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History of Microbiology

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									Can you figure out the next symbol in
             this series?
History of Microbiology
            First Epidemics

• Were Possibly
  Waterborne
• Infected Caveman
• Contaminating Water
  Supply
• People Had No Real
  Understanding of Why
  Disease Occurred
        Growth of Epidemics
• Isolated Groups / Sporadic Disease Episodes
• Civilization Progressed / People Clustered in
  Cities / Increased Contact = Increased Disease
• Shared Communal Water, Handled Unwashed
  Food, Stepped in Excrement from Casual
  Discharge
• Crowding Increased / Bred Waterborne, Insect
  Borne, and Skin-to-Skin Infectious Diseases
• Still No General Understanding of Why Disease
  Occurs
So What Did They Attribute
      Disease To?
 Trepanation
Trepanation is the oldest
surgical procedure
practiced by mankind.

It is the act of cutting of
hole in one's skull to allow
your brain better access
to blood flow and to
'awaken ancient parts of
the brain'.
Performed Across the
Globe by Medicine-men,
Shamans, Witch Doctors,
Etc.
High Success Rate!
According to John
Verano, a professor of
anthropology at Tulane
University, trepanation is
the oldest surgical
practice and is still
performed ceremonially
by some African tribes. A
trepanned skull found in
France was dated at about
5,000 BC. About 1,000
trepanned skulls from
Peru and Bolivia date
from 500 B.C. to the 16th
century.
Ancient Woodcutting Showing Trepanation in Elizabethan Times
Aztec trephining knife made of
bronze and gold (1200-1400 AC)




    Various Methods Exist
        1.   Scrape
        2.   Cut
        3.   Hammer and Chisel
        4.   Drill
   Trepanation is Practiced Today
         The ―Third Eye‖
 Feeling depressed? Lethargic? Shell-shocked by life's little
bombardments? You could try meditation. Or yoga. Or color
    therapy. Or herbal remedies. Or, if you prefer drastic
       measures, you could drill a hole in your head.


      http://www.free.de/homes/joern/luck_hole.html
Bart H. a medical school graduate who
has never practiced medicine except for a
bit of self-surgery, believes that
trepanation is the way to higher
consciousness. He wanted to be a
psychiatrist but failed the obstetrics exam
and so never went into practice. In 1965,
after years of experimentation with LSD,
cannabis and other drugs, Dr. H. realized
that the way to enlightenment was by
boring a hole in his skull. He used an
electric drill, a scalpel, and a hypodermic
needle (to administer a local anesthetic).
The operation took him 45 minutes. How
does it feel to be enlightened? "I feel like
I did when I was 4," says H.
This weekend I had a hole drilled through my skull. I read that this
increased one‘s consciousness permanently. I read about the
supposed de-conditioning properties. I read about more parts of the
brain working simultaneously as there would be more blood up
there to help this happen. The arguments for it all seemed to be
quite lengthy, quite detailed, thought out and researched, and very
intelligent. The arguments against it were based solely on the
opinion that it is ‗crazy‘ and talk like, "What‘s more conscious than
conscious?". I heard from an acquaintance on telephone that she
was glad she had done it, felt more mental energy, and had days of
brilliance. I came to believe that the key to a permanent
consciousness increase was a hole in the skull, to restore the full
brain pulsation of infancy. After several months of research,
discussion, speculation, watching surgical videos and trepanation
documentaries, and even an actual viewing of a trepanation, I
decided I certainly did want to be trepanned, and sought a way to
do it.
• I do think trepanation causes lasting and permanent
  pleasurable effects, but I don't think they are caused by
  more blood being in your brain. I think it definitely does
  increase the brain blood volume, but I don't think that
  causes the pleasurable mental side effects. I think that by
  undergoing an intense physical process, while focusing
  extremely intently on your sensory impressions, that you
  can become quite aware of every sensation and every
  stimulus that you usually would miss or overlook.
• There is an intense joy and renewed vigor that comes just
  from living through it. Time and again you hear how those
  that live through a near-death experience are re-awakened
  to the ability to appreciate life again, like a child. You are
  happy that you are still alive at all, and along with that the
  days are cherished and exciting again. You get to keep
  living them!
Proper sanitation is an important
  factor in order to address the
problems of health and disease.
      Sanitation and Disease
• From archeology we learn that various
  ancient civilizations began to develop
  rudimentary plumbing.
           Toilets and Sewers
           Public Toilets and Baths
           Toilet Paper
           Piped Water Supplies
Ancient Greeks Carried Waste From
Their Homes in Pots and Used It to
          Fertilize Fields
Human Wastes Used for Crop
       Fertilizer.
   What About Today?
               Sewage Sludge
• Definition:
      1. Anything Flushed, Poured, or Dumped

• Includes
       1. Wastes from homes to chemical industries to
          chemical factories.

• Contains
      1. Heavy Metals
      2. Industrial Compounds
      3. Viruses
      4. Bacteria
      5. Drug Residues
               Effects?
Hundreds of people have fallen ill after
being exposed to sewage sludge fertilizer--
suffering such symptoms as respiratory
distress, headaches, nausea, rashes,
reproductive complications, cysts, and
tumors.
      What About the EPA?
• The EPA (United States) monitors only nine
  of the thousands of pathogens commonly
  found in sludge; the agency rarely performs
  site inspections of sewage treatment plants;
  and it almost never inspects the farms that
  use sludge fertilizer.
                      CDC?
• Regulations governing the use and disposal of
  sewage sludge have been criticized by both the
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and
  the National Research Council, as well as
  numerous medical professionals, engineers, and
  activists.
• The Center for Food Safety seeks to end the use
  of sewage sludge as an agricultural fertilizer--first
  through an immediate moratorium on its
  application to croplands.
Roman Sanitation advanced to public toilets where they sat next
to each other on a stone bench. They used and shared a sponge
on a stick stuck in a bottle of salt water, because they didn't have
toilet paper.
The walls of the toilet were
painted with pictures of Roman
gods. The gods of smell,
Stercutius and Crepitus and the
goddess of the sewers, Cloacina.
The sewage from public toilets
was emptied into gutters in the
street, or buried in pits.

Motivated by concerns of
esthetics, comfort, and
convenience. They wanted a
pleasant existence, but there is
little evidence that they
understood the connection
between sanitation and disease
control.
                 Roman Public Baths




Occupied 100‘s and 1000‘s of bathers at a time. But without filtration or
circulation systems, the bathers basked in germ-ridden water and the huge pools
had to be emptied and refilled daily.
   What About Today?

Is Lack of Proper Sanitation
      Still A Problem?
         Human Waste Overwhelms
          India's War on Disease
•   By Kenneth J. Cooper
    Washington Post Foreign Service
    Monday, February 17, 1997; Page A27



• About half the world's reported cases of polio, a
  crippling disease virtually wiped out in Western
  countries, occur in India. Each year, diarrhea kills
  500,000 Indian children. A jaundice epidemic
  strikes a small district of India's Rajasthan state as
  regularly as the annual monsoon.
• Those deadly diseases and others that afflict India can
  be traced to the same source: drinking water
  contaminated by human waste. Infected water causes an
  estimated 80 percent of disease in India, according to
  the World Health Organization (WHO), making poor
  sanitation and inadequate sewage disposal the nation's
  biggest public health problems.


http://www.swopnet.com/engr/sanitation/India_sewer
html
• The World Health Organization says that
  every year more than 3.4 million people die
  as a result of water related diseases,
  making it the leading cause of disease and
  death around the world. Most of the
  victims are young children, the vast
  majority of whom die of illnesses caused by
  organisms that thrive in water sources
  contaminated by raw sewage.

• http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2005-03/2005-
  03-17-voa34.cfm
    The Fall of the Roman Empire
•   Lead Water Piles
•   Lead Cooking Utensils
•   Lead Goblets for Drinking
•   Earthquakes, Volcanic Eruptions
•   Disease Epidemics

    ―This led to the Dark Ages. One Thousand Years of
    Sicknesses and Plagues of Unbridled Virulence, Fanned by
    Fleas and Mosquitoes, Excrement and Filth, Stagnant and
    Contaminated Water of Every Description‖
                                     Historic Text
The Dark Ages
• Water was Precious
• Mass Epidemics
• Diseases Were Widely
  Recognized as being
  Communicable
• The Diseased were
  therefore Isolated
Shunning of Lepers
 The Black Death: "Realizing what a deadly disaster had
come to them the people quickly drove the Italians from their
city. However, the disease remained, and soon death was every
where. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to
come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were
left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were
soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in
empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian
burial."           Author Unknown




                                       Hythe Ossuary: remains of
                                       Black Death victims
Anne Dacre, Countess of Arundel (1557-1638) was a noted lay medical practitioner and
herbalist whose recipes are found in many seventeenth century compilations. This recipe for
a pomander that would protect against the plague comes from her own collection of recipes,
held in the Main Manuscript series. Reference: MS.213
Quarantine (from the Italian quarentina,
meaning forty days for the time of isolation of
ships entering harbor which were suspected of
carrying some form of contagion) is only
somewhat effective at the outset of an
outbreak. In the fourteenth century, Milan,
Florence, and Venice employed quarantines
with a vengeance. The homes of sufferers were
sealed—well and sick left to die for lack of
                                                  Yellow
food and water. Of course, the human residents
                                                  Quarantine
of such dwellings were constrained, while the
                                                  Flag Flown
rats could come and go as they pleased. Even
                                                  From
rats aboard docked quarantined ships had easy
                                                  Ships
egress, because they could climb down the
mooring ropes and onto the docks.
                   Top Killers
• 1900s (Infectious Diseases)
      - Flu and Pneumonia
      - Tuberculosis
      - Gastric Infections (Diarrhea)
• 2000s (????)
      - Heart Disease
      - Cancer
      - Stroke
                 2004-2005
• 15,000,000 Children
  Die Each Year from
  Infectious Diseases
  that are Preventable
  with Basic Sanitation,
  Nutrition,
  Immunization, and
  Simple Medical
  Treatments.
          Viewing Microbes
              Food Spoilage




Mold and Bacterial Colonies were observed, but the
organisms that caused the disease were still invisible.
Hans and Zacharias Jansen
Robert Hooke
In 1665, a physicist named Robert Hooke used
one of the first microscopes to look more closely
at the living world. A slice of cork caught his eye.
Looking at thousands of tiny chambers, Hooke
termed these structures cells because they
reminded him of the rooms in a monastery.
                    Cell Theory
• All living things are composed of
  cells.
• The cell is the basic functional unit of
  all living organisms.
• Cells come from preexisting cells.

   – Theodore Schwann
   – Mattias Schleiden
   – Rudolf Virchow
Servetus
Galileo
Change Came Slowly Because the
Public Assumed That The People
  They Admired Were Experts

        •   Aristotle
        •   Plato
        •   Hippocrates
        •   Religious Leaders / Pope
           The Invisible College
• The origins of the Royal Society lie in a group of men
  who began meeting in secret around 1645 to discuss the
  new philosophy of science.
• The common theme among the scientists who began the
  Society was acquiring knowledge by experimental
  investigation rather than by divine announcement.
• The first group of such men included Robert Boyle, John
  Wilkins, John Wallis, John Evelyn, Thomas Willis,
  Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren and William Petty.
•The Royal Society is the world‘s oldest scientific academy in
continuous existence, and has been at the forefront of enquiry and
discovery since its foundation in 1660. There are currently more than
65 Nobel Laureates amongst the Society‘s approximately 1300
Fellows and Foreign Members. Throughout its history, the Society
has promoted excellence in science through its Fellowship, which
has included Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford,
Albert Einstein, Dorothy Hodgkin, Francis Crick, James Watson and
Stephen Hawking.
                                      The Royal
                                       Society
                                •The Society is independent of
                                government, as it has been
                                throughout its existence, by virtue
                                of its Royal Charters. In 1663,
                                ‗The Royal Society of London for
                                the Improvement of Natural
                                Knowledge‘ was granted its Arms
                                and adopted the motto Nullius in
                                verba, an expression of its
                                enduring commitment to
                                empirical evidence as the basis of
The coat-of-arms of the Royal   knowledge about the natural
Society as a stained-glass      world.
window. The motto is 'Nullius
in verba'.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Microscope   Specimen
• Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
• . . . my work, which I've done for a long
  time, was not pursued in order to gain the
  praise I now enjoy, but chiefly from a
  craving after knowledge, which I notice
  resides in me more than in most other men.
  And therewithal, whenever I found out
  anything remarkable, I have thought it my
  duty to put down my discovery on paper, so
  that all ingenious people might be informed
  thereof. Antony van Leeuwenhoek. Letter
  of June 12, 1716
Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe
Ernst Ruska
                 Growth of Hospitals




Originally Used by the Poor. Later became Centers of Physician Training.
     Ignaz
  Semmelweis

Vienna Maternity Ward
Puerperal Sepsis
  Two Major Questions Existed
• Does Spontaneous Generation Occur?
• What is the Nature of Contagious
  Disease?
       Two Theories Existed
• Spontaneous Generation
     - Theory that living things could arise
       from nonliving things.
• Biogenesis
     - Theory that living things come only
       from other living things.
Spontaneous
 Generation

The idea that life
routinely arises from
non-life was
supported by
Aristotle.
 J.B. Van Helment / Favored SG
• Published a recipe for making
  ―mice‖ at home.
    John Needham / Favored SG
• Boiled a ―broth‖ or ―soup‖ which
  should kill any microbes. Left it sitting
  out. It spoiled.
          Lazzaro Spallanzani


• Boiled ―broth‖ in glass
  containers and melted
  the glass closed.
• Nothing Grew
• Technique was
  Criticized
         Francesco Redi / Opposed SG
Redi's Problem
Where do maggots come from? Do
they form by Spontaneous
Generation
Hypothesis: Maggots come from
flies.
Redi put meat into three separate
jars.
Jar 1 was left open Jar 2 was
covered with netting
Jar 3 was sealed from the outside
Jar-1
                   Jar-2
Left open
Maggots            Covered with
developed          netting Maggots
                   appeared on the   Jar-3
Flies were         netting           Sealed No
observed laying                      maggots
eggs on the meat   Flies were
                                     developed
in the open jar    observed laying
                   eggs on the
                   netting
        Louis Pasteur / Opposed SG
Pasteur's Problem
Where do the microbes come from to cause broth to decay.
Hypothesis: Microbes come from cells of organisms on dust
particles in the air; not the air itself.
Pasteur put broth into several special S-shaped flasks
Each flask was boiled and placed at various locations
  Louis Pasteur is Credited with
Disproving the Idea of Spontaneous
            Generation

One Question Had Been Answered!
Pasteur‘s Other Contributions
 •   Assisted Napoleon III in 1857
 •   Developed Process of Pasteurization
 •   Founded Modern Immunology
 •   Worked with Chicken Cholera
 •   Produced Vaccines for Animals
 •   Indirectly Discovered Endospores
Ferdinand Cohn
          • Credited with
            Discovering
            Endospores
          • German
            botanist
          • Father of
            Bacteriology
Joseph Lister
          Developed Antiseptic
          Surgery
          Sterilized with Heat
          Swabbed with Carbonic
          Acid
          Reduced Post Surgical
          Infections
Lister with his staff at King's College Hospital
       Although the
     microscope was
invented in the 1600‘s,
  it took 200 years for
 scientists to discover
its use in isolating and
   identifying specific
      microbes for a
    particular disease.
  Robert
  Koch

 Credited with
demonstrating
the first direct
link between a
single microbe
  and a single
   disease –
 Tuberculosis.
                   1 in 7 People Died from TB
               Koch‘s Postulates
• The organisms should be present in diseased individuals
  but not in healthy individuals
• The organisms must be cultured away from the plant or
  animal body
• Such a culture, when inoculated into susceptible
  animals, should initiate the characteristic disease
  symptoms
• The organisms should be re-isolated from these
  experimental animals and cultured again in the
  laboratory, after which it should still be the same as the
  original organism.
   Germ Theory of Disease
• Germs are the cause of disease and the
  reason for the contagious factor.




   The Second Question Had Been Answered!
            Angelina Hesse
• Development of Agar
  Used to Grow
  Microorganisms.
Edward
Jenner
Smallpox
Variolation
Jenner Performs the First Vaccination
Benjamin Franklin
  Paul Ehrlich
Worked in Koch‘s Lab
doing Differential Staining
Speculated at a Chemical
Might Selectively Target
Specific Cells and Kill
Them.
Developed the Discipline
of Chemotherapy.
  Alexander
   Fleming
Discovered Lysozyme
Noted that Mold Might
Kill Bacteria
     Ernst
     Chain
Developed Penicillin.
Early penicillin culture facility at the Sir William
Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, England.

								
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