STAKEHOLDERS by benbenzhou



         APRIL 2009

    In July 2006, Lebanon was the target of a
     devastating war led by Israel

    The cost of the reconstruction was estimated to
     US$ 2.8 billions while compensation for the
     housing sector was estimated to 1.4 billion.

    South Lebanon witnessed the heaviest bombing:
     more than 130,000 dwelling units were affected.
 Housing Damage Assessment in
    Southern Lebanon
            Totally              Partially           Severely         Totally Affected
            Destroyed            Destroyed           Damaged
Number of               13,108               2,180          115,139            130,427
                                                           Source: CoS as of 11-01-2008

   The shelter sector reconstruction cannot be
    sustainable without a strategic reconstruction
    plan promoting governance, while focusing on
    socio-economic development, environmental
    protection     and       urban      expansion
1- The Government Shelter Reconstruction Plan
  The main objective of the GoL national recovery and
  reconstruction plan was to ensure a safe and prompt
  return of the displaced to their towns and villages.
  Severity of   Ceiling                         Remarks
   Damage       Amount
 Totally           40,000 2 installments (50%-50%)
 Destroyed                Shelter reconstruction USD 30, 000
                          Furniture USD 10,000
 Partially         28,000 2 Installments. First payment around USD 6,600
 Severely          13,333 2 installments unless damages are less than USD 6,600
 Partially          3,333 1 installment.
2- Shelter Working Group
     As soon as hostilities started, an emergency shelter
      cluster was established. Cluster meetings were co-
      chaired by the CoS and UN-HABITAT and took place
      on weekly basis in Beirut and Southern Lebanon in
      order to provide shelter assistance.

     The shelter cluster operation focuses on:
     coordinating the various interventions.
     Identifying gaps and unmet needs.
     Tracking government housing compensations.
At first, the shelter cluster interventions focused on:
  ► winterization activities (Waterproofing)
  ►cash for repair partially damaged houses.

  The second stage saw a shift in shelter intervention:
   ► From quick repair to sustainable recovery and
3- Stakeholders

     Governmental Organizations
     Non-Governmental Organizations
     Private Consulting Firm (Khatib & Alami)
     UN agencies and mainly UN-Habitat
     Donor Countries
     Local Authorities
1- Challenges and Gaps

   Financial Challenges: Delays in the compensation disbursements
    due to the long administrative procedures.
   Legal Challenges: Absence of reconstruction regulatory
   Technical Challenges:
      Lack Proper Urban Planning Rules and regulations
      Inaccurate Documentation of housing
   Management Challenges: Absence of a defined plan and poor
    community awareness and know-how
   Governance Challenges: Governance challenges require the
    continued search for peace, security, political stability,
    transparency, decentralization, equity, participation, reform in local
    development strategies, etc.
   Socio-economic Challenges: Poverty, unemployment, migration,
2- Strategic Fields of Intervention
      The shelter sector recovery plan main objective was to
       meet two categories of needs:

      The short term or immediate needs: ensuring a
       prompt and safe return of displaced people
      The Long term needs: ensuring the sustainability of
       the shelter reconstruction.

    The fundamental challenge is to reconcile between the
     short term and long term needs in order to bridge the
     gap between the two categories of goals and ensure a
     sustainable reconstruction.
Socio-Economic Field: Livelihood Support

A vital local economy is one of the key elements in
sustainable recovery and development in South Lebanon.
 Employment generation programs must be put in place
  in order to link relief, development and reconstruction.
 Promoting sustainable economic development consists
  in creating new dynamics by developing existing activities
  or investing in high added value sectors.
 These action plans should focus on SMI and SME and on
  promoting gender equity.
Investments should be oriented towards:
 Alternative Agriculture

 Organic Agriculture

 Food Processing Industry

 Aquaculture in Coastal Cities

 Tourism
Urban Planning Field

  The urban fabric in South Lebanon is anarchic.
  Interventions in the urban planning field should include
  the following:
   Managing the urbanization and avoiding the
    proliferation of informal settlements
   Integration of the informal settlement
   Surveying the villages that were not included in the
    ministry of finance plan
   Highlighting on the identity of historical cities
   Protecting and preserving the agricultural areas
   Solving the squatted public domain problems.
Environmental Field

  The environmental degradation is accelerated and
  Compromises the shelter reconstruction sustainability.
  There is an emergency to recourse to:

     Protecting agricultural plains from urban expansion
     Protecting spring and underground water and
      littoral from pollution
     Fighting against soil degradation
     Implementing a solid waste management plan.
     Switching to renewable energy solutions
Governance Field
The principles of good governance are key elements for
sustainable development and crisis mitigation and

   Empowering Community Organizations and NGOs
   Reinforcing Public Institutions
   Developing Local Governments capacities
   Insuring all stakeholders involvement
Security Field

   Security conditions in South Lebanon represent a
   major threat to shelter sustainability:
    Unexploded cluster bombs

    Risk of another war
3- Targets Optimization
   Decision-makers, the GoL and municipalities can
   contribute to the target optimization through the
   following initiatives:
    Promotion of subsidized micro-credit policies

    Reform inside the fiscal and financial systems

    Implication       of repatriated capitals in the
      development strategies while stimulating their
      reinvestment in productive sectors.
    Increasing population awareness about socio-
      economic,           urban planning, environmental,
      governance and security issues.
Thank you

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