RESPONSE TO SHELTER CRISIS
In July 2006, Lebanon was the target of a
devastating war led by Israel
The cost of the reconstruction was estimated to
US$ 2.8 billions while compensation for the
housing sector was estimated to 1.4 billion.
South Lebanon witnessed the heaviest bombing:
more than 130,000 dwelling units were affected.
Housing Damage Assessment in
Totally Partially Severely Totally Affected
Destroyed Destroyed Damaged
Number of 13,108 2,180 115,139 130,427
Source: CoS as of 11-01-2008
The shelter sector reconstruction cannot be
sustainable without a strategic reconstruction
plan promoting governance, while focusing on
socio-economic development, environmental
protection and urban expansion
1- The Government Shelter Reconstruction Plan
The main objective of the GoL national recovery and
reconstruction plan was to ensure a safe and prompt
return of the displaced to their towns and villages.
Severity of Ceiling Remarks
Totally 40,000 2 installments (50%-50%)
Destroyed Shelter reconstruction USD 30, 000
Furniture USD 10,000
Partially 28,000 2 Installments. First payment around USD 6,600
Severely 13,333 2 installments unless damages are less than USD 6,600
Partially 3,333 1 installment.
2- Shelter Working Group
As soon as hostilities started, an emergency shelter
cluster was established. Cluster meetings were co-
chaired by the CoS and UN-HABITAT and took place
on weekly basis in Beirut and Southern Lebanon in
order to provide shelter assistance.
The shelter cluster operation focuses on:
coordinating the various interventions.
Identifying gaps and unmet needs.
Tracking government housing compensations.
At first, the shelter cluster interventions focused on:
► winterization activities (Waterproofing)
►cash for repair partially damaged houses.
The second stage saw a shift in shelter intervention:
► From quick repair to sustainable recovery and
Private Consulting Firm (Khatib & Alami)
UN agencies and mainly UN-Habitat
1- Challenges and Gaps
Financial Challenges: Delays in the compensation disbursements
due to the long administrative procedures.
Legal Challenges: Absence of reconstruction regulatory
Lack Proper Urban Planning Rules and regulations
Inaccurate Documentation of housing
Management Challenges: Absence of a defined plan and poor
community awareness and know-how
Governance Challenges: Governance challenges require the
continued search for peace, security, political stability,
transparency, decentralization, equity, participation, reform in local
development strategies, etc.
Socio-economic Challenges: Poverty, unemployment, migration,
2- Strategic Fields of Intervention
The shelter sector recovery plan main objective was to
meet two categories of needs:
The short term or immediate needs: ensuring a
prompt and safe return of displaced people
The Long term needs: ensuring the sustainability of
the shelter reconstruction.
The fundamental challenge is to reconcile between the
short term and long term needs in order to bridge the
gap between the two categories of goals and ensure a
Socio-Economic Field: Livelihood Support
A vital local economy is one of the key elements in
sustainable recovery and development in South Lebanon.
Employment generation programs must be put in place
in order to link relief, development and reconstruction.
Promoting sustainable economic development consists
in creating new dynamics by developing existing activities
or investing in high added value sectors.
These action plans should focus on SMI and SME and on
promoting gender equity.
Investments should be oriented towards:
Food Processing Industry
Aquaculture in Coastal Cities
Urban Planning Field
The urban fabric in South Lebanon is anarchic.
Interventions in the urban planning field should include
Managing the urbanization and avoiding the
proliferation of informal settlements
Integration of the informal settlement
Surveying the villages that were not included in the
ministry of finance plan
Highlighting on the identity of historical cities
Protecting and preserving the agricultural areas
Solving the squatted public domain problems.
The environmental degradation is accelerated and
Compromises the shelter reconstruction sustainability.
There is an emergency to recourse to:
Protecting agricultural plains from urban expansion
Protecting spring and underground water and
littoral from pollution
Fighting against soil degradation
Implementing a solid waste management plan.
Switching to renewable energy solutions
The principles of good governance are key elements for
sustainable development and crisis mitigation and
Empowering Community Organizations and NGOs
Reinforcing Public Institutions
Developing Local Governments capacities
Insuring all stakeholders involvement
Security conditions in South Lebanon represent a
major threat to shelter sustainability:
Unexploded cluster bombs
Risk of another war
3- Targets Optimization
Decision-makers, the GoL and municipalities can
contribute to the target optimization through the
Promotion of subsidized micro-credit policies
Reform inside the fiscal and financial systems
Implication of repatriated capitals in the
development strategies while stimulating their
reinvestment in productive sectors.
Increasing population awareness about socio-
economic, urban planning, environmental,
governance and security issues.