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Psychology of Emotions

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					         Gut Feelings in the Desert:
 Antoine De St. Exupery and the Dragon Fly
I shaved carefully in a cracked mirror. From time to time I
went to the door and looked at the naked sand. … I was
thoughtful. … For the moment everything was all right. But
I heard something sizzling. It was a dragonfly knocking
against the lamp. Why it was I cannot say, but I felt a
twinge in my heart.
I went outdoors and looked round. The air was pure. …
Over the desert reigned a vast silence as of a house in
order. But here were a green butterfly and two dragonflies
knocking against my lamp. Again I felt a dull ache which
might as easily have been joy as fear, but came up from the
depths of me.
     St. Exupery in the Desert, continued
Something was calling to me from a great distance. Was it
instinct?
Once again I went out. The wind had died down
completely. The air was still cool. But I had received a
warning. I guessed, I believed I could guess, what I was
expecting.
I climbed a dune and sat down face to the east. If I was
right, the thing would not be long in coming. What were
they after here, those dragonflies, hundreds of miles from
their oases inland?
            St. Exupery in the Desert

Wreckage thrown up upon the beach bears witness to a
storm at sea. Even so did these insects declare to me that
a sand storm was on the way, a storm out of the east that
had blown them out of their oases.
Solemnly, for it was fraught with danger, the east wind
rose. … But that was not what excited. What filled me
with a barbaric joy was …that I had been able to read the
anger of the desert in the beating wings of a dragonfly.


            St. Exupery, A. (1939). Wind, sand, and stars.
      EVOLUTION OF PROBLEM STATEMENT
I. I’m about to fly across the Sahara, I’ve done it a 100 times, but
something is bugging me. What?

2. Those insects bumping against my lamp are bothering me.
How come?

3. Wait a second! I'm in the middle of the barren Sahara; what
are a moth and a dragonfly doing out here?

4. What would it take to transport insects hundreds of miles from
their native environment? Now put this into a succinct problem
statement:

5. Does the presence of insects in the remote barren desert
indicate the advent of a windstorm?
TRANSFORMING A PROBLEM STATEMENT
        INTO A HYPOTHESIS

“The arrival of live insects within the desert interior is a
precursor of high winds.”

What does St. Exupery do to test this hypothesis?
                 FORMS OF HYPOTHESES
                                  "A" = Bugs
                                  "B" = Sandstorms
                                  "C" = Location aridness
                                  "D" = Windy season



I. A       B      Bugs are related to sandstorms
I. A  B          Bugs predict sandstorms
II. (A X B)  C: Bugs & location aridness predict sandstorms

III. AB if D:    Bugs predict sandstorms IF windy season has started
RELATION BETWEEN THEORY AND HYPOTHESES

Example of Theory:

Time Perspective (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999):

People systematically differ in how they subjectively order
time into past, present, and future.

In other words, people can be characterized as
“present oriented”, or “future oriented”.
  Hypotheses that Derive from Time Perspective Theory

Theory:
People differ in time perspectives, and this shapes their
behavior.

General Hypothesis
Future Oriented (FO) people are better
at meeting time demands than are (PO).

Experimental Hypotheses

FO will sign up for experiments sooner than PO.
       Science and Facilitated Communication
                                        Facilitated Communication
             Science                              Studies
Hypotheses arise form emotional      Prosecutor worried about
problem, feeling of un-ease          veracity of FC. OD Heck want to
                                     show that FC works

Problem statement                    “… were these communications
                                     coming from the autistic children?”

Hypothesis statement, presented in   If FC real, then it should work when the
falsifiable form                     facilitator is blind to what the child sees.

                                     Facilitator and child see same vs. diff.
Experiment framed                    pics; how is performance affected?
    Framing of Facilitated Communication Experiments

                                     Kid Sees
Facilitator Sees              Cup                    Dog



      Cup                       I                     II
                                                X


      Dog                      III                    IV
                        X

1. Which are the criterion cells?
2. If FC is valid, what are facilitator's responses in criterion cells?
      Science and Facilitated Communication

            Science                      FC Validation Studies

Conduct objective, varied, and       Double blind study; pix naming,
replicable tests                     mesg. passing, eyes on keypad

New hypothesis: FC a sham,           Kids type w/o looking at keypad;
new discrepancies become             why autistics so verbally skilled?
evident.                             Why so many abuse cases?
New hypothesis has powerful social   Devastates believers; liberates
consequences                         kids, redeems "abusers"

Serendipity (unexpected discovery)   Unconscious drives overt
                                     behavior; Freud. What is "will"?
                                     D. Wegner
                 Null Hypotheses

Defined:    Null hyp. states that there is no relation
            between variables.


Examples:     Class size is not related to performance
              The sexes do not differ in aggression.
              Bugs don’t predict sandstorms
Proper and Improper Use of Null Hypothesis
Proper use of null hypothesis:
       As a contrast, foil, to hyp. we want to confirm
               H1: Smaller classes  improved performance
               Ho: Smaller classes unrelated to performance

Improper use of null hyp: As the object of research
              H1: Smaller classes are unrelated to performance
Problems in trying to confirm null hyp:
       1. Confirmation could be due to actual absence of effect
                               OR
       2. Confirmation could occur b/c study improperly done.
    MULTIVARIABLE VS. MULTIVARIATE RESEARCH

    1. Multivariable: More than one causal variable but only one
    outcome variable:

        EXAMPLE: School climate (leadership, teacher morale,
        level of violence) affects student’s test scores.


    2. Multivariate: More than one causal variable and more
    than one outcome variable.

        EXAMPLE: School climate (leadership, teacher morale, level
             of violence) affects students’ school performance
(test
        scores, discipline, attendance).
    Univariate vs. Multivariable Research

Univariate Research: One predictor variable and one
outcome variable. Univariate is better designed to ask
questions about whether certain things occur.

Example: Does race of writer (Black vs. White) affect quality
of feedback? (i.e., Is there a feedback bias?)

Multivariable Research: Two or more predictor variables and
one outcome variable. Multivariable research permits
investigation into underlying causes.

Example: Does race of writer (Black vs. White) affect quality
of feedback, due to degree of social risk (high vs. low)?
(i.e., is there a racial bias, and is it caused by perceived risk?)
Variables


Class 6
      Knowing Concepts, Nomenclature,
              and Definitions
                                     Your MD performs
                                 professionally, follows best
                                          practices


                                     YES             NO
Your MD Understands: YES
"hygiene",                            A              B
"contaminant",
"microbial"          NO               C              D


   Which conditions do you find satisfactory? Why?
   CONCEPTS, CONSTRUCTS, AND VARIABLES
Concept: An abstraction formed by generalizing from particulars.
     Examples: Attention, Emotion, Learning, Prejudice
Construct: A concept that:
1. Allows for objective observation.
     * Can be measured (i.e., pounds, years, tears)
     * Can be described in terms of explicit, replicable operations
        (place subject on scale, gather birth date from drivers’ license, OR
     * Built on other constructs that are themselves based on operations.
2. Relates theoretically to other constructs
  * Built upon other constructs: (empathy = perspective taking + imagination)
  * A building block for other constructs: (empathy  emotional intelligence)
3. Defined distinctly [Kent’s add-on]
    * “Trust = “believe w/o questioning” = gullibility = dependency = trust?
CONCEPTS THAT ARE NOT CONSTRUCTS: Heaven, Luck, Kharma

Intriguing, fascinating, provocative question: Is “hope” a concept or construct?
        Concept or Construct?

 Fitness          Concept
 Heart rate       Construct
 Health           Concept
 Reaction time    Construct
 Stress             Concept
 Resilience         Concept
     Concept to Construct to Variable


Prejudice                     =   Concept



Hostility toward minorities   =   Construct



Physical distance
during conversation           =   Variable
                   Variables

Concepts that have a range of values, such that X > 1
       “Heaven” has no range, not a variable
       “Church attendance” has a range, is a variable
Observable and measurable
       “Love” is not observable
       “Eye gazing” is observable
Form building blocks of constructs
       “Size” is construct
       “Inches” is variable
   Qualitative and Quantitative Variables

Qualitative
       Dichotomous, polychotomous
       All numeric values of equal normative value

Examples       Gender, race, blind vs. don’t blind Ghack boy


Quantitative
       Continuous—take on a range of values
       Numeric values represent more/less of attribute

Examples       No. pos. feedback comments, feedback ratings
                  Operationalization
Steps, or “operations” taken to measure or create a variable.

Measured: Variable defined in terms of how it is measured

  Francois: “Height, she is ze number of centimeters.”

  Frank: “Height is the number of inches, by crackie!”

Experimental: Expt’l steps taken to create variable
  Confed. temperament = eye contact, voice tone, smiles/stares

What are operationalizations for “stress”, for “aggression”?
           Value of Operationalization?


1. Enforces mental rigor; forces evaluation of assumptions.

2. Provides uniformly understood meanings

3. Helps to resolve discrepancies in science.
      OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF
          FEEDBACK VARIABLES

   Variable                           Definition


Feedback          No. of positive and negative comments
                  Rating sheet responses


Friendliness of   Smiles, forward leaning, head nods,
recipient         voice tone.
    OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF FEEDBACK
      STUDY                 DEFINITION OF FEEDBACK                    NATURE
                                                                      OF BIAS

Byalick & Bersoff,       Physical contact, warmth,                  Positive
1970                     acceptance
Harber, 1998             Number of positive and negative            Positive
                         comments on written work.

Massey, Scott, &         Match between student reports on           Positive
Dornbusch, 1975          teacher-feedback, and student’s
                         grades.
Word, Zanna &            Non-verbal social cues                     Negative
Cooper, 1974


 Note: Diff. operational definitions can be associated with different outcomes.
    TODAY’S CONTROVERSIAL QUESTION
Should psychology concern itself ONLY with
constructs?

Are the following outside the realm of experimental
psychology?
      Free will                  Magic
      Happiness                  Miracles
      Love at first sight        Prayer
      Intuition
   CONSITUTIVE AND OBSERVABLE VARIABLES

Constitutive                       Observable

  Health         Weight, blood pressure, temperature

  SES            Income, education


  Intelligence   Verbal skills, math skills, visual skills, social
                 skills
           Relation Between Operational and
                 Constituent Variables

                  Copy-edit comments

                              C1
                                              D.O.
Feedback Bias
                                   (r>0)
          C3


                              C2
                                               D.O.
                       Rating Sheet

                  Note: D.O. = "Directly Observable"
     Experiments as Expressions of Hypotheses
Most General   Interracial feedback is biased.
Hypothesis


General        Feedback from whites to blacks is positively biased.
Hypothesis


Specific       When whites provide performance feedback for sub-
Hypothesis     standard work, their feedback will be positively biased
               if they believe that the feedback recipient is black
               rather than white.

Experimental   White undergraduates instructed to critique poorly
Hypothesis     written essays for purposes of feedback will provide
               more positive feedback if informed that the essay
               writer is black rather than white.
    Diagramming the Experimental Sentence
    Construct                          Operational Definition

White undergraduate        Students who identify themselves as White, not
students                   Hispanic, on a survey.
instructed to critique     write comments on spelling, content, etc. on the
                           essay
poorly written essays      essays contain 5 spelling errors, 14 grammar
                           errors, 5 content errors
for … feedback             subjects’ copy edited comments on essays are
                           supposedly returned to the writer
will provide more          no. of positive comments – no. of neg. comments
positive feedback if
                           subjects read “self description sheet” supposedly
informed that the writer   completed by writer that indirectly indicates race,
is Black rather than       and confirmed by post-expt. manipulation check.
White
    Lending a Hand: Social Regulation of the Neural
                 Response to Threat
[Coan, J., Schaefer, H., & Davidson, R., (2006) Psych. Science, 17, 1032-1039]


 ...For this fMRI study, 16 married women were subjected
 to the threat of electric shock while holding their
 husband’s hand, the hand of an anonymous male
 experimenter, or no hand at all. Results indicated an
 attenuation of activation [in systems regulating threat]
 when women held their husband’s hand. Most strikingly,
 the effects of spousal hand-holding on neural threat varied
 as a function of marital quality ... .

  What’s the hypothesis? What are the constructs, the IV, the
  DV, the operations?
          Attributes and Aliases of IV and DV

Independent Variable (IV)      Dependent Variable (DV)


Cause                       Effect

Antecedent                  Consequent

Event that E. controls or   Event that E. tries to predict
selects

Change in “X”              Change in “Y”
  Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Independent Variable            Dependent Variable
Race of feedback partners      Feedback bias
Social context                 Moral choices
(NY vs. Ghakistan)

NOTE: IV can be DV can be IV
        IV                        DV
Group pressure                Conformity
Conformity                    Feedback bias
        Active vs. Attributive Variables

Active (manipulated): Variables that are manipulated by
              the experimenter
              Friendliness of the confederate
              Quality of essay

Attributive (measured): Variables that cannot be
       manipulated, but are inherent properties.
       AKA "organismic variables."
              Gender of confederate
              Age of subject
                Latent Variables
Latent variables are variables that cannot be directly
  measured.

Latent variables are “emergent” – they arise from the
  joint association of more particular, measurable
  variables.

Latent variables are sometimes referred to as “factors”

Factor analysis is method used to discover and confirm
  latent variables.
  Latent Variables in Feedback Study:



Essay Mechanics      =       ??????


?????   =    Development of argument, clarity of
             ideas, quality of evidence, interesting
             presentation, persuasive
   Latent Variables in Feedback Study:
          Mechanics vs. Content

Mechanics:   Spelling, grammar, word choice


Content:     Development of argument, clarity of
             ideas, quality of evidence, interesting
             presentation, persuasive
SPSS Factor Analysis Results
Factor Loadings of Two Factor Measure:
     Social Support Opinion Survey
Social Support Opinion Survey
   (Harber, et al., JASP, 38, 1463-1505)
       Hope Scale
(Snyder et al., 1991, JPSP, 60, 570-585)

				
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posted:10/20/2011
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