ITS 302 • Purposes of the course – Review the history of US telecommunications as a case study – Examine the basics of regulation, especially as they apply to telecommunications and information – Identify the major issues of current concern Some questions to consider • Do we need regulation? • Does history matter? • Why didn’t the U.S. Telecom Act of 1996 work? Boundaries • Type – Jurisdictional – Regulatory category – Service – Technology • Set by – Law – Regulator – Courts Boundaries Local service State long distance Interstate long distance International long distance Classification of Services All Services Common Carrier Broadcast Information Services Regulated by FCC Regulated by FCC Not regulated--yet and State Commissions Common Carrier Services Common Carrier Services Wireline Wireless FCC and States???? FCC State Commissions Wireline Services Wireline Services Interstate--FCC State State State local LD Access Interstate and International Interstate LD Access The Players • Regulators (federal and state) • Service providers – Wireline providers – Wireless providers – Cable providers – VoIP providers • Customers – Residential, small business, large business, service providers themselves The Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) • RBOCs – NYNEX – Bell Atlantic Bell Atlantic + GTE = Verizon (+MCI)= Verizon – Pacific Telesis – Southwestern Bell +SNET = SBC +AT&T = AT&T – Ameritech – Bell South – U.S. West = Qwest • Independents – Alltel (now Windstream) – Sprint United (then Embarq) Embarq+Century = CenturyLink – Century – Chillicothe – +1300 more Regional Bell Companies No longer Verizon Now CenturyLink Now AT&T Now AT&T Now AT&T No longer Verizon ILECs in Ohio • 43 in total • Largest include: – AT&T (4 million lines) – Frontier (900,000 lines) (purchase of Verizon) – Cincinnati Bell (800,000 lines) – CenturyLink (purchase of Sprint’s Embarq and United properties) – Windstream (formerly Alltel and Western Reserve) – Chillicothe (37,000 lines) – Champaign (12,500 lines) And now today also . . . • VoIP providers – Interconnected – Nomadic • Wireless providers Who provides what? • In 1950 (all one monopoly) – International and Interstate Long Distance: ―old‖ AT&T Long Lines – Local: ―old‖ AT&T Local Operating Companies and the Independents – State Long Distance: ―old‖ AT&T Local Operating Companies and Independents – Wireless—not much • After 1984 (Local companies and Long distance companies) – International and Interstate Long Distance: The New AT&T, MCI, Sprint, plus other Long Distance companies – Local: RBOCs and Independents – State Long Distance: RBOCs and Independents, and, after a few years, the long distance companies • After 1996 (supposed to be competition everywhere) – International and Interstate Long Distance: AT&T, MCI, Sprint, other long distance companies, RBOCs – Local: RBOCs, Independents, competitive providers (CLECs) – State Long Distance: RBOCs, Independents, CLECs, AT&T, MCI, Sprint, other long distance companies Competition from new providers/technologies • Wireless providers – Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint (Nextel) • Internet access – Cable modem services—cable television companies – DSL—Local telephone companies and competitive providers (CLECs) • VoIP providers Lots of mergers • Mergers: – Wireless • Cingular and AT&T Wireless • Sprint and Nextel – Wireline • SBC and AT&T and Bell South • Verizon and MCI • More mergers, sales and acquisitions to come Industry Consolidation • Biggest local telephone companies – Verizon and AT&T • Biggest wireless providers – Verizon and AT&T – And now AT&T wants to buy T-Mobile • Biggest long distance providers – AT&T (owned by former SBC) – MCI (owned by Verizon) Changes in ILEC Business plans • Verizon is shedding rural properties • Maine, NH, and Vermont sold to Fairpoint—went bankrupt • Hawaii sold to private equity firm—went bankrupt • Former GTE properties in 9 states sold to Frontier (including Athens, Ohio)—will it go bankrupt???? • Ramping up wireless • Shifts from copper to broadband and from circuit switching to IP networks – AT&T’s U-Verse and Verizon’s FIOS So, what do we have today? • Cross platform competition • Bundling of services – Cable companies • Cable TV, Cable Modem, Digital Phone (triple play) • And Wireless ???? (quadruple play) – Telephone companies • Wireline telephone, DSL, Wireless (triple play • And IPTV???? (quadruple play) – Issues of pricing and service bundling???? Issues of concern • Broadband deployment • Regulatory status of VoIP • Network neutrality (or can the FCC regulate the broadband network) • Universal service—is it necessary? Who pays for it? How much should it cost? What should be included? • Regulatory parity in cross platform competition • Viability of competition, and the potential for monopoly • And more . . . . . . So….. • What is the role of the regulator?
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