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					                              CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                            Earth Science
                                             First Quarter


SUGGESTED   SOL   GENERAL           ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                    TEXT     RESOURCES &
  PACING     #     TOPIC                                                             SECTION    ACTIVITIES
                                                                                    OR PAGES
  3 days    1&2   Nature of   In order to meet this standard, it is expected that    Chap 1
                  Science     students should be able to:
                               Measure mass & volume of materials in the lab.
                               Calculate density.
                               Interpret data from a graph or table that shows
                                 change in mass, density, or temperature over
                                 time.
                               Interpret data from a graph or table that shows
                                 changes in temperature or pressure with depth.
                               Maintain an earth science notebook.
                               Compare topographic maps of different scales.
                               Construct a graph, table, chart, and/or diagram
                                 from data.
                               Interpret graphs & diagrams.
                               Use scientific methodology to design & test a
                                 hypothesis.
                               Compare & contrast hypotheses, theories, &
                                 scientific laws. For example, students should
                                 be able to compare/contrast the Law of
                                 Superposition & the Theory of Plate Tectonics.
                               Make predictions, using scientific data & data
                                 analysis.



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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter


SUGGESTED   SOL   GENERAL             ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS               TEXT     RESOURCES &
  PACING     #     TOPIC                                                          SECTION    ACTIVITIES
                                                                                 OR PAGES
                  Nature of      Use data to support or reject a hypothesis.
                  Science        Explain how the scientific method is used to
                                  validate scientific theories
                  (continued)
 4.5 days   1&2    Mapping                                                        Chap 2
                  our World
 1.5 days   !&@    Matter &                                                       Chap 3
                    Atomic
                   Structure




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                             CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                           Earth Science
                                            First Quarter



SUGGESTED   SOL   GENERAL          ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                    TEXT     RESOURCES &
  PACING     #     TOPIC                                                            SECTION    ACTIVITIES
                                                                                   OR PAGES
 2.5 days   1-2   Minerals   In order to meet this standard, it is expected that    Chap 4
            5&7              students should be able to:
                              See Chapter 1 (ES.1 & 2)
                              A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic,
                                solid substance with a definite chemical
                                composition & structure.
                              Minerals may be identified by their physical
                                properties, such as hardness, color, luster, &
                                streak.
                              Most rocks are made of one or more minerals.
                              Some major rock-forming minerals are quartz,
                                feldspar, calcite, & mica.
                              Ore minerals include pyrite, magnetite,
                                hematite, galena, graphite, & sulfur.
                              The major elements found in Earth’s crust are
                                oxygen, silicon, aluminum, & iron. The most
                                abundant group of minerals is the silicates,
                                which contain silicon & oxygen.
                              Renewable resources can be replaced by nature
                                at a rate close to the rate at which they are
                                used. Renewable resources include vegetation,
                                sunlight, & surface water.


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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



SUGGESTED   SOL   GENERAL             ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                    TEXT     RESOURCES &
  PACING     #     TOPIC                                                               SECTION    ACTIVITIES
                                                                                      OR PAGES
                   Minerals      Nonrenewable resources are renewed very
                                   slowly or not at all. Nonrenewable resources
                  (continued)      include coal, oil, & minerals.
                                 Fossil fuels are nonrenewable & may cause
                                   pollution, but they are relatively cheap & easy
                                   to use.
                                 In Virginia, major rock & mineral resources
                                   include coal for energy, gravel & crushed stone
                                   for road construction, & limestone for making
                                   concrete.
                                 Analyze the advantages & disadvantages of
                                   various energy sources.
  3 days    1-2    Igneous      In order to meet this standard, it is expected that
            6-7     Rocks       students should be able to:
                                 See Chapter 1 (ES.1 & 2)
                                 Igneous rock forms from molten rock that cools
                                   & hardens either below or on Earth’s
                                   surface.\Sedimentary rocks may be formed
                                   either by rock fragments or organic matter
                                   being bound together or by chemical
                                   precipitation.



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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



SUGGESTED   SOL   GENERAL             ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                   TEXT     RESOURCES &
  PACING     #     TOPIC                                                              SECTION    ACTIVITIES
                                                                                     OR PAGES
                   Igneous       Metamorphic rocks form when any rock is
                    Rocks         changed by the effects of heat, pressure, or
                                  chemical action.
                  (continued)    Extrusive igneous rocks have small or no
                                  crystals resulting in fine-grained or glassy
                                  textures.
                                 Intrusive igneous rocks have larger crystals & a
                                  coarser texture.
                                 Extrusive igneous rocks include pumice,
                                  obsidian, & basalt.
                                 Intrusive igneous rocks include granite.
                                  Sedimentary rocks are clastic, chemical, or
                                  organic.
                                 Clastic sedimentary rocks are made up of
                                  fragments of other rocks & include sandstone,
                                  conglomerate, & shale.
                                 Non-clastic sedimentary rocks include
                                  limestone & rock salt.
                                 Metamorphic rocks can be foliated or unfoliated
                                  (non-foliated).
                                 Foliated metamorphic rocks have bands of
                                  different minerals. Slate, schist, & gneiss are
                                  foliated metamorphic rocks.

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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter


Suggested   SOL   General                                                           Text         RESOURCES &
Pacing        #   Topic         ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                         Section
                                                                                      Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Igneous       Unfoliated metamorphic rocks have little or no
                    Rocks         banding and are rather homogeneous
                                  throughout. Marble & quartzite are unfoliated
                  (continued)     metamorphic rocks.
                                 Interpret the rock cycle diagram.
                                 Classify the following rock types as igneous,
                                  metamorphic, or sedimentary: pumice,
                                  obsidian, basalt, granite, sandstone,
                                  conglomerate, shale, limestone, slate, schist,
                                  gneiss, marble, & quartzite. Renewable
                                  resources include vegetation, sunlight, &
                                  surface water.
                                 Nonrenewable resources are renewed very
                                  slowly or not at all. Nonrenewable resources
                                  include coal, oil, & minerals.
                                 Fossil fuels are nonrenewable & may cause
                                  pollution, but they are relatively cheap & easy
                                  to use.
                                 In Virginia, major rock & mineral resources
                                  include coal for energy, gravel & crushed stone
                                  for road construction, & limestone for making
                                  concrete.
                                 Analyze the advantages & disadvantages of
                                  various energy sources.

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                               CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                             Earth Science
                                              First Quarter



Suggested   SOL   General                                                            Text         RESOURCES &
Pacing        #   Topic        ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                           Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
   3 days   1&2      Sedi-      ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                               Chap 6
            6&7   mentary &     ES 6 & 7 = See Chapter 5
                   Metamor-
                  phic Rocks
   3 days   1-3    Nature of   In order to meet this standard, it is expected that     Chap 7
            8&9    Science     students should be able to:
                                See Chapter 1 (ES.1 & 2)
                                Read & interpret maps, including legends &
                                  lines (e.g., contour & isobar)
                                Locate points & directions on maps & globes,
                                  using latitude & longitude.
                                Construct profiles from topographic contours.
                                Determine distance & elevation on a map.
                                Identify a hilltop, stream, & valley on a
                                  topographical map.
                                The 5 physiographic provinces of Virginia are
                                  Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley &
                                  Ridge, & Appalachian Plateau.
                                The Coastal Plan is a flat area underlain by
                                  young, unconsolidated sediments. These
                                  layers of sediment were produced by erosion of
                                  the Appalachian Mountains and then deposited
                                  on the Coastal Plain.

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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                            Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                  Section
                                                                                    Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                  Nature of      The Piedmont is an area of rolling hills
                  Science         underlain by mostly ancient igneous &
                                  metamorphic rocks. The igneous rocks are the
                  (continued)     roots of volcanoes formed during an ancient
                                  episode of subduction that occurred before the
                                  formation of the Appalachian Mountains.
                                 The Blue Ridge is a high ridge separating the
                                  Piedmont from the Valley & Ridge Province.
                                  The billion-year-old igneous & metamorphic
                                  rocks of the Blue Ridge are the oldest in the
                                  state. Some metamorphism of these rocks
                                  occurred during the formation of the
                                  Appalachian Mountains.
                                 The Valley & Ridge Province is an area with
                                  long parallel ridges & valleys underlain by
                                  ancient folded and faulted sedimentary rocks.
                                  The folding & faulting of the sedimentary rocks
                                  occurred during a collision between Africa &
                                  North America. The collision, which occurred
                                  in the late Paleozoic era, produced the
                                  Appalachian Mountains.




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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                             Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                   Section
                                                                                     Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                  Nature of      The Appalachian Plateau has rugged, irregular
                  Science         topography & is underlain by ancient, flat-lying
                                  sedimentary rocks. The area is actually a series
                  (continued)     of plateaus separated by faults. Most of
                                  Virginia’s coal resources are found in the
                                  Plateau Province.
                                 Label on a map & recognize the major features
                                  of the physiographic provinces of Virginia.
                                 Weathering is the process by which rocks are
                                  broken down chemically & physically by the
                                  action of water, air, & organisms.
                                 Erosion is the process by which Earth materials
                                  are transported by moving water, ice, or wind.
                                 Deposition is the process by which Earth
                                  materials carried by wind, water, or ice settle
                                  out & are deposited.
                                 Earth consists of a solid, mostly iron inner
                                  core; a liquid, mostly iron outer core; a rocky,
                                  plastic mantle; & a rocky, brittle crust.
                                 Relative plate motions & plate boundaries are
                                  convergent (subduction & continental
                                  collision), divergent (sea floor spreading), or
                                  transform.

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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                               Earth Science
                                                First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                                 Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic             ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                      Section
                                                                                         Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                  Nature of      Ocean crust is relatively thin, young, & dense.
                  Science        Continental crust is relatively thick, old, & less
                                  dense.
                  (continued)    Continental drift is a consequence of plate
                                  tectonics.
                                 Hot spot volcanic activity, such as volcanic
                                  islands, is exceptional in that it is not related to
                                  plate boundaries.
                                 Earthquake activity is associated with all plate
                                  boundaries.
                                 Major features of convergent boundaries
                                  include collision zones (folded & thrust-faulted
                                  mountains) & subduction zones (volcanoes &
                                  trenches).
                                 Major features of divergent boundaries include
                                  mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, & fissure
                                  volcanoes.
                                 Major features of transform boundaries include
                                  strike-slip faults.
                                 A fault is a break or crack in Earth’s crust along
                                  which movement has occurred.
                                 Most active faults are located at or near plate
                                  boundaries. Earthquakes result when
                                  movement occurs along a fault.
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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                               Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                     Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                  Nature of      When rocks are compressed horizontally, their
                  Science         layers may be deformed into wave-like forms
                                  called folds. This commonly occurs during
                  (continued)     continental collisions.
                                 A volcano is an opening where magma erupts
                                  onto Earth’s surface. Most volcanic activity is
                                  associated with subduction, rifting, or sea floor
                                  spreading.
                                 Soil is loose rock fragments & clay derived from
                                  weathered rock mixed with organic material.
                                 Karst topography includes features like caves &
                                  sinkholes.
                                 Karst topography forms when limestone is
                                  slowly dissolved away by slightly acidic
                                  groundwater.
                                 Where limestone is abundant in the Valley &
                                  Ridge province of Virginia, karst topography is
                                  common.
                                 Permeability is a measure of the ability of a rock
                                  or sediment to transmit water or other liquids.
                                 Water does not pass through impermeable
                                  materials.


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                               CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                            Earth Science
                                             First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                          Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic           ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                 Section
                                                                                  Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Nature of   Geological processes, such as erosion, & human
                   Science      activities, such as waste disposal, can pollute
                                water supplies.
                  (continued)  The 3 major regional watershed systems in
                                Virginia lead to the Chesapeake Bay, the North
                                Carolina sounds, & the Gulf of Mexico.
                               Interpret a simple groundwater diagram
                                showing the zone of aeration, the zone of
                                saturation, the water table, & an aquifer.
                               Interpret a simple hydrologic cycle diagram,
                                including evaporation, condensation,
                                precipitation, & runoff.
                               Locate the major Virginia watershed systems
                                on a map (Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of Mexico, &
                                North Carolina sounds.
 2.5 days   1&2   Weathering,  ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 8
             8    Erosion, &  ES 8 = See Chapter 7
                      Soil
 3.5 days   1-3     Surface    ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 9
            8-9      Water     ES 3, 8, & 9 = See Chapter 7
 3 days     1-2    Ground-     ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 10
            8-9      water     ES 8 & 9 = See Chapter 7


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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                               Earth Science
                                                First Quarter



Suggested   SOL       General                                                            Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #         Topic           ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                   Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
 2 days      1-2    Atmosphere  ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                              Chap 11
            11-12               ES 12 = See Chapter 27
                                The stored heat in the ocean drives much of
                                 Earth’s weather.
                                The stored heat in the ocean causes climate near
                                 the ocean to be milder than climate in the interior
                                 of continents.
 3 days      1-3      Meteor-   ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                              Chap 12
             11        ology    ES 3 = See Chapter 7
             13                 The stored heat in the ocean drives much of
                                 Earth’s weather.
                                The stored heat in the ocean causes climate near
                                 the ocean to be milder than climate in the interior
                                 of continents.
                                Weather describes day-to-day changes in
                                 atmospheric conditions.
                                Climate describes the typical weather patterns
                                 for a given location over a period of many years.
                                Areas near the equator receive more of the sun’s
                                 energy per unit area than areas nearer the poles.




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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                                Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                      Section
                                                                                        Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Meteor-       The conditions necessary for cloud formation are
                    ology         air at or below dew point & presence of
                                  condensation nuclei. Cloud droplets can join
                  (continued)     together to form precipitation.
                                 The 4 major factors affecting climate are latitude,
                                  elevation, proximity to bodies of water, &
                                  position relative to the mountains. The Coriolis
                                  effect causes deflections of the atmosphere due
                                  to the rotation of Earth. Global wind patterns
                                  result from the uneven heating of Earth by the
                                  sun & are influenced by the Coriolis effect.
                                 Earth’s major climatic zones are the polar,
                                  temperate, & tropical zones.
                                 A tornado is a narrow, violent funnel-shaped
                                  column of spiral winds that extends downward
                                  from the cloud base toward Earth.
                                 A hurricane is a tropical cyclone
                                  (counterclockwise movement of air)
                                  characterized by sustained winds of 120
                                  kilometers per hour (75 miles per hour) or
                                  greater.
                                 Label a diagram of global wind patterns.
                                 Read & interpret data from a thermometer, a
                                  barometer, & a psychrometer.
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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                               Earth Science
                                                First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                               Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                     Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Meteor-       Read & interpret a weather map.
                    ology        Predict weather based on cloud type,
                                  temperature, and barometric pressure.
                  (continued)
 2.5 days   1-3    Nature of     ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                             Chap 13
            11      Storms       ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            13                   ES 11 C&D = See Chapter 11
                                 ES 13 = See Chapter 12
 3 days     1-3    Climate       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                             Chap 14
            11                   ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            12                   ES 11 C&D = See Chapter 11
            13                   ES 12 = See Chapter 27
                                 ES 13 = See Chapter 12
 3.5 days   1-3    Physical      ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                             Chap 15
            4&8     Ocean-       ES 3 = See Chapter 7
             11    ography       The tides are the daily, periodic rise & fall of
                                  water level caused by the gravitational pull of
                                  the sun & moon.
                                 Ocean crust is relatively thin, young, & dense.
                                 Continental crust is relatively thick, old, & less
                                  dense. Major features of divergent boundaries
                                  include mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, & fissure
                                  volcanoes.

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                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                               Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                     Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Physical      Most waves on the ocean surface are generated
                    Ocean-        by wind.
                   ography       The tides are the daily, periodic rise and fall of
                                  water level caused by the gravitational pull of
                  (continued)     the sun & moon.
                                 There are large current systems in the oceans
                                  that carry warm water towards the poles & cold
                                  water towards the equator.
                                 Sea level falls when glacial ice caps grow &
                                  rises when the ice caps melt.
                                 Upwellings bring cold, nutrient-rich water from
                                  the deep ocean to the surface & are areas of
                                  rich biological activity.
                                 Estuaries, like the Chesapeake Bay, are areas
                                  where fresh & salt water mix, producing
                                  variations in salinity & high biological activity.
                                  Algae in the oceans are an important source of
                                  atmospheric oxygen.
                                 The oceans are an important source of food &
                                  mineral resources as well as a venue for
                                  recreation & transportation.
                                 Pollution & over-fishing can harm or deplete
                                  valuable resources.

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                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                               Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                     Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Physical      Chemical pollution & sedimentation are great
                    Ocean-        threats to the chemical & biological well-being of
                   ography        estuaries & oceans.
                                 Identify the effects of human activities on the
                  (continued)     oceans.
 2.5 days   1-3     Marine       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                             Chap 16
             8     Environ-      ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            11       ment        ES 8 = See Chapter 15
                                 ES 11 = See Chapter 15
 3.5 days   1-3     Plate        ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                             Chap 17
             8    Tectonics      ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            10                   A fossil is the remains, impression, or other
                                  evidence preserved in rock of the former
                                  existence of life.
                                 Some ways in which fossils can be preserved
                                  are molds, casts, & original bone or shell.
                                 Nearly all fossils are found in sedimentary
                                  rocks.
                                 In Virginia, fossils are found mainly in the
                                  Coastal Plain, Valley & Ridge, & Appalachian
                                  Plateau provinces.



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                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                              Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                    Section
                                                                                      Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                    Plate        Most Virginia fossils are of marine organisms.
                  Tectonics       This indicates that large areas of the state have
                                  been periodically covered by seawater.
                  (continued)    Paleozoic, Mesozoic, & Cenozoic fossils are
                                  found in Virginia.
                                 Describe how life has changed & become more
                                  complex over geologic time.
                                 Relative time places events in a sequence
                                  without assigning any numerical ages.
                                 Fossils, superposition, & crosscutting relations
                                  are used to determine the relative ages of
                                  rocks.
                                 Absolute time places a numerical age on an
                                  event.
                                 Radioactive decay is used to determine the
                                  absolute age of rocks.
                                 Interpret a simple geologic history diagram,
                                  using superposition & crosscutting relations.




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                                            First Quarter



Suggested   SOL   General                                                           Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #     Topic           ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                  Section
                                                                                  Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
 2.5 days   1-3   Volcanic     ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 18
             8    Activity     ES 3 & 8 = See Chapter 7

 3.5 days   1-3    Earth-      ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 19
             8     quakes      ES 3 & 8 = See Chapter 7
 3 days     1-3   Mountain     ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 20
             8    Building     ES 3 & 8 = See Chapter 7
 2 days     1-3   Fossils &    ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 21
            10      Rock       ES 3 = See Chapter 7
                   Record      ES 10 = See Chapter 17
 1/3 days   1&2     Pre-       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 22
             4    cambrian     ES 10 = See Chapter 17
             10     Earth      Comets orbit the sun & consist mostly of frozen
                                gases.
                               Asteroids are rocky or metallic iron objects
                                ranging in size from millimeters to kilometers.
                                They are the source of most meteorites.
 1/3 days   1&2   Paleozoic    ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 23
             10      Era       ES 10 = See Chapter 17




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                                            Earth Science
                                             First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                           Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic           ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                  Section
                                                                                   Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
 1/3 days   1-2   Mesozoic &    ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 24
            10     Cenozoic     ES 10 = See Chapter 17
                     Era
 3 days     1-2     Earth       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 25
            7&9   Resources     ES 7 = See Chapter 4
                                ES 9 = See Chapter 7
 3 days     1-2    Energy       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 26
             7    Resources     ES 7 = See Chapter 4
 3 days     1&2    Human        ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                          Chap 27
             7    Impact on     ES 7 = See Chapter 4
             12     Earth       The early atmosphere contained little oxygen &
                  Resources      more carbon dioxide than the modern
                                 atmosphere.
                                Early photosynthetic life such as cyanobacteria
                                 (blue-green algae) consumed carbon dioxide &
                                 generated oxygen.
                                It was only after early photosynthetic life
                                 generated oxygen that animal life became
                                 possible
                                Earth’s atmosphere is 21% oxygen, 78%
                                 nitrogen, & 1% trace gases.



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                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                             Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                   Section
                                                                                     Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                   Human         The atmosphere of Venus is mostly carbon
                  Impact on       dioxide & very dense.
                    Earth        The atmosphere of Mars is very thin & mostly
                  Resources       carbon dioxide.
                                 Human activities have increased the carbon
                  (continued)     dioxide content of the atmosphere.
                                 Man-made chemicals have decreased the ozone
                                  concentration in the upper atmosphere.
                                 Volcanic activity & meteorite impacts can inject
                                  large quantities of dust & gases into the
                                  atmosphere.
                                 The ability of Earth’s atmosphere to absorb &
                                  retain heat is affected by the presence of gases
                                  like water vapor & carbon dioxide.
                                 Explain how volcanic activity or meteor impacts
                                  could affect the atmosphere & life on Earth.
                                 Explain how biologic activity, including human
                                  activities, may influence global temperature &
                                  climate.




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                            CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                          Earth Science
                                           First Quarter



Suggested   SOL   General                                                              Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #     Topic         ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                       Section
                                                                                     Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
 3 days     1-3    Sun/      ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                               Chap 28
             4     Earth/    ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            14     Moon      Earth is the third planet from the sun & is located
                  System      between the sun & the asteroid belt. It has one
                              natural satellite, the moon.
                             Earth revolves around the sun, tilted on its axis,
                              causing seasons (equinoxes & solstices).
                             The moon revolves around Earth creating the
                              moon phases & eclipses.
                             Solar eclipses occur when the moon blocks
                              sunlight from Earth’s surface, while lunar
                              eclipses occur when Earth blocks sunlight from
                              reaching the moon’s surface.
                             The tides are the daily, periodic rise & fall of
                              water level caused by the gravitational pull of the
                              sun & moon.
                             Water occurs on Earth as a solid (ice), a liquid, or
                              a gas (water vapor) due to Earth’s position in the
                              solar system. The sun consists largely of
                              hydrogen gas. Its energy comes form nuclear
                              fusion of hydrogen to helium.
                             There are essentially 2 types of planets in our
                              solar system.

                                                                                                         22
                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                                Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                      Section
                                                                                        Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                    Sun/         The 4 inner (terrestrial) planets consist mostly of
                    Earth/        solid rock.
                    Moon         4 of the outer planets are gas giants, consisting
                   System         of thick outer layers of gaseous materials,
                                  perhaps with small rocky cores.
                  (continued)    The fifth outer planet, Pluto, has an unknown
                                  composition but appears to be solid.
                                 Moons are natural satellites of planets that vary
                                  widely in composition.
                                 Comets orbit the sun & consist mostly of frozen
                                  gases. Asteroids are rocky or metallic iron
                                  objects ranging in size from millimeters to
                                  kilometers. They are the source of most
                                  meteorites.
                                 Apollo 11 was the first manned landing on the
                                  moon.
                                 The Hubble Space Telescope has greatly
                                  improved our understanding of the universe.
                                 Draw a diagram of the solar system & label the
                                  planets.
                                 The big bang theory states that the universe
                                  began in a very hot, dense state that expanded &
                                  eventually condensed into galaxies.

                                                                                                            23
                                CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                               Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic            ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS                     Section
                                                                                       Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
                    Sun/         The solar nebular theory explains that the
                    Earth/        planets formed through the condensing of the
                    Moon          solar nebula.
                   System        Stars form by condensation of interstellar gas.
                                 The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram illustrates the
                  (continued)     relationship between the absolute magnitude &
                                  the surface temperature of stars. As stars
                                  evolve, their position on the Hertzsprung-Russell
                                  diagram moves.
                                 Galaxies are collections of billions of stars. The
                                  basic types of galaxies are spiral, elliptical, &
                                  irregular.
                                 The solar system is located in the Milky Way
                                  galaxy. A light-year is the distance light travels
                                  in 1 year & is the most commonly used
                                  measurement for distance in astronomy.
                                 Much of our information about our galaxy & the
                                  universe comes from ground-based
                                  observations.




                                                                                                           24
                               CURRICULUM PACING GUIDE
                                              Earth Science
                                               First Quarter



Suggested   SOL    General                                                          Text     RESOURCES &
 Pacing      #      Topic             ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS               Section
                                                                                  Or Pages    ACTIVITIES
 3.5 days   1-3   Our Solar       ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                       Chap 29
             4     System         ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            12                    ES 4 & 14= Chapter 28
            14                    The atmosphere of Venus is mostly carbon
                                   dioxide & very dense.
                                  The atmosphere of Mars is very thin & mostly
                                   carbon dioxide.
 3.5 days   1-3     Stars         ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                       Chap 30
             4                    ES 3 = See Chapter 7
            14                    ES 4 & 14= Chapter 28
 3 days     1-3   Galaxies &    ES 1 & 2 = See Chapter 1                         Chap 31
            14       the        ES 3 = See Chapter 7
                   Universe     ES 14= Chapter 28




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