MAYO The Spirit of the Age (1790-1850) A sense of a shared vision among the Romantics. Early support of the French Revolution Rise of the individual. Affinity with nature. Radical poetics / politics – an obsession with violent change. The Early 19c Romanticism Enlightenment Civilization Society is good, corrupts; curbing violent institutions impulses! have rippling effects! Romantic Movement • Reaction (backlash) against some Enlightenment ideas • Dramatic German poetry (Strum and Drang … storm and stress) • Rationalism and reason are NOT enough to explain human nature Rousseau • Emile – stressed differences between children and adults • Stages of maturation • Maximum individual freedom • Physical differences of men and women have them in separate roles • Nature superior to artificial society • Uniqueness of each individual Immanuel Kant • Knowledge rooted in sensory experience (Locke) • KANT … subjective character of human knowledge … the mind actively imposes categories of understanding … presupposition • Innate sense of moral duty Romantics • Fancy, imagination, intuition … human mind had power beyond reason • Poets, artists, possessed greater degree of the above Romanticism • Emotions, Passion, Irrationality • Individualism • Power of Nature • Nationalism • Mysticism, Superstition • Danger in Science and Technology (sometimes) • Exotic lands, fantasy, the occult Lady Macbeth - Henry Fuseli, 1794 Wandering Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich, 1818 The Dreamer Gaspar David Friedrich, 1835 Solitary Tree Caspar David Friedrich, 1823 An Avalanche in the Alps Philip James de Loutherbourg, 1803 Sunset After a Storm On the Coast of Sicily – Andreas Achenbach, 1853 The Deluge Francis Danby, 1840 Tree of Crows Caspar David Friedrich, 1822 The Wreck of the Hope (aka The Sea of Ice) Caspar David Friedrich, 1821 Shipwreck – Joseph Turner, 1805 The Raft of the Medusa Théodore Géricault, 1819 The Eruption of Vesuvius - John Martin Lion with the Rabbit - Eugène Delacroix Isaac Newton – William Blake, 1795 Rain, Steam, and Speed Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1844 Man and Woman Contemplating the Moon Gaspar David Friedrich, 1825 Moonrise by the Sea Gaspar David Friedrich, 1821 Flatford Mill – John Constable, 1817 The Corn Field John Constable, 1826 A Mill at Gillingham in Dorset John Constable, 1826 Coming From Evening Church Samuel Palmer, 1830 Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Ground John Constable, 1825 Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows John Constable, 1831 Hadleigh Castle - John Constable, 1829 Eldena Ruin Gaspar David Friedrich, 1825 Winter Landscape with Church Gaspar David Friedrich, 1811 Cloister Cemetery in the Snow Caspar David Friedrich, 1817-1819 Abbey in an Oak Forest Caspar David Friedrich, 1809-1810 Pity - William Blake, 1795 The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the Sun William Blake, 1808-1810 Stonehenge - John Constable, 1836 Nightmare (The Incubus) Henry Fuseli, 1781 Manfred and the Witch of the Alps John Martin - 1837 Witches Sabbath Francisco Goya, 1798 Procession of Flagellants on Good Friday Francisco Goya, 1793 Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard Eugène Delacroix, 1839 Saturn Devours His Son Francisco Goya, 1819-1823 Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi Eugène Delacroix, 1827 Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix, 1830 Detail of the Musket Bearer Delacoix, himself The Burning of Parliament (1) Joseph Turner, 1834-1835 The Rise of the Cartheginian Empire Joseph Turner, 1815 His Majesty’s Ship, “Victory” (Trafalgar) - John Constable, 1806 The Fighting Temeraire Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1838 An Officer of the Imperial Horse Guard Théodore Géricault, 1814 The Shooting of May 3, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1815 Portrait of Frederick Chopin Eugène Delacroix, 1838 Pandemonium - John Martin, 1841 Grand Canal, Venice Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1835 Massacre of Chios - Eugène Delacroix, 1824 The Fanatics of Tangiers Eugène Delacroix, 1837-1838 The Sultan of Morocco and His Entourage Eugène Delacroix, 1845 Women of Algiers in Their Apartment Eugène Delacroix, 1834 The Bullfight - Francisco Goya Charge of the Mamelukes, May 2nd, 1808 Francisco Goya, 1814 God as the Architect - William Blake, 1794 Elohim Creating Abraham William Blake, 1805 Body of Abel Found by Adam and Eve William Blake, 1825 Faust and Mephistopheles Eugène Delacroix, 1826-1827 The Seventh Plague of Egypt John Martin, 1823 The Cathedral Gaspar David Friedrich, 1818 The Cathedral (details) Gaspar David Friedrich, 1818 The Great Age of the Novel Gothic Novel: Jane Eyre - Charlotte Bronte Wuthering Heights - Emily Bronte Historical Novel: Ivanhoe - Sir Walter Scott Les Miserables - Victor Hugo The Three Musketeers - Alexander Dumas The Great Age of the Novel Science Fiction Novel: Frankenstein - Mary Shelley Dracula – Bramm Stoker Novel of Purpose: The Road to Ruin - Thomas Holcroft Other Romantic Writers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm - Grimm’s Fairy Tales Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Faust The Romantic Poets Percy Byssche Shelley Lord Byron (George Gordon) Samuel Taylor Coleridge William Wordsworth John Keats William Blake The Lamb Poem lyrics of The Lamb by William Blake • Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? Gave thee life, and bid thee feed, By the stream and o'er the mead; Gave thee clothing of delight, Softest clothing, woolly, bright; Gave thee such a tender voice, Making all the vales rejoice? Little Lamb, who made thee? Dost thou know who made thee? • Little Lamb, I'll tell thee, Little Lamb, I'll tell thee. He is called by thy name, For He calls Himself a Lamb. He is meek, and He is mild; He became a little child. I a child, and thou a lamb, We are called by His name. Little Lamb, God bless thee! Little Lamb, God bless thee! William Blake THE TYGER (from Songs Of Experience) Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand dare sieze the fire? And what shoulder, & what art. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when thy heart began to beat, What dread hand? & what dread feet? When the stars threw down their spears, What the hammer? what the And watered heaven with their chain? tears, In what furnace was thy brain? Did he smile his work to see? What the anvil? what dread grasp Did he who made the Lamb make Dare its deadly terrors clasp? thee? Tyger! Tyger! burning bright In the forests of the night, What immortal hand or eye Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? William Blake • to live a good life does not necessarily mean one must deny natural creative energy. The energy that Blake describes, that humans are taught to curb or restrain, is what causes the sense of evil as defined by orthodox Christianity, when in reality, it is that energy that gives humans creative power and true individuality. While that energy should be tamed, it should never be constrained. • Blake’s writing is more about universal balance – almost from an Eastern perspective as compared to Western religious teachings where everything is black and white. William Blake’s Proverbs of Hell endeavor to teach the value of experience beyond the five senses, to not deny natural desires, to resist prudence and see that active is preferred to passive living, to not resist the self and one’s accomplishments, and to recognize the hazards of religion and the herd mentality that it promotes.
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