups (A and K) were significantly (p <0.05 ) increased and the secondary
carcass cuts weights (neck,wings and back) were significantly (p <0.05 ) reduced as
compared with control group.A count No. of harmful bacteria E.coli and Staphylococci in
the small intestine and colon were significantly (p <0.05 ) decreased in supplemented
groups as compared with those in control group.In conclusion ,feed additives such as
Anise and Roselle were improved the productive performance of broiler chicks through
increasing dressing percentage and reduce abdominal fat and harmful bacteria count in
small intestine and colon .Also Roselle were the best one than other medicinal plant Anise
by improved the productive performance.
Key words: Anise seeds, broiler, production performance, roselle flowers.
9.16 Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Thapsia
minor Hoffmanns. & Link, an Endemic Iberian-Lusitanian Apiaceae
Tavares, C.1, Gonçalves, M. J2, Cavaleiro, C.2, Canhoto, J.1, Salgueiro, L.2
Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Ap. 3046, 3001-
401 Coimbra, Portugal. 2Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, Health Science Campus,
University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de S. Comba 3000-354, Coimbra, Portugal.
The genus Thapsia L. (family Apiaceae) is widespread in the Mediterranean basin and
Iberian Peninsula, here represented by six species, being two of them endemics. Thapsia
minor Hoffmanns. & Link is the only endemic Iberian species of this genus present in
Portugal. Plants of the genus Thapsia produce interesting metabolites such as
guaianolides, acylglycerol components, germacrane sesquiterpenes and essential oils,
making this species very popular as a source of drugs and spices. As far as we know only a
few studies about the EO of Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link have been described. In
the present work we report for the first time the antifungal activity of the essential oils of
Thapsia minor from Portugal. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a
Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC and GC/MS using fused silica capillary
columns with two different stationary phases. In order to evaluate the antifungal activity of
the oil against several pathogenic fungi (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans,
dermatophytes and Aspergillus spp.) the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the
minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using a broth macrodilution method
based on the CLSI reference protocols M27-A3 and M38-A2. The oil was characterized
by high amounts of oxygen-containing monoterpenes, being geranyl acetate the main
compound. The oil proved to be more active against dermatophyte strains, with MIC
values ranging from 0.32 to 1.25L/mL. Considering that about 90% of onychomycosis
infections are caused by dermatophytes and the high sensitivity of this group of fungi to
these natural compounds, this oil could be a candidate to use in topical treatment of this
kind of infection.
Key words: Antifungal, chemical composition, essential oil, Thapsia minor.
9.17 Effect of Feeding Labaneh Whey and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Additives on
Z. H. M. Abu-Dieyeh1, M.S. Abu-Darwish2 and S. Y. A. Al-Dalain1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balq`a Applied University
Department of Applied Sciences, Al-Shouback University College, Al-Balq`a Applied University, Jordan.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using thyme plant and
liquid labaneh whey as natural feed additives on the performance of 4-8 week-old broiler.
Daily fresh labaneh whey and powdered thyme plant were mixed with the basal diet of
broilers at rates of 10ml /kg and 10 gm/kg of feed, respectively. The experimental treatments
were offered ad libitum during the age 4 – 8 weeks of broilers reared in an open-sided poultry
house. Growth rate, cumulative body gain, and feed efficiency were significantly (p< 0.05)
increased for broilers supplemented with Labaneh whey in their basal diet. However,
Powdered thyme revealed significant (p< 0.05) effects on reducing broiler performance.
These results indicated that, using labaneh whey as a by-product feed additive has significant
(p< 0.05) improving effects on the performance of 4-8 week-old broilers reared in an open-
sided poultry house.
Key wards: Broiler, feed additives, labaneh whey, thyme.
The 2nd International Symposium on Medicinal Plants, their cultivation and aspects of uses
Topic 10: The use of extracts from medicinal plants as part of integrated pest
10.1 Nematicidal Potentials of some Selected Medicinal Plants
Aminu-Taiwo B. R1, Idowu A. A.1, and Osunlola O. S2.
National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan. 2Department of Crop Protection and Environmental
Biology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Abstract: In vitro studies of the toxicity of water extracts of dry bulb of garlic (Allium
sativa), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) pods
of Ethiopian pepper (Xylopia aethiopica) and leaves of local basil (Occimum gratissimum)
on eggs and second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita was investigated. All
concentrations of spices extracts tested inhibited hatching of eggs and killed second –stage
juveniles. Water extract of all the spices used at 40,000mg/kg was the most effective in
inhibiting egg-hatch (100%) and killing second-stage Juveniles of M. incognita
Key words: Eggs, Meliodogyne incognita, concentration, second-stage, water extract.
10.2 Larvicidal, Oviposition-Deterrent, Ovicidal, and Repellent Activities of Cassia
occidentalis L. and Spinosad against Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensi
D. Abirami and K.Murugan
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore - 641 046, India.
Abstract: Mosquitoes are the most single group of insects in terms of public health
significance. Mosquitoes are important vectors of several tropical diseases, including
malaria, filariasis, and numerous viral diseases, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis and
yellow fever. Anopheles stephensi is the main urban vector of malaria in the Indo-
Pakistan sub- continent and Middle - East. Malaria is transmitted by the female
Anopheline mosquito. In India this species is mainly urban and rural populations. The
present study was made to evaluate the larvicidal, ovipositional deterrence, ovicidal and
repellent activities of methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad against
malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h
exposure to methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad. I instar larvae was
more susceptible than the other instar larvae. The oviposition deterrence was concentration
dependent, 2.0% and 0.003 ppm concentrations of C.occidentalis and spinosad exhibits
strong deterrent effect when compared with 1% and 0.001 ppm. Hundred percent ovicidal
activities were observed at 400, 450 and 500 ppm. Skin repellent activity was carried out
from 5.00 -10.00 hours. The repellency was maximum at 100 ppm. From the present study
it was revealed that methanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis and spinosad were
effectively used in the control of Anopheles stephensi.
Key words: Anopheles stephensi, Cassia occidentalis L., Larvicidal, Oviposition-
deterrent, ovicidal, repellent activity, spinosad.
10.3 Study on the Effects of Acetonic Extract of Otostegia persica (Labiatae) on Three
Aphid Species and One Stored Product Pest
Elham Salari, Kamal Ahmadi, Reza Zamani
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman.
Abstract: Much effort has been devoted to the discovery and development of plant
extracts and phytochemicals as alternatives to synthetic insecticides for pest management.
The experiments were directed to determine the effect of acetonic extract of Otostegia
persica (Labiatae) on different pests. The insects were included 3-4 days-old individuals
of Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) as well as 1-7
days-old adults of Tribolum castaneum (Herbst). The experiments were carried out at
25±1°C temperature, relative humidity of 60±10% and 16 hours of artificial light at an
intensity of about 4000 lux. In control treatments only distilled water and DMSO
(dimethyl sulfoxide) were applied. In concentration of 60 and 80 µl/ml after 24 h, the
mortality of A. gossypii treatment was 63.0% and 87.4% respectively and it was
significantly highest among different aphid species. While, it was less than 2% and 35% in
the T. castaneum treatment, respectively. The mortality of A. fabae treatments were 42.1%
and 64.9% in concentration 60 and 80 µl/ml, respectively. The mortality percentage was
significant higher in A. fabae and M. persicae than in T. castaneum treatments (P≤0.01).
Key words: Acetonic, aphid, Otostegia persica, pest.
10.4 In Vtro Antifungal Activity of Two Medicinal Plant‟s Essential Oils on
Fusarium oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana
Fatemeh Samiei1, Zahra Rafiei Karahroodi2, Hamidreza Zamanizadeh3
Department of Plant Pathology, Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch, Tehran.
Department of Plant Protection, Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Arak. 3Department of Plant
Pathology, Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract: Using synthetic fungicides is restricted for controlling deterioration of food
commodities. It is begun due to their possible carcinogenicity, chronic and acute toxicity,
long degradation periods, environmental pollution and side effects on human. Essential
oils are in many cases, biologically active, endowed with antimicrobial, antifungal and bio
regulatory properties. Production of essential oils by plants is believed to be
predominantly a defense mechanism against pathogens and pests. In this research has been
studied antifungal effect of 2 essential oils against two fungi. Essential oils were
Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Carum carvi. They are used as fungicide against Fusarium
oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana. They are experimented at 100 µl essential oil/l
PDA in vitro by measuring the percentage radial growth of the fungi. The essential oils
were mixed with sterile and cooled molten PDA to obtain final concentration. The PDA
was poured in to Petri plates that were inoculated with 4mm plugs from 3 to 7 days-old
cultures. The radial growth of mycelia measured daily for 9 days. All treatments have been
compared by completely randomized design, at 7th day and 4 replicates. Growth Inhibitory
effect of both essential oils was observed and there was significant difference between
them at %5, but there was not any significant difference between effects of essential oils
on 2 pathogens. Cinnamon had 100 and 95% and Carum carvi had 79 and 78% growth
Inhibitory on Fusarium oxysporum and Bipolaris sorokiniana, respectively. After 9th day
both fungi begun grow normally on PDA. It shows that they have fungistatatic effect on
them. These results showed cinnamon and C. carvi have great potential as an alternative to
synthetic fungicides for controlling plant pathogens especially fungi. Control of these
pathogens by natural compounds is interesting both for environmental and economic
Key words: Bipolaris sorokiniana, essential oil, fungistatatic, Fusarium oxysporum.
10.5 Studying the Effect of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts, to Combat Disease
Boufaroua (Oligonychus afrasiaticus) in Palm Tree Class Deglet Nour (Phoenix
dactylifera L. 1718)
HAMADA Samra1 and Belhamra Mohammed2
Faculty of Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences and Vie. Department of Natural Sciences and Vie.
University Mohammed Khider, BP 145, Biskra, 2Faculty of Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences and Vie.
Department of agriculture. University Mohammed Khider, Algeria.
Abstract: Algeria is accounting the most important producers of tree palm in the
Maghreb, along with Tunisia and Morocco, due to the availability of environmental
conditions and climatic conditions for the cultivation of tree palm, and class (Phoenix
dactylifera L.) Deglet Nour especially of the items most famous and most exporters with
an annual production estimated at 26.5 million quintal annually, but account to the spread
of disease “ bayoud” and “boufaroua ( oligonychus afrasiaticus)” and some pests,
parasitic and spider, as well as birds are harmful to tree palm, the number of tree palm
production marvelous is lost annually between 20% to 30%, because thesis risk of
maladies, as strong threat in the number of tree palm sound, and increased the seriousness
of the situation with proven negative chemical treatment counter these diseases and lack of
effectiveness, Here we have disposal the problematic of how to find a way to reduce
these problems of maladies agriculture concerned with the back of a recent trend in the
pest control field crop and vegetable insecticides use natural plant to protect agricultural
production; also as dangerous pollution of the environment on the other hand, and had an
effective influence in several field applications using Medicinal Plant Extracts to
discourage the causes of insect pests and fungal some crops. With this connection,
attention was our trying to examine the effectiveness of some extracts from plant
medicinal sources, a different medical against disease boufaroua (oligonychus
afrasiaticus) to the palm tree class Deglet Nour (Phoenix dactylifera L. 1718.). The first
step in the course of this research is the identification of medicinal plants collected,
selected, and knows the nature of the Principe active ingredients present in each plant
Key words: Deglet nour, maladies boufaroua, medicinal plant extracts, palm tree.
10.6 Tannins of Pistacia lentiscus as Biological Tool for the Control of Gastro-
Hassan AZAIZEH1*, Nijmeh ABBAS1, Alexander MARKOVICS2, Hussein
MUKLADA3 and Serge LANDAU3
Institute of Applied Research, Galilee Society (Affiliated with University of Haifa), P.O. Box 437, Shefa-
Amr 20200, 3ARO, Volcani Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Israel.
Abstract: Gastro-intestinal nematode parasitism in grazing ruminants is a serious problem
worldwide and in the Middle East in particular. Failure to control gastro-intestinal
nematodes (GIN) results in poor growth rates, ill-thrift and sometimes death of animals.
The predominant GIN implicated in infective helminthiosis ("jiam" in Arabic) in Israel is
Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus spp, with a minor role for H. contortus
and Oesophagostomum spp. As nematodes have developed resistance to a wide range of
chemical anthelmintic drugs, and consumer perception of chemical treatment is negative,
natural bio-actives are sought after. In light of the increasing recognition of the
anthelmintic activity of plant tannins, we examined the potencial anthelmintic value of
extracts from Pistacia lentiscus L. and Phillyrea latifolia L., two ligneous species found
on the Western slopes of the Carmel Heights. Leaf chemistry of P. lentiscus is
characterized by an exceptionally high concentration (20% in dry matter) of
poly(ethylene)-glycol-binding tannins, whereas P. latifolia contains flavanols in low
concentrations (<4% in dry matter). We compared the efficacy of three extracts (water,
ethanol 70% v/v, and ethanol 100%) at different concentrations in inhibiting exsheathment
– a process which enables the development free-living larvae into egg-producing adults –
in vitro with mixed L3 larvae hatched from eggs collected in an infected goat flock.
Larvae were incubated in a PBS solution with/without plant extracts and exposed to an
exsheathment solution, diluted to elicit 100% exsheathment within one hour. Ethanol 70%
extract of P. lentiscus resulted in complete inhibition of exsheathment at low
concentrations compared to 100% ethanol and water. Only extracts of P. latifolia with
ethanol 70% inhibited ex-sheathment, but at concentrations more than ten-fold higher that
P. lentiscus. A two-year survey showed that egg excretion levels are very low in goats
ingesting P. lentiscus all year long. This is consistent with the findings that most
polyphenols in P. lentiscus (70%) are galloyl derivatives of high molecular weight, and
galloyl derivatives of catechin prevent exsheathment of the GIN larvae. Our results
suggest that infestation of pastures with GIN eggs is probably limited because of the
rupture of the GIN life cycle by tannins contained in P. lentiscus.
Key words: Gastro-Intestinal, nematode, pastures, ruminant, tannins.
10.7 Towards Controlling of Mosquito Larvae Using Crude Extracts of Endod Plant
Berries (phytolacca dodecandra) Along the Shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya
J.B.Okeyo-Owuor, 1Pamella J. A. Were, 2Phillip Raburu and 4J.M.Vulule1.
Department of Environmental Biology and Health Sciences. School of Environmental Studies, Moi
University,3Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Kenya. 4Kenya Medical
Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.
Abstract: In the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) the disease the most devastating disease,
Malaria which causes over 300 deaths in Africa is vectored by the mosquito, Anopheles
gambiae complex. This species has increased its distribution range even to highland areas
of Kenya where it was absent before making malaria to be a major killer for people of all
age groups in these areas during the last two decades. This situation probably caused by
increased environmental degradation including high numbers of stagnated water ponds
suitable for mosquito breeding and increased vector-human interactions has lead to
increased malaria related mortality, morbidity and declining productivity amongst the
already poor population. Thus control approaches of the vector have been a real challenge
to the government and local residents even as mortalities due to malaria keep rising
especially among the poor and vulnerable members of the resident communities. The
green berries of endod or Ethiopian soap berry (Phytolacca dodecandra L’ Herit), an
indigenous plant species which is abundant in the highlands region in the Lake Victoria
Basin, contain biochemicals which is toxic to various aquatic life forms including bilharzia
vector snails, zebra mussels, leeches and larvae of various aquatic insect species was
tested against mosquito immature stages in this study in the LVB, Kenya. In this paper the
findings of this study on mosquitoes is presented and discussed. Powder from green
berries of endod green berries was tested against immature stages of An. gambiae in the
laboratory and under semi-field conditions and the results shows that endod powder
extracts had strong larvicidal activities against anopheles immature stages, which seem to
vary with geographical sources of endod plant. For instance plants from Nandi Hills had a
higher larvicidal effect compared to those from Eldoret and Nyando. It was further found
that the endod crude powder was most effective within 12-24hr of larval exposure but
effectiveness declined fast there after suggesting fast biodegradation of the extracts once
in water. It is recommended that although further studies are still required on efficacy of
using endod against mosquitoes, great potentials exist for its inclusion in the integrated
management of the vector mosquitoes and for malaria control programmes and could be
easily adapted at the community level in this region where the plant is abundant.
Key words: Anopheles gambiae, endod, malaria control, lake victoria basin, larvicide.
10.8 Effect of Medicinal Plants on the Mosquito Vectors from the Different Agro
climatic Regions of Tamil Nadu, India
K. Kovendan and K. Murugan
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences , Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore – 641 046, India.
Abstract: Vector control plays a key role in prevention and control of major vector-borne
infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. The three main climatic factors that
affect malaria transmission and distribution are temperature, precipitation and relative
humidity. Aedes aegypti, commonly known as the Yellow Fever Mosquito, is a mosquito
that can host the dengue fever, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Medically most
important species, Culex quinquefasciatus, breeds in waters polluted with organic debris
such as rooting vegetation, household refuse and excreta. Chemical control use of
pesticides is still the most important element in the integrated approach to vector control.
But they are non-selective and harmful to other beneficial organisms. Hence, botanical
have grown very important in controlling the mosquito vectors. Laboratory and field
investigations have been made to evaluate the combined effect Clerodendron inerme,
Acanthus ilicifolius on three species of mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes
aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Different concentrations of Clerodendron inerme and
Acanthus ilicifolius have been tested on the various stages of three species of mosquito
vectors. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were also worked for the different larval
stages of mosquitoes. Significant increased mortality was evident after the plant extracts.
The lethal effect on mosquito larvae may be due to the active plant compounds on the gut
lining of the mosquito larvae. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of
plant extracts at the breeding sites (drinking water and ditches water), and hence, these
plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector
Key words: Clerodendron inerme, Acanthus ilicifolius, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes
aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, mosquitocidal activity.
10.9 Antivectorial and Antimalarial Activity Chenopodium Ambrosioides on Malarial
Vector, Anopheles stephensiliston and Malarial Parasite, Plasmodium falciparam
K. Murugan1 and Wei Hui2
Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, School of Life Sciences, Coimbatore - 641 046, India.
Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350013, People's
Republic of China.
Abstract: Mosquitoes the serious problem in the present day due to the change in climate
and to control the vectors there are many chemical and synthetic pesticides but their
hazards are also high and hence the researchers switched on their vision towards the
plants. The objective of this work was to determine the Larvicidal and pupicidal activity
of on malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi and also to test antiplasmodial activity against
Plasmodium faliciparum. There was significant larval and pupal toxicity was evident after
the treatment of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil. Lethal dose concentrations (LC50 and
LC90) were calculated for different larval instars and pupal stages. The mortality of
mosquitoes was due to the presence of plant active compounds such as hexadecanoic,
arachidonic, and octadecanoic acids. Field trials were conducted at the breeding sites of
the Anopheles stephensi and the population reduction of larval and pupal were noted after
24, 48, 72 hours of treatment. Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium, continues to
exact high global morbidity and mortality rate next only to tuberculosis. It causes 300-500
million clinical infections out of which more than a million people succumb to death
annually. These parasites Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the
species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female
Anopheles Spp., The situation has worsened recently with the emergence of drug
resistance in the parasite. Therefore, deciphering new pathways in the parasites as well as
mosquito and this leads for developing antimalarial compounds and mosquitocidal is the
need of the hour. In the present investigation we have also tested invitro antiplasmodial
activity of the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil against Plasmodium
falciparum. There was significant inhibitory effect was found after administration of plant
oil against the parasites. Thus in the present study both activity such as antimalarial and
antivectorial was studied as the vector is the major cause of malaria. Several plants are
used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria and fever in many parts of world.
These require further detailed investigation with ethno-pharmacological approach and pure
plant compounds will be separated in future research activity. It therefore seems
worthwhile to study such plants, which have been used over the centuries for medicinal
Key words: Antimalaria, Plasmodium falciparam, vector.
10.10 Effect of Botanicals Orthosiphon thymIflorus for the control Mosquito Vectors
and for the Development of Eco-Friendly Biopesticides
Kanagarajan Prasanna Kumar and K. Murugan
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences,. Bharathiar University,
Coimbatore-641 046, Tamil Nadu - India.
Abstract: Mosquitoes are the single group of insects in terms of public health
significance. It breeds in a varied aquatic eco-systems ranging from clean water, stored
and sewage water system and marine water and it transmits malaria, dengue and yellow
fever as well as filariasis. Vector control plays a key role in prevention and control of
major vector-borne diseases and often constitutes the first line of activity in case of
epidemics of vector-borne diseases, and particularly, Chikungunya. Chemical control (use
of pesticides) is still the most important element in the integrated approach to vector
control. But they are non-selective and harmful to other beneficial organisms. Some of the
insecticides are carcinogenic agents and are positively dangerous and even carried through
the food chain which in turn affects the non-target organism. In view of the above, the
uses of biologically-active plant materials with anti-mosquitocidal properties and
ecofriendly-biopesticides are attracted in recent years, because of their biodegradable
nature and being relatively safer to human and other non-target organism in the
Environment. Phytochemicals and microbial insecticides can be used as an alternate to
synthetic insecticides for integrated vector control. Botanical pesticides will help to kill the
spectrum of mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats. Allelochemicals (secondary
compounds) present in the botanicals which affect the biochemical and physiological
processes of insect system and also they increase the pathogenicity of microbial pesticides.
The selection of plant materials Orthosiphon thymiflorus (Roth) is Wild high medicinal
value also possess mosquitocidal properties and available in plenty in the Western Ghats,
Coimbatore Region, Tamil Nadu. In the present study is to evaluate the effect of
Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract,for the successful control to malarial, filarial and Dengue
vectors at the region of Tamil Nadu, India. Field trial was also conducted at the coastal
areas of Tamil Nadu, India and to study the efficacy on the larval and pupal mortality
during 24h, 48h and 72h treatment by using the Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract in
different breeding habitats of malarial, filarial and dengue vectors. The results revealed
that the treatment of Orthosiphon thymiflorus extract had higher efficacy, It reveals that
active chemicals 3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2 is combined will help to kill the
spectrum of mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats. The results of our study will throw
more light on the right combination of herbal extracts in formulation of potential larvicides
for different mosquito vectors in their respective breeding habitats at coastal regions of
Tamil Nadu, India.
Key wards: Allelochemicals, biopesticides, larvicides, Orthosiphon thymiflorus.
10.11 Insecticidal Activities of Mentha spicata and Origanum glandulosum against
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
Khalfi-Habes Ouassila1 Boutekedjiret Chahrazed2 and Sellami Samira1
Khalfi-Habes Ouassila I.N.A. El-Harrach 16200 Algerie. 2Boutekedjiret Chahrazed E.N.P El-Harrach
Abstract: Essential oils of Mentha spicata and Origanum glandulosum were tested at the
laboratory for their insecticidal activities against Callosobruchus maculatus, insect
harmful with chick-pea in Algeria.The results obtained showed that two essential oils are
toxic for insect amounts ranging between 0, 1 and 0, 4 µl/g. The two extracts disturb also
the biology of Callosobruchus maculatus. With amount 0,1µl/g the fruitfulness of the
female and the fertility is completely stopped with Origanum glandulosum.Mint causes it
inhibition of the two parameters biologic starting from 0,2 µl/g. An effect feeding
deterrence east also obtained with two essential oils. Indeed larvae of the beetle of chick-
pea fed with seeds feed less than the larvae having evolved in intreated seeds Two tested
essential oils can constitute insecticidal natural to protect leguminous plants stored from
the damage caused by the beetles and to decrease use of the organic pesticides of
Key words: Natural insecticide, essential oil, Callosobruchus maculatus ,Mentha spicata.
10.12 Biological Control of Tetranychus urticae by Using Medicinal Plants Extract
M. Müge Yazıcı, Gülin BoztaĢ, Fikrettin ġahin1
Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul-Turkey.
Abstract: Mites (Tetranychus urticae) are one of the most destructive pests causing
economically important losses in fruit and vegetable production. They can cause graying
or yellowing of the leaves. Necrotic spots occur in the advanced stages of leaf damage.
Chemical application is a common practice for management of mite population on many
economically important crops. However, the use of chemical applications for pest
management is limited due to economic cost, low efficiency, and phytotoxicity to plants,
development of resistance and risks for human and animal health. Therefore, it is thought
that the most sustainable and environmentally acceptable control of plant pests can be
achieved through biological control agent combined with plant extracts. The objective of
this study was to test potential biocontrol agent bacterial strains and extracts of seven
different medicinal plants in laboratory and greenhouse conditions for effective
management of the mites in greenhouses, and to determine their efficiency in greenhouse
and field conditions. In this study, all experiments were performed on eggplant and
cucumber plants growing in greenhouse conditions. PGPR (Bacillus spp. FS51) in
combination with the mixture of acetone extract (100mg/1ml) of seven different medicinal
plant species in the genera of Urtica, Lavandula, Satureja, Syzygium, Ocimum, Artemisia,
and Nigella spp. were found to be the most effective treatment and causing more than 90-
96% mortality on mite population within 12 h after application. The results showed that
PGPR strains with mixture of plant extract tested may have a great potential to be used as
bioinsecticide in greenhouse condition, and may be used in open field production in
organic agricultural system.
Key words: Biological control, extract, medicinal plants, PGPR, Tetranychus urticae.
10.13 The Biological Fight by the Use of the Powders and of Essential Oils of some
Plants (Thymus vulgarus, Santolina chamaecyparissus, and Anagyris foetida) against
the Chickpea Beetle “Callosobruchus chinensis L.”
Mm Righi Assia. F1, Khelli A.M 2 and Righi. K1
Laboratory LRSBG. University of Mascara, 2Faculty of Science University of Tlemcen, Algeria.
Abstract: Interest of dry vegetables in particular the chick-pea as that food is very
important. Each year, this product knows considerable quantitative and qualitative losses,
especially on the level of stocks, which are due primarily to the attacks of the beetles.
More devastator is the beetle Chinese (Callosobruchus chinensis). Within the biological
framework of fight like alternative to the chemical fight and by the means of this research,
three plants are tested for their possible bio role insecticidal (Thymus vulgarus, Santolina
chamaecyparissus, and Anagyris foetida). The experiments are related to the effect of the
powders of the sheets and the oils extracted by hydro distillation starting from these three
plants on biology from Callosobruchus chinensis. After a study éco-biological detailed on
the insect under the controlled conditions of the temperature and moisture (28°C and H:
75%). In order to determine the effect of effectiveness of the powders and oils (with
various amounts), the tests are studied on the various biological parameters in fact the
fertility, longevity, sex-ratio, and fruitfulness. The results obtained show that oils and the
powders of the three plants tested present really an insecticidal bio effect. Concerning,
essential oils, that of thyme proved liked effective like inhibiting substance or biocide by
carrying out a death rate of 100%, assisted by the Santolina. Concerning the powders, that
of Santolina has an inhibiting effect on the individuals and even if there is a laying, the
fertility is very weak compared to the other powders of bean-trefoil and of thyme This thus
suggests, that the plants tested being able to be used like bio insecticidal for the control of
devastating Callosobruchus chinensis of the stored food products.
Key words: Callosobruchus chinensis, Cicer arietinum L., Thymus vulgarus, Santolina
chamaecyparissus, Anagyris foetida, bio-insecticide.
10.14 Efficacy of Certain Chemical and Safe Alternative Compounds on the
Incidence of Thrips tabaci (Lind.) Inhabiting Onion Seed Plantations
Mohamed A. Amro1 and Farouk A. Abdel-Galil2
Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 2Plant. Protection
Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
Abstract: Population fluctuations of Thrips tabaci (Lind.) inhabiting onion seed
plantations was determined in Assiut Governorate (375 km) southern Cairo, Upper Egypt,
during two successive growing seasons 2009 and 2010. The highest populations of the
pest were recorded during April in both seasons. However, the lowest populations were
recorded during Mid March and Mid May. The ability of four insecticide safe alternative
compounds in addition to a chemical one, in reducing T.tabaci infestation on onion seed
heads in the field, was determined. The initial kill, the residual effect and the general
reduction percentages were calculated. The initial kill of all of the tested compounds
recorded more than 90%. The residual effect of the tested compounds arranged in
descending order as follows: Sunshal 20% EC (Carbosulfan), 91.48% > Radiant 12% SC
(Spinotoram), 89.75% > Achook 0.15% (Azadirachtin), 87.22% > NAT 1 oil (Jojoba seed
oil), 86.88% > Kemsol (Mineral oil), 75.50%. The plant extract "Achook 0.15%" and the
natural product compound "Radiant 12% SC", recorded more than 95% general reduction
in the pest numbers, as well as, the chemical compound "Sunshal 20% EC". NAT 1 and
Kemsol oils recorded 93.11% and 84.40% general reduction, respectively. So, it is of
importance to point out herein to the ability of using the tested safe alternative compounds,
as a replacement of chemical compounds in controlling T. tabaci on onion seed plants in
Key words: Chemical, onion, Population, seed.
10.15 Nematicidal Activity of Extracts from Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae)
Against Root Knot Nematode (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)
S. Sellami, T. Dahmane and Habes-Khalfi O.
Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, El Harrach, 16200 Alger, Algérie.
Abstract: Investigations were undertaken to assess the effect in vitro of different
concentrations of extracts (ethanolic , hexanic and aqueous ) from leaves and fruits of
Peganum harmala L(Zygophyllaceae) on the mortality of juvenile after 24, 48 and 72
hours of exposure, and hatching of eggs of Meloidogyne incognita maintained in the same
test solutions for twelve days. These effects were compared with those of control solutions
and phenamiphos. The results showed that the extracts tested killed second stage juveniles
and inhibited hatching of M. incognita, with these effects varying with the nature of the
extracts, time of exposure and concentration. Percentage mortalities of second stage
juveniles of the nematode increaseswith exposure period and concentration. DL50 for
larval mortality after 72 hours and egg hatchings after 12 days were determined. The study
was completed by phytochemical analysis (screening) of leaves and fruits of this plant to
determine the groups of secondary metabolites.
Key words: Larval mortality, egg hatching inhibition, extract, root-knot nematode.
10.16 Assessment of Antifungal Effects of the Ajowan Oil Against Molds on Citrus
Sadrollah Ramezani1 and Behnaz Solaimani1, 2
Dep. of Horticulture Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IRAN. 2Islamic Azad
University, Garmsar branch, Garmsar, Semnan, Iran.
Abstract: The present study describes the volatile profile and antifungal activity of
essential oils extracted from cultivated plants in Shiraz (Iran). Ajowan (Trachyspermum
ammi L.) is widely used as traditional folk medicine in Iran for treatment of different
diseases. GC–MS analysis allowed for the identification of between 36 compounds as
main volatile constituents of essential oil analyzed. Ammi essential oil effect on control of
green mould growth was suitable in 200 μl as spray application. Significant differences
were observed between various concentration and time of Orange fruit floating in Ammi
essential oil solution; as high effect was obtained in 400 μl for 10 min. Different
concentrations of Ammi essential oil have not inhibitory effect on blue mould growth in
both methods (spray and floating). Result was shown that Ammi has inhibitory effect on
green mould growth but it hasn‟t effect on blue mould of Orange fruit. Therefore, we
could suggest use of Ammi essential oil as spray application before storage for
improvement in shelf-life of Washington Navel orange fruit.
Key words: Trachyspermum ammi L., blue mould, essential oil, green mould, orange.
10.17 Systemic Resistance Induced in Potato Plants Against Potato Virus Y Common
Strain (PVYO) by Plant Extracts in IRAQ
Sabir N.H. Diwan, Rakib A. Al-Ani, Mustafa A. Adhab
Plant Protection Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, IRAQ.
Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of frog fruit (Lippia nodiflora
L.), Datura (Datura metel L.), and Thuja (Thuja orientalis L.) extracts for inducing
systemic resistance against potato virus Y common strain (PVYO) in potato plants. Air
dried of aerial parts powdered was extracted with 70% ethanol (1:3) weight: volume, then
concentrated to a consistence syrup in water bath at 42˚C. The alcoholic extract was used
as tuber-dipping before cultivation or foliage spraying after germination. The PVYO
multiplication in the plants was followed serologically by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA). Results showed that dipping the tubers in the extracts, at 1, 2, 3 g/L for 24
hrs., or spraying the foliage by the extracts at the same concentrations exhibited a
protection period to the plants against PVYO infection up to one month in the presence of
virus source with the vector Myzus persicae Sulz. ELISA readings at 405 nm for samples
from treated plants were found to be 0.10, 0.11, 0.11, and 0.12, 0.13, 0.12 for L. nodiflora
extract, 0.13, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.13, 0.12, 0.13, for D. metel extract, 0.13, 0.13, 0.12, and
0.12, 0.12, 0.11 for T. orientalis extract for the three concentrations and the two methods
of application respectively, compared with 2.52 for untreated plants. No significant
differences between the concentrations or between the methods of application on virus
multiplication were observed.
Key words: Plant extracts, potato virus, systemic resistance.
10.18 Herbal Medicines Volatile Oil for Culex pipiens Larvae Control
Safia Zoubiri 1, 2 and Aoumeur Baaliouamer1
Laboratory of Functional Organic Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sciences and Technology,
Houari Boumediene, BP32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria
Research and Development Center, EPE ALDAR, MOUBYDAL Group, Algeria.
Abstract: Biological effects on Culex pipiens larvae were evaluated for some medicinal
aromatic herbs essential oils: Coriandum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Rosmarius
officinalis and Verbena officinalis. Mosquito larvae were currently controlled by chemical
pesticides. This control method leads to pollution of the environment and intoxication of
consumers. Essential oils of aromatic plants are more considered as good control
alternative tools. Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were assessed under
laboratory conditions for their biological activities against C. pipiens larvae. Emulsifier
concentrate formulation contains 10% w/v essential oil were prepared and stable aqueous
dispersions were determined. Bioassays were performed with the four instars larvae and
nymphs of C. pipiens. The larvae were placed into 500mL plastic cups containing test
solutions at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500µL/L of essential oil then incubated at 25°C.
Cumulative mortalities were determined 30 minutes, 2 and 24 hours after treatment. All
treatments were carried out in triplicate using 25 larvae and 10 nymphs for each replicate
assay. Controls received the emulsifier solution without oil. The essential oil constituents
were identified by GC and GC-MS. Results of the larvicidal activity of the tested essential
oils against C. pipiens mosquito formulations showed significant larvicidal activity for all
dosages against first, second and third-instars larvae. The present study has shown that
aromatic herbs essential oils have larvicidal activity against C. pipiens mosquitoes. They
could be used selectively in places where water is stagnant. Further studies are needed on
formulations against mosquitoes‟ larvae and their efficacy and cost effectiveness.
Key words: Bioactivity, chemical constituents, Culex pipiens, essential oil, medicinal aromatic herbs.
10.19 Sieving of Insecticides and Medical Plant Oils to Controlling
White flies on Citrus Trees
Sahil K. AL-Jameel
Plant Protection Dept. College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul university, Iraq.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted on citrus trees infested by white flies (
Bemisia tabaci ) in mosul during 2007 by using mixture of medical plants oil (
Myrtus communis L. ,Eucalyptus camaldulensis Behch . and Mentha virids ) with
insecticides ( Serin , Nomolt and Diazinon). Results indicated reduction in the
rate of Bemisia tabaci infestation. Treatments were in the following order (
serin and Myrtus communis ,nomolt and Myrtus communis , serin and Mentha virids
) these treatments significantly reduced No. of nymph on leaf to 0,80 , 1.12 ,2 .56
respectively and and about adult on leaf to 0.99 , 1 .72 , 2.44 respectively after 14
days. Results were encouraging to introduces oils of medical plants to control
program of white flies on citrus trees.
Key words: Citrus trees, insecticides, medical plant, oils, white flies.
10.20 Allelopathic Effect of some Medicinal Plants on Germination of Two Dominant
Weeds in Algeria
Salhi Nesrine and 2Salama M. El-Darier
Laboratory for Bioressources Saharan preservation and enhancement, University of kasdi merbah, Ouargla.
Departments of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Abstract: The main objective of the present study was to investigate the phytotoxic
effects of five medicinal plants; Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad, Retama retam L, Traganum
nudatum Del, Pituranthos chloranthus Benth. & Hook.and Artemisia herba- alba Asso on
germination efficiency, germination index and radicle length of the two dominant weeds;
Avena fatua L and Polygonum convolvulus L. in Algeria. The results showed that the
aqueous root extract of the five donor species has no allelopathic effect on the measured
parameters of the two weed species. On the other hand, the shoots exhibited a significant
effect only on Avena fatua, while Polygonum convolvulus was highly suppressed by
shoots of Colocynthis vulgaris and Traganum nadatum.
Key words: Algeria, Allelopathy, germination, medicinal plants, weeds
10.21 Studies on the Effect of Chenopodium Ambrosiioides Essential Oil on Toxicity
and Control of Spodopetra litura (FAB.)
Shobana K. and Murugan K.
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046, India.
Abstract: The plant world comprises a rich storehouse of phytochemicals which are
widely used in the place of synthetic insecticides. Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides
is registered as a biochemical pesticide, which is derived from the flowering plant
Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides (American Worm seed). The use of this
extract as pesticide possesses no significant risk to human health or the environment. It is
classified as a biochemical pesticide because of its natural origin and its “non-toxic” mode
of action. Among the insect pest damaging agricultural and horticultural crops, Spodoptera
species are important. Spodoptera litura is one of the most economically important insect
pests of cotton, tobacco, chilly, tomato, beetroot, cabbage, cauliflower, oil seeds. In the
present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the effect of Chenopodium
ambrosioides essential oil on biological parameters such as life history. The toxicity
bioassays were conducted to test the larvicidal / pupicidal activity of Chenopodium
ambrosioides essential oil. The physiological parameters such as digestive enzyme
profiles, faecal pellet egestion have also been tested after the treatment. It is important to
understand the modes of action of the pesticides we use, to prevent development of
pesticide resistance in the target pest(s). Several compounds isolated from C.
ambrosioides may be a potent agonists or antagonists of some pesticide target proteins.
Hence the present study predicts the interaction and impact of active compounds of
Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil on nervous system (acetylcholinesterase). Thus
assesses the potential of the molecule acetylcholinesterase as possible targets for pesticide
development. For modeling 3-D structures of acetylcholinesterase the software
MODELLER9v4 which uses the concepts of Homology or comparative modeling was
used. So the present study envisages the possible mode of action of Chenopodium
ambrosioides essential oil on these protein target using docking methods. This study also
shows the possibility of the compounds of C. ambrosioides being inhibitors of these
Key words: Chenopodium, essential oil, toxicity, Spodopetra litura.
10.22 Effect of Nicotiana tobacum Leaf Extract on Fungal Leaf Spot Disease of
Mangifera indica in Anyigba kogi State Nigeria
Taiga, A., and Mephors, C.V.V.
Department of Biological Sciences, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria.
Abstract: Two fungi (Botryodiplodia theobromae and Macrophoma mangifera)
pathogens were isolated from the infected leaf of Mangifera indica showing leaf spot
disease. They were found to be the causative agent of leaf spot disease of M. indica,
through pathogenicity test. M. mangifera grew faster in vitro than B. theobromae. The four
different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) of cold aqueous extracts of Nicotiana
tabacum used for fungicidal property test were found to be efficacious. However none of
the concentration levels of N. tabacum extract could completely inhibit the radial mycelia
growth of either B. theobromae or M. mangifera isolates in vitro. All the four
concentration levels of the plant extract recorded high inhibitory effect on B. theobromae
mycelia growth, with 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations showing 91.30, 91.30, 91.30, and
95.65%; while only the 15 and 20% concentration of the extract showed high (50 and
73.33%) mycelia inhibition respectively, on M. mangifera pathogen. The inhibitory effect
of 5 and 10% concentrations of N. tabacum were not significantly different when
compared with the control (0.00% < 1.20%; P= 1.00) and (0.00% < 1.17%; P=1.00)
respectively. B. theobromae was observed to be more susceptible to N. tabacum cold
aqueous extract than M. mangifera.
Key words: Efficacy on fungi, leaf spot disease , plant extracts.
10.23 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar and Extracts from Some Medicinal Plants
On Mortality of Insect
Udomporn Pangnakorn1 Suwimol Kanlaya2 and Chumpon Kuntha1
Department of Agricultural Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000, Thailand.
Abstract: The efficiency of wood vinegar and extracts from three of medicinal plants such
as: neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and yam bean
seed Pachyrhizus erosus ) were tested on the 3 rd instar larvae of mosquito (Culex
quinquefasciatus Say). The raw wood vinegar was purified by standing method and
filtering method. Seed of neem, citronella grass and yam bean were collected, cleaned and
dried at 25 Cº for 3-4 days and powdered. Stream distillation was used for extraction the
citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with
ethyl alcohol. The toxicity test was evaluated under laboratory condition by using two
methods namely Topical application (contact poison) and Dropping method (stomach
poison). The mortality of the mosquito larvae were observed daily for 3 days. The results
revealed that the wood vinegar at the low concentration 2% by dropping method could
kill 73.75%, 82.50% and 96.25% of mosquito larvae after 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively
with significance different at p< 0.05. The wood vinegar at the high concentration of 20%
by topical application method could kill only 15.0% of mosquito larvae after 72 hours
with significance different at p< 0.05, while at the lower concentrations of 2%, 5% and
10% gave rather low mortality at 5%, 5% and 10% respectively. When the 2% of wood
vinegar mixed with each individual extracted substances of neem seed or yam bean seed
or citronella grass at ratio of 1:50 ml gave the larval mortality of 92.5%, 50.0% and 45.0%
respectively at 72 hours after treated. While by dropping method all of the treatments gave
100% mortality of the mosquito larvae at 48 hours after treated.
Key Words: Azadirachta indica, medicinal plants, mortality, mosquito larva, neem, wood
vinegar, yam bean seed.
10.24 Insecticide Effect of Some Essential Oil of Medicinal Plants on Three Species of
Stored Product Pests
Zahra Rafiei-K.1, Alireza R.2, Pouya Z.2, and Mohammad S.2
Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch,Young Researchers Club. 2Islamic Azad University-Arak
Branch,Young Researchers Club, Arak, Iran.
Abstract: Essential oils are suitable components as alternate for chemical pesticides.
Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lep., Pyralidae), Tribolium confusum
Herbst (Col., Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus chinensis (Col., Bruchidae) are some of
the most important stored product pests. In this research, insectisidal effects of essential
oils of five medicinal plants have been studied on these pests. Plants are included Achillea
wilhelmsii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Artemisia absinthium, Rosmarinus officinalis and
Foeniculum vulgare that essential oils extracted by hydrodistilation method. Insecticide
activity of essential oils studied on adults of T. confusum and C. chinensis and first instar
larvae P. interpunctella. Essential oils have been studied in five concentrations. Results
showed Cinnamon had the most insecticide activity on all insects especially Indian meal
moth, but effect of essential oils on Tribolium was more than Callosobruchus, there are
significant difference between insecticide effects of essential oil on three pests. Also by
increasing doses mortality increased. These results showed essential oils, especially
Cinnamon have a good potential for using in warehouses instead of fumigant pesticides.
Key words: Cinnamon, essential oils, fumigants, warehouse.
10.25 Effect of Eighteen Plant Essential Oils on Inhibitory of Egg Releasing and
Ovicide on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lep.: Pyralidae)
Zahra Rafiei-K.1, Saied M.2, Hussein F.3 and Javad Karimzadeh-E.4
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Arak branch Islamic Azad University, Arak,
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 3Agricultural
Entomological Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran,
Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Centre of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Abstract: Egg releasing deterrence and Ovicidal activity of the essential oils of 18
medicinal plants to Plodia interpunctella Hübner were investigated. For studying egg
releasing deterrence number of released eggs has been counted from one pair moth those
exposure essential oils for four days. Also one day old eggs were exposure at 3
concentrations included of 3, 12 and 24 µl essential oil/l air. Percent of eggs hatching have
been recorded after 96 hours. The results showed that all essential oils had egg releasing
deterrence property. the least egg releasing deterrence have been recorded by essential oils
of Rosemary, Dill, Tarragon and Yarrow with about 28.33, 32.50, 36.18 and 55.00 percent
egg releasing deterrence, respectively. Other essential oils such as Cinnamon had more
than 80% egg releasing deterrence that there was no significant difference between them.
Essential oils of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. and Cinnamon had the most percent of
egg mortality on Indian Meal Moth. Also mortality of eggs has increased by increasing
concentration of essential oils. These results showed essential oils of Z. clinopodioides and
Cinnamon had high potential in egg releasing deterrence and Ovicidal effect. They could
be suitable components for controlling this pest in storages.
Key words: essential oils, Indian meal moth, medicinal plants, ovicide.
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A. Naresh kumar, 6 AyĢegül Güvenç, 70
A.R. Srividya, 6 Aysegul Peksel, 12
A.Touhami, 66 AyĢen Yarat, 12
Abdeen M. Omer, 74 Azra Khanum, 49
Abderrahmane BAGHIANI, 7 B. COSGE, 71
Abdul Majid, 131 B. HARFI, 71
Abdulrahman E. Koshak, 56 B. IMELOUANE, 96
Abdulrazzak A.Jasim, 145 B. Lyoussi, 57
AbedAljasim M. Jasim, 94 BAHRI Fouad, 13, 14
Adel Nadjib Chaker, 132 Beemnet Mengesha, 97
Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat, 95 Belhattab R., 72, 73
Ahmad Reza Gohari, 66 Benyammi R., 97
Ahmed Touil, 67 Berrak Ç. Yeğen, 32
Ahmet Cakir, 19 Blascakova, M., 147, 148
Ahmet GümüĢçü, 68 Boubakeur B., 14
Ait kaki Sabrina, 7 Bouchra Imelouane, 15
Al Dulaimy Ahmed, 143 Brajeshwar Chandelia, 98
Alain MEYBECK, 8 Bülent Sayal, 98
Ali Irfan ILBAS, 95 C.K.Manna, 5
Ali ÖZKAN, 141 Chefrour Azzedine, 16, 17
Amera M. S. Al–Rubeii, 145 Chekir-Ghedira Leila, 15
Amina Hasnaoui, 143 D.Abirami, 157
Aminu-Taiwo B. R, 157 David Draper Munt, 132
Amoura M. Abou-El-Naga, 11 Dhia Khalil Ibrahim, 52
Amujoyegbe Bamidele Julius, 96 Diakonova Ia.V., 28
Anwer Noori Alkhero, 68 DJAHOUDI Abdelghani, 17
Arif H. Shah, 36 Dušica ģaliĤ-Dragosavac, 73. 91
Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, 146 Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré, 18
Arsham safipouriyan, 69 Elham Salari, 158
Ayse CAN, 42 Elie K. Barbour, 150
Emel Akyüz, 18 Khalfi-Habes Ouassila, 164
Erman BEYZĠ, 99 Khalid A. Khalid, 109
Ezz AL-Dein M. Al-Ramamneh, 100 Khalida A. Shaker, 81
Farahani Ebrahim, 100 Khater H. F., 154
Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi, 101 Khelifi L., 110
Fardous N Al-Adwan, 35 Khosro Azizi, 110
Fatemeh Samiei, 158 Khulood Whayeb Alsamarrae, 27
Fatma U. Afifi, 19 Khuraman Mustafayeva, 82
Fikrettin ġahin, 162 Khvorost O.P., 80
Firas .M.Al-Kilani, 151 Kyslychenko O.A., 28
Fletcher, E.J., 102 L. Viegi, 151
G. BACHIR RAHO, 8 Lahouel Mesbah, 83
G.M. Sulaiman, 21 LARIBI Bochra, 83
Georgeta Rata, 58 Lekhmici ARRAR, 25
Gholamreza Naderi Brojerdi, 99, 103, 104 Luma.K.Bander, 152
Gholamreza Zarei, 103 M. Amini Deheghi, 111
Gladukh Ye.V., 144 M. Brada, 29
Göksel ġener, 38 M. Kamal E Youssef, 30
Golamreza Naderi Brojerdi, 100 M. Mesud Hürkul, 39
Gulsum Yaldiz, 75 M. Tuncturk, 112
H. Bouriche, 21 M. Yarnia, 113
H. Tahmasebi Zadeh, 105 M.B.Khorshidi Benam, 112
Habib Ahmad, 106 Magda A. A. Seleim, 165
Hakan CETINKAYA, 58 Majid Amini Dehaghi, 113, 114, 118
HAMADA Samra, 159 Manish Mishra, 115
Hamed Shafie, 107 Mansourh Sarrami, 116
Hamid-Reza Adhami, 176 Margarita Harutyunyan, 134
Hassan AZAIZEH, 160 Masoud yousefi, 116
Hassan Sher, 136 Meliha Temirkaynak, 61
Hatice ÇÖLGEÇEN, 107 Memet ĠNAN, 118
Hocine LAOUE, 59 Messaoud Ramdani, 88
I. A. El-Ghandour, 22 Miguel MG, 32
I. Camarda, 134 Mikatadze-Pantsulaia T., 135
I. E. Cock, 22 Miroslav Vosátka, 119
I. El-Ghandour, 94 Mm Righi Assia. F, 165
I. Fellah, 130 Mohamed A. Amro, 165
I. Salamon, 133 Mohamed Abdel Wahab Abu Nahoul, 136
I. Stancheva, 23 Mohamed Fathy Salem, 119
Ibraliu, A, 60 Mohamed R.A.Rashwan, 33
Ifeoma Irene Ijeh, 24 Mohammed Kamrul Huda, 137
Ġlknur KULCANAY ġAHĠN, 25 Monier M. Abd El-Ghani, 138
Isabel Maria Madaleno, 60 Mounir Louhaichi, 138
Isam, M. Jawad, 77 Mufeed Batarseh, 86
Ismail. A. El-Ghandour, 107 Muhammad Altaf Hussain, 34
Ismet Burcu TURKYILMAZ, 26 MUHAMMAD H. ALU'DATT, 85
Ivan Salamon, 77, 78 Muhammad Iqbal, 85
J. Mohammadi, 108 Muhammad Qayyum Khan, 35
J.B.Okeyo-Owuor, 160 Muhammad Zafar, 152
Jamal Ahmed Abbass, 108 Muhittin KULAK, 9
K. Baczek, 79 Mushtaq A. Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, 61
K. Husnu Can Baser, 133 Mustafa A. Adhab, 167
K. Kovendan, 161 N. Benslimani, 87
K. Murugan, 162 N. Boudhrioua-Mihoubi, 86
K.S.Khetwal, 80 N.HAMLAT, 88
Kadhim M. Ibrahim, 109 Nahida ALBAYATY, 62
Kamal Khairallah, 88 Nasri Haddad, 120
Kamel GHEDIRA, 61 Nawash, Oraib Saleh, 139
Kanagarajan Prasanna Kumar, 163 Nazım SEKEROGLU, 62
Kazemi Saeed, F., 80 Nitin Verma, 37
Khairul Kamilah AK, 27 Norhasnida, Z., 38
Nubila Yehya Mohamed Naguib, 121 Zahid, N.A. Abbasi, 128
Nurhayat SUTLUPINAR, 40 Zahra Rafiei-K, 170, 171
Nuriye AKEV, 40, 41 ZERROUG, M.M, 54, 141
Nurten OZSOY, 40 Zewdinesh Damtew, 129
O. Sacan, 43
Önder YUMRUTAġ, 44
OUAFI Saida, 87
Özgür TATAR, 122
P. Labun, 44
Poracova, J., 153
R. Tuncturk, 122
Rafal shakeeb Al-Ani, 45
Refiye YANARDAG, 31, 50
Renata Sõukand, 63
Reza Jabbar, 123
Reza Jabbari, 102
Rida A. Shibli, 121
Roohollah Hasanzadeh, 123
S. Akbar, 46
S. Bolkent, 20. 47
S. Dahamna, 48
S. Kırıcı, 89
S. Saifan, 124
S. Sellami, 166
Saad A. Ihsan, 130
Sadrollah Ramezani, 125, 128, 166
Safia Zoubir, 167
Safinaz Badie Bakshwan, 48
Sahil K. AL-Jameel, 168
Said Hassan pour, 125, 126
Salah Akkal, 34
Saleh Al-Rashidi, 127
Salgueiro, L., 55, 155
Salhi Nesrine, 168
Salima Bennadja, 49
Samita Manna, 64
Sati Y. AL-Dalain, 90
Seighali N, 140
Shadia Kotb Ahmed, 127
Shobana K., 169
Soodabeh Saeidnia, 67
Souici Leila, 90
Sumood H. AL-hadeedy, 120
Sunbul J.Hamodi, 155
T.M. Kriuchkova, 92
Taiga, A., 169
Takhi Djalila, 51
Takia Lograda, 84
Tamara Kacharava, 93
Tamara S. Al- Qudah, 127
Tir touil Aicha, 51
Tlili- Ait-kaki Yasmina, 52
Udomporn Pangnakorn, 170
Ursula von Mandach, 45
V.S. Kyslyc henko, 76
Vihtinskaya, O.O., 53
VL Williams, 140
Yarat A., 10
Youcef HADEF, 53
Z. H. M. Abu-Dieyeh, 156