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					        A Generic Report for the Flight
      Management Attitudes Questionnaire
           (FMAQ) and its Variants
                                                      June 1, 2001

                           The University of Texas at Austin
                           Human Factors Research Project

                                                   1609 Shoal Creek, #101
                                                      Austin, TX 78701




                                        Technical Report 01-02

                   John Wilhelm, Robert Helmreich and Ashleigh Merritt12

This is a Microsoft Word 2000 report generated for a non-existent international airline, XXX International.
The reader may feel free to use any of this material in support of writing his or her own FMAQ report. The
primary goal of this report is to provide an analysis structure and comparison norms. This report
organizes the many items in the FMAQ by specific topic areas. We have found that this organization of
items works well.

The report is meant for Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire 2.0 (International Version), for the
FMAQ 2.1 (US FMAQ), or for the FMASS (2 page short version). The report charts and discusses the
most diagnostic items that are common to all three versions. The longer versions, if used, will have items
that are not discussed in this report. When using these longer versions, be sure to examine these non-
charted items to see if they contain information that you want to add to this report. This generic report
includes all sections included in the longer, International version. The USFMAQ does not contain the
Work Values section. The FMASS version does not contain the Work Values nor Leadership Styles
sections. Delete the sections of this report that are not included in your survey.

 The computations for the scales used in this report are included in a file GENERIC FMAQ SCALE
COMPUTES.SPS. These computations work for all three versions of the survey. The coding master files
for all three versions are included as appendices to this report. These masters give the names used for
each survey item and the coding conventions used for data entry. For additional information about the
1 1
    e-mail:
john.wilhelm@mail.utexas.edu
helmreich@mail.utexas.edu
ashesm@swbell.net
2
  This research supported by FAA Grant 99-G-004, Dr. Robert L. Helmreich, Principal Investigator.

                                                                                                          1
psychometric properties of the scales, please see Flight Management Attitudes and Safety Survey
(FMASS): A shortened version of the FMAQ. (May 5, 2001). Sexton, B.J., Helmreich, R.L., Wilhelm,
J.A., Merritt, A.C., and Klinect, J.R. University of Texas at Austin Human Factors Research Project
Technical Report 01-01.

The reader can easily insert his or her own airline’s data into the Microsoft Chart Objects embedded in
the generic report by double clicking the charts. You may choose not to use all of the charts that are
provided. All data in these charts are from real airlines. To simplify your work, for each chart, delete the
XXX column, then insert your airline’s data in the proper order.

Some generic text has been included that may be used if the analyst chooses to do so. This “boiler plate”
gives the reader an orientation to the “Threat and Error Model CRM” framework (TEMCRM). We find this
a useful way to interpret results. Boiler plate text is in a normal font, while my own comments are always
in italics.

In order to make a more robust generic report that will accommodate cultural factors, we have added a
cultural twist to this airline by making it a multi-cultural airline. XXX International airlines has domestic
pilots (nationals) as well as expatriates from Hobbitland. However, in order to keep things manageable,
all of the Hobbit pilots are captains and none are in management. For cross-cultural research, the FMAQ
2.0 (international version) would be the preferred survey. Several additional, cross cultural scales are
derived from this survey, as described in Ashleigh Merritt’s Dissertation (available from the authors).

Also note that items are answered on the survey such that right side of the scale indicates agreement
using a 5-point scale (the midpoint is neutral and the left side is disagree). In our example report, we use
a 3-point agree- neutral- disagree format. You will need to collapse some of the categories (agree and
agree strongly, disagree and disagree strongly) first, then flip disagree and agree so your frequency
distributions or cross-tabulations will directly match the charts. This will make entry of the results into the
charts a much more error free process. A similar process is used for the “satisfaction” scaled items.




                                                                                                               2
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS                          5

SUMMARY OF RESULTS                                             5

RECOMMENDATIONS                                                5

INTRODUCTION                                                   5

The Magnanimous Analysis Corporation                            5

Overview of the Report                                          5

The Threat and Error Model of CRM - TEMCRM                      6


RESPONDENT DEMOGRAPHICS                                        7

PART I. ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES: PERCEPTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
CLIMATE, MANAGEMENT, TRAINING & CHECKING, TEAMWORK, SAFETY     7

Organizational Climate                                          7

Safety Attitudes                                                9

Perceptions of Management                                      12

The Safety Culture Index                                       14

Perceptions of Training and Checking                           15

Perceptions of Teamwork                                        17


PART II. FLIGHT MANAGEMENT ATTITUDES - COMMAND AND STRESS      22

Command and TEMCRM                                             22

Command Attitudes                                              22

Leadership Styles Preferred and Experienced                    24

Stress & TEMCRM                                                25

Attitudes toward Stress and Fatigue                            26


PART III. AUTOMATION AND TEMCRM                                28

Attitudes about Automated Cockpits                             28
                                                                3
PART IV. SUMMARY OF OPEN-ENDED COMMENTS                                                        30

Summary of pilot recommendations to improve flight safety                                      31

Summary of recommendations to improve flight operations and training                           31

Summary of what crews find best about flying with multi-national crews [International version
only]                                                                                         31

Summary of what crews find most frustrating about flying with multi-national crews [International
version only]                                                                                   31


PART V. WORK VALUES AND GOALS [INTERNATIONAL VERSION ONLY]                                     31

APPENDICES                                                                                     33
Appendix A-1: Verbatim Comments: Please name your top three recommendations to improve
flight safety.                                                                         33

Appendix A-2: Verbatim Comments: Please name your top three recommendations to improve
flight operations and training.                                                        33

Appendix A-3: Verbatim Comments: What is/are the best thing(s) about flying with multi-national
crews? [International version only]                                                           33

Appendix A-4: What is/are the most frustrating thing(s) about flying with multi-national crews?
[International version only]                                                                    33

Appendix B. The FMAQ Survey                                                                    33


APPENDIX TO THE TECHNICAL REPORT 01-02 – SCORING ROUTINE FOR
SCALES USED IN THE GENERIC REPORT                                                              34

APPENDIX TO THE TECHNICAL REPORT 01-02 –CODING MASTER FOR THE
FMAQ 2.0 INTERNATIONAL VERSION                                                                 35

APPENDIX TO THE TECHNICAL REPORT 01-02 –CODING MASTER FOR THE
FMAQ 2.1 – USA/ANGLO-WESTERN AIRLINES                                                          40

APPENDIX TO THE TECHNICAL REPORT 01-02 – CODING MASTER FOR THE
FMASS 6_01 SHORT VERSION                                                                       44




                                                                                                4
Executive Summary and Recommendations
Summary and recommendations should be no more than 2 pages, if possible

.
Summary of results
       Who responded? Describe an overview of the response rate and demographics here. Then
        summarize each of the following topics.
       Organizational Climate
       Safety Attitudes and the Safety Culture
       Senior Management and Flight Operations Management
       Training and Checking
       Flight Management Attitudes (CRM)
       Automation Attitudes
       Crew Comments. Summarize main themes from open-ended items here. Mention that these
        themes will be integrated into the full report.



Recommendations
Your recommendations for addressing the issues uncovered in the survey should be inserted here.
These may include both general and specific recommendations. Some problems require long-term
solutions, others may be more short term. These are usually derived in consultation with the client airline.


Introduction

The Magnanimous Analysis Corporation
Describe your research group here – who you are. Establish credibility with the readers at this point.
Here is an example:

Robert Helmreich, Inc. has been formed to conduct research that falls outside of the federally supported
research umbrella supervised by Professor Robert L. Helmreich and his collaborators. The FAA
sponsored research project supported the development of the Flight Management Attitudes
Questionnaire (FMAQ) and the initial data collection. Although we have collected all the data we need for
the federally funded research, interest in using the survey has remained high. Our research group has a
homepage on the world wide web, from which many of the research papers and questionnaires are
available. The address is:

http://www.psy.utexas.edu/psy/helmreich/nasaut.htm


Overview of the Report
The report is presented in five sections, with an appendix of the pilots’ written comments and suggestions
and a copy of the survey itself. The first looks at organizational issues, including the pilots’ perceptions of
training, checking, management, other employee groups, and the pilot safety. The second section
addresses flight management issues, including command, communication and stress. A third section
addresses attitudes about automation usage, and the fourth section is a summary of pilots’ open-ended

                                                                                                              5
                                                                                         th
recommendations and comments about flight operations and training. [An optional 5 section is included
that contains the Work Values items, present only on the international version.]

Within each section, individual items are grouped into content areas and charted. Pilots’ responses are
shown as percentages which sum to 100% (e.g., the percentage of respondents who agree, who are
neutral, and who disagree with the item, or the percentage of pilots who express high, adequate, or low
satisfaction). Items in each chart are arranged in ascending order, from the item with the least
agreement, to the item with the strongest agreement.

In addition to these item summaries, a number of comparisons were also conducted. These analyses
looked for meaningful differences in attitudes as a function of position (Captains vs. First Officers), status
(line pilots vs. Instructor/check airman/management), fleet, and crew base. The significant and
meaningful differences based on these analyses will be reported in each topic area.

Also, to gain a better perspective, the pilots’ responses were compared with other airlines from the USA,
Europe, Asia, South America and the Middle East. The results will be interpreted within the framework of
the Error Model (TEMCRM).

[Where appropriate, comparisons of pilots from pilots of different cultural groups will be made.]


The Threat and Error Model of CRM - TEMCRM
Crew Resource Management (CRM) has evolved over the past 20 years, however the original goals and
rationale for CRM have remained constant. CRM is based on two premises. First, human performance
has limits and thresholds beyond which performance is compromised. There are limits on visual
perception, attention span, cognitive capacities, short-term memory, hearing, reaction time, and all are
adversely affected under high workload and time pressure. Second, because human performance has
limits, some form of error is inevitable - it should be expected and anticipated. The system must do its
best to avoid errors, and mitigate the consequences of errors that do occur. Thus, CRM skills can be
defined as a safeguard for the limits of human performance, a means of managing threats and human
error within the system. This is what we call The Threat and Error Model of CRM - TEMCRM.

The success of TEMCRM and the threat and error management model as a means of promoting safety is
dependent upon the normalization of error throughout the system. By that we mean, error must be
accepted as an inevitable occurrence in any human-based system, and should be expected, anticipated,
and managed - not denied.

The Threat and Error Model is a simple concept that can direct and optimize all activities in the cockpit
(and elsewhere throughout the airline). Communication and coordination techniques which optimize
situation awareness; decision-making strategies which acknowledge the effects of time pressure, fatigue,
and tunnel vision; and command styles which clarify crewmembers' respective roles - all these techniques
are designed to avoid, trap, or mitigate the consequences of error and to manage threats encountered in
line operations.

The Airline's Management also plays a fundamental role in shaping attitudes toward a safety culture.
Some general organizational strategies for normalizing error at all airlines include:

           A non-jeopardy incident reporting system which allows the airline to uncover the
            weaknesses in its operation, learn from its mistakes, and improve overall safety,
            while also sending a message that error is inevitable and should not be denied or
            hidden. (Willful violations are of course a different issue - such noncompliance
            should attract some form of discipline.) TEMCRM involves a conceptual shift in
            thinking away from blame and punishment to open disclosure, allowing for constant
            improvements in the system ( i.e., improved defenses against error).


                                                                                                                 6
           A safety policy for the airline that is given a high profile (actively publicized, enacted,
            and reinforced). Quick response to employees’ suggestions for safety is important,
            as is feedback (open disclosure) on incidents and accidents within the airline. It is
            vital that people know where and how to report safety problems and are encouraged
            to do so.

           Special training for the organization's role models – instructors, training captains, and
            check pilots. Pilots will be more comfortable with error management if they see the
            airline's role models advocating such a policy. For the role models to accept and
            reinforce error management, they need to realize that trapping and mitigating the
            consequences of error is as important as avoiding error (not making a mistake). The
            checking philosophy moves from “did they make a mistake?” to “Did they
            successfully avoid and or recover from any errors?”

           TEMCRM training for all employee groups - it sends a message that the airline is
            committed to managing human error throughout the entire airline system.

           An automation policy, clearly stated, which stresses discretionary use of the
            computer systems.




Respondent Demographics
In this section, describe your survey methodology, response rate, and demographics.

A response rate of 50-60% is typical for surveys of this type. Specify whether you think you have a
representative sample. Look at the response rates of the major breakdowns of pilots such as captains vs
F/O’s, or fleet to ensure that you have a similar response rate across the system and that no one group is
systematically over- or under-represented.

Describe or table the respondent population in terms of crew positions, fleet, status, experience levels by
position and fleet. You may want to do a breakdown of crew position by fleet but this may be too detailed.

Break out cultures by nationality, if you have such groups.



Part I. Organizational Issues: Perceptions of
Organizational Climate, Management, Training &
Checking, Teamwork, Safety
Organizational Climate
The positive or negative feelings that pilots have about their organization can influence their behavior in
the cockpit. Poor morale can affect on-time performance, adherence to procedures, and willingness to
perform to one's maximum capacity. Airlines with positive organizational climates are characterized by
higher standards of professionalism and employee group cooperation.

Make big picture summaries here, morale, pride in the org, and liking for the job.




                                                                                                              7
                                                             Organizational Climate Items
                   Pilot morale is high

    I'm proud to work for my
             airline

                             I like my job


                                             0%        10%     20%            30%    40%      50%           60%         70%        80%        90%        100%

                                                                                            Agree        Neutral      Disagree



An Organizational Climate Scale was formed by summing these three items. The Organizational Climate
scale can be used to compare attitudes across airlines throughout the world (see the chart below) The
scale has a possible range of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a more favorable climate.



                                             Organizational Climate Across Airlines
                  100
                   90
                   80
                   70
                   60
    Scale 0-100




                   50
                   40
                   30
                   20
                   10
                    0

                          ia 1         A1           A2       XX
                                                                  X           e1      A3          er
                                                                                                     1           A4           A5         A6         A7
                        As        US              US                    rop         US        m             US           US         US         US
                                                                      Eu                   SA




Subgroup comparisons come here…The picture of climate is further complicated by differences among
the various pilot nationalities at XXX, as shown below. XXX captains have the most negative climate and
Hobbit captains the most positive. Among XXX nationals, management and check pilots are most
positive, but their scores would still place them at the bottom of the international comparison group. A
number of factors contributing to the poor organizational climate can be identified from other survey items
and are clarified in open-ended comments that are discussed later.




                                                                                                                                                                8
                                                Organizational Climate by Group
                  40
                  35
                  30
                  25
    Scale 0-100




                  20
                  15
                  10
                   5
                   0

                                    Ai r               or     pt     FO         SO               ts
                                k              tr   uct     Ca                                bbi
                       M   gt/C            Ins                                              Ho




Summarize org climate results here.


Safety Attitudes
Pilots are perhaps the best sources of safety-related information. They are in a central position to see all
aspects of the flight operation as they play out flight by flight. In the best of all worlds, all pilots would be
encouraged to report safety-related concerns, know how to report them, and would get a prompt and
serious response.

Discuss safety items - big picture results first. We find it useful to start with those attitudes that have the
highest level of agreement (or disagreement). These can be described as “universals” on which
everybody agreed. Then proceed with items on which there is less or no agreement. Include how the
attitudes compare to the cross-airline charts.




                                                                                                                  9
                                                                   Safety Attitudes

                  My safety suggestions would be acted upon

                            My airline has a positive safety culture

I know the proper channels to direct safety questions

                   My airline has high maintenance standards

                       I'm encouraged to report unsafe conditions

                                    Cabin brief needed start of day

                                            Pilots comply with SOP's

                                                                       0%     10%     20%        30%      40%       50%        60%    70%    80%      90%   100%
                                                                                                   Agree         Neutral   Disagree




                                 I know the proper channels to direct questions regarding safety practices.

                 100
                  90
   % Agreement




                  80
                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
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                  20
                  10
                   0
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                           1


                                      2


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                                                                                                                                                               10
                       I am encouraged by my supervisors and coworkers to report any unsafe
                                            conditions I may observe

              100
               90
% Agreement




               80
               70
               60
               50
               40
               30
               20
               10
                0




                                                                                                                                X
                         1


                                      2


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                                                                                                                                                   Air
                       My suggestions about safety would be acted upon if I expressed them to
                                                   management.

              100
               90
               80
% Agreement




               70
               60
               50
               40
               30
               20
               10
                0
                                                                                                                     X




                                                                                                                                                                10
                       1


                                   2


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                                                                                                                                                         Airl



                                          My company practices the highest maintenance standards

              100
               90
% Agreement




               80
               70
               60
               50
               40
               30
               20
               10
                0
                                                                                                                                                                10
                       1


                                    2


                                                  3


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                                                                             5


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                                                                                                                                    8


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                                                                                                                                                                     11
                                            Crew members that I fly with comply with our SOP's.

                  100
                   90
    % Agreement


                   80
                   70
                   60
                   50
                   40
                   30
                   20
                   10
                    0




                                                                                                                                      10
                           1


                                     2


                                                3


                                                            4


                                                                       5


                                                                                6


                                                                                              7


                                                                                                         8


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Discuss sub-group results here. I usually do not table any results that are not highly statistically
significant.

End the section with a summary of safety attitudes.



Perceptions of Management
Pilot attitudes about management relate to organizational climate and to safety attitudes. However, to
complicate matters, management bashing is a proudly maintained aspect of the pilot culture worldwide.
Perhaps the best reading of pilot attitudes about management is how they compare with pilots from other
airlines. However, before we look at scores relative to other airlines, some generalizations can be made.

Discuss general trends seen in these items. Contrast attitudes about lower levels of management (flight
ops) versus higher levels of management. Often pilots will rate satisfaction with flight operations
management fairly high, but still disagree that they listen to pilots and care about their concerns.


                                                         Pilot Satisfaction with Management

                    Flight Ops Management

   Pilot utilization and productivity

                         Chief Pilot availability

 Disciplinary policy / enforcement

                                                    0%     10%      20%      30%        40%       50%      60%         70%   80%    90%    100%
                                                                                          High     Adequate      Low
                                                                Level of Satisfaction




                                                                                                                                                  12
                                                                    Level of satisfaction with Flight Operations Management
         % Adequate or High Satisfaction
                                           100
                                            90
                                            80
                                            70
                                            60
                                            50
                                            40
                                            30
                                            20
                                            10
                                             0
                                                                 2


                                                                           3


                                                                                      4


                                                                                                   5


                                                                                                            6


                                                                                                                         7


                                                                                                                                    8




                                                                                                                                                           9


                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                    1




                                                                                                                                             X
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                                                                 ine


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                                                                                                                                Airl




                                                                                                                                                      Airl


                                                                                                                                                                   Airl
                                                                        Level of satisfaction with Chief Pilot availability
         % Adequate or High Satisfaction




                                           100
                                            90
                                            80
                                            70
                                            60
                                            50
                                            40
                                            30
                                            20
                                            10
                                             0
                                                      1


                                                                   2


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                                                                                                                                Airl


                                                                                                                                          Airl


                                                                                                                                                      Airl


                                                                                         Management Items                                                          Airl


                                                               Pilots trust senior management

                                                                Flight Ops supports line efforts

                                                          Flight Ops listens to pilots and cares

                                                     Senior management is doing a good job

                                            Comfortable going to Fleet Chief Pilot's office

  Management will never compromise safety for profitability

                                                                                                   0%   10%       20%     30%      40%    50%       60%      70%     80%     90%   100%
                                                                                                                                 Agree    Neutral    Disagree




Some contrasts between pilot subgroups groups may be interesting. Usually check airmen are less harsh
toward management. They are classified as management in some companies. Comparisons by base or

                                                                                                                                                                                    13
fleet, may be useful for certain items such as availability of chief pilots. It is sometimes useful to compare
management perceptions of those with or without military training, or pilots with more or less experience
within position. Here is an example comparison chart.


                                       I feel comfortable going to the chief pilots office to discuss problems or
                                                                  operational issues
         % of pilots who agree



                                 100
                                  90
                                  80
                                  70
                                  60
                                  50
                                  40
                                  30
                                  20
                                  10
                                   0
                                                et 1




                                                                              et 2




                                                                                                            et 3
                                              Fle




                                                                            Fle




                                                                                                           Fle
 End with a summary of management perceptions. I often find it useful to work into this section some of
the open-ended item trends, that are often targeted at specific managers or “hot button” topics. Often
open-ended items will focus on how management causes poor morale.


The Safety Culture Index
In a paper recently published by Bryan Sexton and James Klinect, a link was established between an
FMAQ safety culture index and observed error management and overall crew effectiveness (from a
       3
LOSA) . In other words, they established an attitudes / performance linkage between the FMAQ attitudes
and observed crew performance. The safety culture index is composed of 6 items:

                   1. The managers in Flight Operations listen to us and care about our concerns.
                   2. My suggestions about safety would be acted upon if I expressed them to management.
                   3. Management will never compromise safety concerns for profitability.
                   4. I am encouraged by my supervisors and coworkers to report any unsafe conditions I observe.
                   5. I know the proper channels to report my safety concerns.
                   6. I am satisfied with Flight Manager/Chief Pilot availability.

This scale predicted the percent of crew errors trapped, the percent of errors that became consequential,
the percent of errors resulting in undesired aircraft states, and overall crew effectiveness. As you can
see, it is composed of items that concern attitudes about both safety and management. Both are
important in maintaining good crew performance. Crews that agree more strongly with these items
perform better on the line. We will present where this airline falls in the normative data sample we have
collected, but the reader should be advised that these attitudes vary from crewmember to crewmember,
not only from airline to airline.

Have a quick summary, for example: “ XXX has intermediate scores on the Safety Culture Index relative
to the other airlines.”. Stop discussion at this, since you have already discussed individual items and
subgroup comparisons.




3
 Sexton, J.B., & Klinect, J.R. (in press). The link between safety attitudes and observed performance in flight operations. In Proceedings of the
Eleventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University.
                                                                                                                                               14
                                                                     The Safety Culture Index Across Airlines
                  100
                   90
                   80
                   70
    Scale 0-100




                   60
                   50
                   40
                   30
                   20
                   10
                    0




                                                                                                                                                                 Asia 1




                                                                                                                                                                                         Asia 2
                                                                                            N. Europe 1




                                                                                                                         N. Europe 2

                                                                                                                                       N. Europe 3
                        N. America 1

                                       N. America 2




                                                                                                          N. America 3




                                                                                                                                                                          N. America 4




                                                                                                                                                                                                  N. America 5
                                                                       XXX




                                                                                                                                                     Mid. East
                                                      S. America 1




                                                                             S. America 2




Perceptions of Training and Checking
Note that there are items with two types of scales – one, satisfaction level, is low/adequate/high. The
other is disagree/agree. We will start with overall satisfaction with training, then go from the best to the
worst aspects.

Then look at training from F/O perspective or captain perspective, and from perspective of pilots from
each fleet. Be sure to see if the Nationals and the Hobbits perceive training equivalently – perceptions of
lack of equivalence in treatment between national groups would be evidence of training discrimination




                                                                                                                                                                                         15
                                                  Satisfaction with Training and Checking

 Fairness of checking
                 Line relevance
     New Hire Training
              Instructor Skills
Flight Training overall
               Ground School
     Flight Sim training
 Operations manuals
                         Checklists
                                         0%     10%          20%          30%           40%            50%       60%          70%          80%         90%       100%
                                                                                              High      Adequate       Low
                                                        Level of Satisfaction




                                                            Satisfaction with Simulator Training

                       100
  % High or Adequate




                        90
                        80
     Satisfaction




                        70
                        60
                        50
                        40
                        30
                        20
                        10
                         0
                                     1




                                                        2


                                                                      3


                                                                                    4


                                                                                                   5


                                                                                                                 6


                                                                                                                               7


                                                                                                                                             8


                                                                                                                                                          9


                                                                                                                                                                 10
                                           X
                                         XX
                                 ine




                                                    ine


                                                                  ine


                                                                                ine


                                                                                               ine


                                                                                                             ine


                                                                                                                           ine


                                                                                                                                         ine


                                                                                                                                                      ine


                                                                                                                                                               ine
                             Airl




                                                Airl


                                                              Airl


                                                                            Airl


                                                                                           Airl


                                                                                                         Airl


                                                                                                                       Airl


                                                                                                                                     Airl


                                                                                                                                                  Airl


                                                                                                                                                              Airl




                                                        Satisfaction with Fairness of Checking

                       100
  % High or Adequate




                        90
                        80
     Satisfaction




                        70
                        60
                        50
                        40
                        30
                        20
                        10
                         0
                                  1




                                                    2


                                                                 3


                                                                              4


                                                                                            5


                                                                                                         6


                                                                                                                    7


                                                                                                                                 8


                                                                                                                                              9


                                                                                                                                                       10


                                                                                                                                                                  11
                                           X
                                         XX
                              ine




                                                ine


                                                             ine


                                                                          ine


                                                                                        ine


                                                                                                     ine


                                                                                                                ine


                                                                                                                             ine


                                                                                                                                          ine


                                                                                                                                                      ine


                                                                                                                                                                  ine
                         Airl




                                               Airl


                                                            Airl


                                                                      Airl


                                                                                   Airl


                                                                                                 Airl


                                                                                                              Airl


                                                                                                                           Airl


                                                                                                                                       Airl


                                                                                                                                                  Airl


                                                                                                                                                              Airl




                                                                                                                                                                        16
Then do a similar analysis for the training and checking agree/disagree items.



                                            Other Training & Checking Items




 Check airmen are respected role
            models




    Trng has prepared pilots and
   FA's to be a coordinated team



                                      0%   10%    20%    30%        40%      50%       60%       70%        80%   90%   100%
                                                                    Agree   Neutral   Disagree




Here is a two-way chart example that you may want to use for some comparisons.


                               Satisfaction with Overall Training and Fairness of Training

                         100
    % High or Adequate




                          90
                          80
       Satisfaction




                          70
                          60
                          50
                          40
                          30
                          20
                          10
                           0
                                    et 1




                                                                  et 2




                                                                                                          et 3
                                 Fle




                                                               Fle




                                                                                                       Fle




                                           Overall Training          Fairness of checking


End with a summary of training and checking results.


Perceptions of Teamwork

The best trained pilots can only be as effective as the other airline employees will permit. As such, it is
important to understand the quality of teamwork that cockpits experience with other employee groups, to

                                                                                                                               17
be able to discern any weaknesses in the chain of crews’ productivity. The pilots were asked to rate the
quality of teamwork and cooperation they experienced with other work groups. Please note that for the
teamwork comparison charts, we have plotted the percent of pilots giving High satisfaction ratings, not the
percent Adequate or High as in previous charts. We feel this represents the ideal level of teamwork
toward which all groups should strive.

Describe the best and poorest relationships. This is also a good place to reflect on negative comments
about other groups encountered in the open-ended section. I don’t usually try to break these out into all
possible subgroup comparisons since there are a large number of items and many subgroups as well.
Do check for differences in gate and ramp teamwork by base, and F/A relations by fleet. For the
comparison charts, I chose to plot % high or very high satisfaction (not including adequate, or % low or
very low). I feel this represents the ideal, or what you want to see with your airline. Thus the charts plot
your airline results vs the ideal. Usually the pilot-pilot teamwork is rated highest. Crew scheduling is
typically rated low by pilots from all airlines.



                Quality of teamwork and cooperation between pilots and...


                Gate Agents

            Ramp Personnel

            Flight Attendants

                    Dispatch

                 Scheduling

                Maintenance

  Other cockpit crewmembers

                                0%   10%     20%     30%     40%     50%    60%    70%        80%    90%   100%

                                     Quaility of Teamwork and Cooperation   High   Adequate    Low




                                                                                                                  18
            % High or Very High Teamwork                                                                       % High or Very High Teamwork                                                                       % High or Very High Teamwork


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       100




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        90




                       10
                       20
                       30
                       40
                       50
                       60
                       70
                       80
                       90
                      100
                                                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                         30
                                                                                                                         40
                                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                         60
                                                                                                                         70
                                                                                                                         80
                                                                                                                         90
                                                                                                                        100




                        0
                                                                                                                          0
      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  1                                                                                                 1                                                                                              1

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Airl
             XX                                                                                                XX                                                                                            ine
                  X                                                                                                 X                                                                                              2

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                                XX
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                                   X
                  2                                                                                                 2

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  3                                                                                                 3                                                                                              3

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  4                                                                                                 4                                                                                              4

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  5                                                                                                 5                                                                                              5

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  6                                                                                                 6                                                                                              6

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  7                                                                                                 7                                                                                              7

      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  8                                                                                                 8                                                                                              8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and other pilots.




                                                                                                                                          Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and maintenance.




                                       Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and flight attendants.
      Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                              ine                                                                                             ine
                  9                                                                                                 9                                                                                              9

     Airl                                                                                               Airl                                                                                         Airl
         ine                                                                                                ine                                                                                             ine
             1    0                                                                                               10                                                                                              10




19
            % High or Very High Teamwork                                                                 % High or Very High Teamwork                                                                    % High or Very High Teamwork




                       10
                       20
                       30
                       40
                       50
                       60
                       70
                       80
                       90
                      100
                                                                                                                   10
                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                   30
                                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                                   50
                                                                                                                   60
                                                                                                                   70
                                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                                   90
                                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100




                        0
                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0
      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  1                                                                                           1                                                                                                 1

      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  2                                                                                           2                                                                                                 2

      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  3                                                                                           3                                                                                                 3

      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  4                                                                                           4                                                                                                 4

      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  5                                                                                           5                                                                                                 5

      Airl                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                XX
                  6                                                                                           6                                                                                                 X

      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  7                                                                                           7                                                                                                 6

      Airl                                                                                                                                                                                         Airl
            ine                                                                                          XX                                                                                               ine
                  8                                                                                           X                                                                                                 7

                                                                                                   Airl                                                                                            Airl
             XX                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and dispatch.




                  X                                                                                           8                                                                                                 8




                                       Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and gate agents.
                                                                                                                                    Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and ramp personnel.




      Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
            ine                                                                                        ine                                                                                                ine
                  9                                                                                           9                                                                                                 9

     Airl                                                                                         Airl                                                                                            Airl
         ine                                                                                          ine                                                                                                ine
             1    0                                                                                         10                                                                                                 10




20
   % High or Very High Teamwork                 Teamwork and cooperation between pilots and crew scheduling.

                                  100
                                   90
                                   80
                                   70
                                   60
                                   50
                                   40
                                   30
                                   20
                                   10
                                    0




                                                                                                                        10
                                           1


                                                  2


                                                         3


                                                                4


                                                                        5


                                                                               6


                                                                                       7




                                                                                                      8


                                                                                                                9
                                                                                              X
                                                                                             XX
                                         ine


                                                ine


                                                       ine


                                                              ine


                                                                      ine


                                                                             ine


                                                                                     ine




                                                                                                    ine


                                                                                                               ine


                                                                                                                      ine
                                        Airl


                                               Airl


                                                      Airl


                                                             Airl


                                                                     Airl


                                                                            Airl


                                                                                    Airl




                                                                                                   Airl


                                                                                                           Airl


                                                                                                                     Airl
End with a summary of teamwork this section.




                                                                                                                             21
Part II. Flight Management Attitudes - Command and
Stress
Command and TEMCRM

 The Threat and Error Model provides a framework for optimizing any command structure such that
 human error can be avoided, trapped, and/or mitigated. Four strategies are relevant.

 1) Of particular interest is the need to clarify command roles and responsibilities during normal and non-
 standard situations. This role clarification of who does what avoids uncertainty and possible conflicts in
 the cockpit.

 2) Cross-checking and inquiry acknowledges that the same stimuli can be interpreted differently by
 different crewmembers. Cross-checking and follow-up adds a layer of redundancy as well as assuring
 that everyone "sees the same thing" and interprets it correctly. Setting the stage for proper cross-
 checking is an important aspect of command.

 3) A third strategy, again premised on the limits of human performance, recommends that workload be
 distributed such that no one crewmember becomes overloaded, and therefore more prone to error.

 4) A fourth strategy recognizes that we do not perform as effectively under time pressure. Preparation
 and planning in the less active phases of flight ensures "clear thinking" and better decision-making.

 With a joint focus on the limits of human performance, and the subsequent need to manage error, every
 command style, regardless of its cultural underpinnings, can be optimized for safety. Captains can
 adopt the Threat and Error Model as a template for conceptualizing problems - it allows them to analyze
 their own command styles for susceptibility to error, and it helps them devise their own error-
 management strategies. For example, it is usually a better allocation of resources (a better safeguard
 for the limits of human performance) to have the first officer fly the plane in some non-standard
 situations, to free the captain to collect and process needed information in order to make a more
 informed decision.


Command Attitudes
Cross-airline comparisons use a four-item scale where low scores indicate a hierarchical command style
and higher scores reflect greater command interaction and less hierarchical command structure.

Command styles vary considerably from national culture to national culture, as can be seen in the chart.
You may want to add text here that describes how power distance plays out in this culture, and this is
certainly a good place to examine differences between Captains and F/O’s, as well as between Nationals
and Hobbits. I usually summarize command attitudes, rules and roles, and leadership styles at the end of
leadership styles section.




                                                                                                          22
                              Cross Airline Comparison - Command Structure
                  100

                  80
   Scale: 0-100




                  60

                  40

                  20

                   0




                                                                                                                   ia 1



                                                                                                                                   ia 2
                                2




                                                                          1
                                1

                                            a1




                                                        a2




                                                                          2



                                                                          3
                                            t1




                                                                                            A1

                                                                                                  A3




                                                                                                                          A2
                                                 XXX




                                                                          1




                                                                                                            2
                            sia




                                                                      sia
                          rica




                                                                     rica



                                                                     rica
                                                                     ope




                                                                                                       ope
                                         Eas
                                    Asi




                                                       Asi




                                                                                        US

                                                                                                 US




                                                                                                                          US
                                                                                                                nav



                                                                                                                                nav
                       E. A




                                                                 E. A
                        me




                                                                  me



                                                                  me
                                                                 Eur




                                                                                                      Eur
                                     Mid




                                                                                                               nd i



                                                                                                                              nd i
                   S. A




                                                             S. A



                                                             S. A




                                                                                                            Sca



                                                                                                                           Sca
                                                 Command Structure Items

 Juniors should not question
          Captain

   First Officer should never
   assume command of the
               A/C

  Flight success mainly due
    to Captain proficiency


    Captain should take
  control/fly in emergencies

                                          0%     10%    20%     30%      40%      50%       60%       70%       80%       90%        100%
                                                               Agree   Neutral   Disagree




A couple of items within the “command” domain deal with the captain role vis-à-vis training and whether
the organization’s rules should be broken. We view the belief that training is an essential element of the
captain’s role as a necessity – it realistically acknowledges that on the job training is indispensable for
many flying tasks. It carries the management responsibility to ensure that captains are standardized in the
lessons they teach their students.

Discuss rules and roles items here, along with cultural differences, which would be expected. Also
compare captain and F/O perceptions of these issues. The captain’s role in on the job training and


                                                                                                                                            23
standardization should be emphasized even more strongly in commuter and regional airlines where pilot
experience level is low.



                                           Rules and Roles Items



 Organization's rules should
       not be broken




 An essential captain duty is
    training first officers




                                0%   10%    20%   30%    40%    50%       60%        70%    80%   90%   100%
                                                               Agree   Neutral   Disagree




Leadership Styles Preferred and Experienced
Two questions dealt with leadership style – preference and reality. Four types of leadership were
described: Autocratic – where leader makes decisions and communicates them to subordinates clearly
and firmly. The leader expects subordinates to carry out decisions loyally and without raising difficulties;
Directive - leader makes decisions but, before going ahead, tries to explain them fully to subordinates.
The leader gives them the reasons for the decisions and answers whatever questions they may have;
Consultative – Leader usually consults with subordinates before reaching decisions. Leader listens to
their advice and then announces decision. Leader expects all to work loyally to implement decision,
whether or not it is in accordance with the advice they gave; and finally, Consensus - Leader usually
meets with subordinates when there is an important decision to be made. Leader puts problem before
group and invites discussion. Leader accepts the majority viewpoint is usually accepted as the decision.
In reality, this is not a viable style for the cockpit. Consultative is probably best for most situations.

After reading the descriptions, respondents were asked to indicate which style of leadership they would
most prefer to work under and which style they most often worked under. FO’s and SO’s were instructed
to think of captains in answering questions, captains were instructed to think of Flight Operations
management.

Don’t spend a lot of time with this section. Typically, F/O’s desire a more open, less hierarchical structure
than Captains. Always makes me wonder what happened to these guys and girls when they upgraded!
The results usually suggest that formal training in leadership as part of a new CRM program is a critical
need. Here are some charts if you wish to use them. There may be strong cultural differences.
                                                                                                           24
              Captain's Preferred/Actual Leadership Styles of Flt Ops Management

       100
        90
        80
        70
        60
        50
   %




        40
        30
        20
        10
         0




                                                                                          s
                                            tive
                    atic




                                                                       ive




                                                                                       nsu
                                                                  ltat
                                            ec
                ocr




                                                                                    nse
                                         Dir




                                                               nsu
               Aut




                                                                                  Co
                                                             Co
                                                 Preferred    Actual



                           F/O's Preferred/Actual Leadership Styles of Captains

       100
        90
        80
        70
        60
        50
   %




        40
        30
        20
        10
         0
                                                                                          s
                                               ive
                    atic




                                                                       ive




                                                                                       nsu
                                            ect




                                                                  ltat
                ocr




                                                                                    nse
                                         Dir




                                                               nsu
               Aut




                                                                                  Co
                                                             Co




                                                 Preferred    Actual


Summarize command attitudes, rules and roles, and preferred and actual leadership items here.


Stress & TEMCRM

TEMCRM is premised on the belief that everyone is susceptible to error, and that making mistakes is an
inevitable part of human activity. From this perspective, stress is not a personal weakness to be denied
but a universal human reaction to certain environmental conditions (e.g., time pressure, work overload,

                                                                                                       25
uncertainty, fatigue, personal problems). Stress produces a physical and emotional reaction, which
diminishes our attention and cognitive capacity, thereby increasing the likelihood of error. TEMCRM
advocates acknowledging the impact of stress, and then employing individual and team-based
countermeasures to guard against diminished performance.

For example, a standard reaction to an emergency is tunnel vision (i.e., focusing on certain immediate
activities to the exclusion of other equally important factors) and a temptation to rush to quick decisions.
If the crew are aware of these dangers, then to use a previous command example, the captain may
decide to delegate the flying duties to the first officer in a non-standard situation so he can focus on
collecting relevant information to make a more informed decision without the distraction of manually
controlling the aircraft. Captains who do not recognize that they are overloaded will also not recognize
that they are making a hasty, ill-informed decision. Again, reactions to stress are universal and
predictable. Therefore, the professional approach is to acknowledge vulnerability to stress, and take
active measures to manage that stress.

The following are some universally recommended strategies for handling stress in the cockpit:
 Monitoring self and others for signs of stress
 Cross-checking to ensure all crewmembers are focused and diligent
 Letting others know when you're becoming overloaded
 Letting others know when your performance is becoming impaired
 Buying some time (i.e. go-round) when time-pressured, to reduce the effects of tunnel vision and
   rushing to ill-informed decisions

The professional pilot culture tends to endorse unrealistically "macho" attitudes toward stress. These
attitudes, which seem to imply that pilots are automatons unaffected by human limitations, are a threat to
safety. Admitting to stress, and the consequent vulnerability to error, may run counter to a pilot's notion of
professionalism (for example 75% of XXX pilots believe that their decision-making ability is as good in
emergencies as in routine flying conditions – an idealistic yet not likely belief). TEMCRM training must
normalize stress and error to correct these erroneous and dangerous attitudes. Safeguards and
countermeasures will be enacted professionally and consistently, when pilots accept realistic standards
for their profession. The organization can assist in this process by formally acknowledging that error is
inevitable and must be managed. Some organizational strategies for normalizing error were mentioned
earlier.


Attitudes toward Stress and Fatigue
Bryan Sexton and James Klinect also performed a secondary analysis on six Stress Recognition items
which demonstrated that stress recognition of captains relates to better observed performance. We will
be using these items for this analysis. To assist in interpretation of the items, we have split the items into
two groups. For the first group, the desired end is agree. For the second, the desired end is disagree.

All airlines have a long way to go on these items in order to adhere to the TEMCRM ideal. Invulnerability
is strong part of the pilot culture. Training in how to manage emergencies and abnormals should make
pilots feel more confident in their own performance under these conditions, but it should also make them
aware that they are not exempt from the laws of human nature. Team-based error countermeasures work
in these situations.

A quick comparison of how your airline stacks up against others is in order here. Note that all have room
for improvement. Pick out a few items to stress in your discussion. Paint with a broad brush.




                                                                                                               26
                                              Stress Recognition Across Airlines
                        100
                         90
                         80
                         70
    Scale 0-100




                         60
                         50
                         40
                         30
                         20
                         10
                          0

                            ca
                               1  e1    ast   e 2 ca 2 ca 3 ca 1 ca 4 ca 2                 X    2   5    1
                                                                                        XX rope rica Asia Asia
                                                                                                               2
                         eri Europ dle E Europ meri meri meri meri meri                      u Ame
                       Am N.     Mid N.        A     A S. A    A S. A                   N.
                                                                                           E .
                    N.                      N.    N.        N.                                N




                                 Realistic Appraisal of Stress Items (Agree is desired)

   I am more likely to make
judgment errors in emergencies


                   Personal problems can
                    adversely affect my
                       performance


                  I am less effective when
                      stressed/fatigued


                                             0%   10%   20%   30%   40%     50%       60%        70%   80%   90%   100%
                                                                    Agree   Neutral   Disagree




                                                                                                                          27
                      Denial of Stress Items (Disagree is desired)

 My performance is not adversely affected by working with
       inexperienced or less capable crewmember


   A true professional can leave personal problems behind
                         when flying


 My decision making ability is the same in emergencies as
               in routine flying conditions

                                                            0%   10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

                                                                         Agree   Neutral   Disagree




There may well be cultural differences in beliefs about performance under stressful and fatiguing
circumstances. Be sure to look for these, and summarize all stress and fatigue performance results here.



Part III. Automation and TEMCRM
TEMCRM argues that automated cockpits produce a unique and error inducing environment. It is easier
to become complacent with automation, and disengagement of the automation may help refocus the
crew's situation awareness. The FMC is a tool to be used with discretion, it is not a thinking crewmember
- pilots must be careful not to relinquish important decision-making to a machine simply because it is
easier or because it gives the impression of infallibility. Pilots must remain vigilant and in control of the
aircraft. It is important that companies have a policy of automation use that encourages pilots to use it at
the appropriate level, and perhaps that even encourages disengaging it in order to maintain proficiency.

Attitudes about Automated Cockpits
For these analyses, we limit it only to pilots flying the automated equipment. By automated we mean
FMC or FMS equipped aircraft. This would include the following fleets: xxxxxxx.

The item tapping concern that the use of automation will cause the pilot to lose flying proficiency varies
widely by type of operation. Long haul pilots and those with low experience level, such as might be
encountered in commuter operations, may have a lot of concern about this issue. Interpretation of this
item, relative to the missions of the aircraft, is in order.




                                                                                                             28
                      Attitudes about Realistic / Discretionary Use of Automation




 I am concerned that the use of
 automation may cause loss of
          flying skills




                                  0%      10%    20%       30%        40%       50%      60%       70%   80%   90%   100%
                                                   Agree    Neutral     Disagree




For the over-reliance items, we like to see a clear corporate philosophy about automation usage – best
described as an automation philosophy. Unfortunately, this sometimes does not make it from the training
academy to the flight line. Over-reliance can lead to complacency.



                                         Automation Over-reliance Items


 My airline expects me to always
          use automation



 Pilots should avoid disengaging
           automation



 Effective pilots always uses the
    automation tools provided


                                    0%     10%   20%       30%         40%      50%       60%      70%   80%   90%   100%
                                                                      Agree   Neutral   Disagree




                                                                                                                            29
                               I am concerned that the use of automation will cause me to lose flying skills.

                 100
                  90
                  80
   % Agreement




                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                            1


                                          2


                                                       3


                                                                    4


                                                                                 5




                                                                                                           6


                                                                                                                       7


                                                                                                                                  8


                                                                                                                                               9


                                                                                                                                                            10
                                                                                             X
                                                                                           XX
                           ine


                                         ine


                                                      ine


                                                                   ine


                                                                                ine




                                                                                                          ine


                                                                                                                       ine


                                                                                                                                 ine


                                                                                                                                              ine


                                                                                                                                                        ine
                       Airl


                                     Airl


                                                  Airl


                                                               Airl


                                                                            Airl




                                                                                                      Airl


                                                                                                                   Airl


                                                                                                                             Airl


                                                                                                                                          Airl


                                                                                                                                                       Airl
                                                     My airline expects me to always use automation

                 100
                  90
                  80
   % Agreement




                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                                1


                                              2


                                                           3


                                                                        4


                                                                                     5


                                                                                                  6


                                                                                                               7




                                                                                                                                      8


                                                                                                                                                   9


                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                                       X
                                                                                                                     XX
                            ine


                                          ine


                                                       ine


                                                                    ine


                                                                                 ine


                                                                                              ine


                                                                                                           ine




                                                                                                                                  ine


                                                                                                                                               ine


                                                                                                                                                        ine
                       Airl


                                     Airl


                                                  Airl


                                                               Airl


                                                                            Airl


                                                                                         Airl


                                                                                                      Airl




                                                                                                                             Airl


                                                                                                                                          Airl


                                    The effective crewmember always uses the automation tools provided.                                                Airl


                 100
                  90
                  80
   % Agreement




                  70
                  60
                  50
                  40
                  30
                  20
                  10
                   0
                            1


                                          2


                                                       3


                                                                    4


                                                                                 5


                                                                                              6




                                                                                                                       7


                                                                                                                                  8


                                                                                                                                               9


                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                                                                          X
                                                                                                        XX
                         ine


                                       ine


                                                    ine


                                                                 ine


                                                                              ine


                                                                                           ine




                                                                                                                     ine


                                                                                                                               ine


                                                                                                                                            ine


                                                                                                                                                        ine
                       Airl


                                     Airl


                                                  Airl


                                                               Airl


                                                                            Airl


                                                                                         Airl




                                                                                                                   Airl


                                                                                                                             Airl


                                                                                                                                          Airl


                                                                                                                                                       Airl




Summarize pilot attitudes about automation here.



Part IV. Summary of Open-ended Comments

                                                                                                                                                                 30
It is strongly recommended that the Appendices A, B, and C be read entirely in order to obtain the
deepest insights into pilot feelings. These appendices contain the verbatim responses of pilots to the
open-ended items. This section of the report documents recurring themes in these comments.

Summary of pilot recommendations to improve flight safety
There were several consistent themes that reflect serious pilot concerns.

You may wish to do a formal content analysis of responses. This is difficult since some of the responses
will be quite general and non-specific (We need more communication this company) while others may be
quite specific (Fire all the bastard managers). If a content analysis is completed, chart it in this section,
plotting either the percent of pilots that brought up each topic or the percent of all comments which dealt
with the topic. It is usually only necessary to plot the top 10 or so topics.

Summarize the most frequently occurring topic areas in a paragraph each. Be sure to integrate these
hot topics into the rest of the text, where appropriate. The open-ended items help add a subjective quality
to the objective results, and get at specific “hot buttons” that could not be seen with only coded
information.

Summary of recommendations to improve flight operations and
training
These should be handled just as you did the recommendations to improve flight safety.

Summary of what crews find best about flying with multi-national
crews [International version only]
If you don’t have multi-national crews, this section would be omitted. This section is usually short, since
the same themes are brought up by most pilots. This info, in conjunction with the next item, can generate
some very good CRM curriculum material.

Summary of what crews find most frustrating about flying with multi-
national crews [International version only]
Language will probably be the most important theme. Other themes can be summarized quickly.



Part V. Work Values and Goals [International version only]
Several work values and goals were pervasive in the pilot culture. Over 90% of pilots endorse these
items as very important:

Insert these items here. The results of these items is usually no surprise to other members of the national
culture. These items were specifically included in the FMAQ in order to compare members of different
cultures, so be sure to compare Nationals and Hobbits on these values. This may help to explain
differences in command styles. The items about relationships with superiors may also be relevant to
other sections.




                                                                                                           31
                                          Work Values and Goals
                                        National Crew Members Only

        Have a changing work routine with new, unfamiliar tasks


          Have opportunity for advancement to higher level jobs


              Have a warm relationship with your direct superior


 Get a personal sense of accomplishment from challenging tasks


                           Have an opportunity for high earnings


                      Observe strict time limits for work projects


Maintaining good relationships with fellow workers/ crewmembers


                                     Have a job with no surprises


                 Live in an area desirable to you and your family


          Have sufficient time left for your personal or family life


          Work with people who cooperate well with one another


                                    Have security of employment


              Find the truth, the correct answer, the one solution


                                                                       0%   10%   20%     30%   40%      50%   60%   70%    80%    90% 100%



                                                                                        Very Important    Moderately Important    Not Important




                                                                                                                                                  32
Appendices
Appendix A-1: Verbatim Comments: Please name your top three
recommendations to improve flight safety.
In this section, verbatim comments of pilots are given. Comments are broken out by sub-group. This adds an
additional information dimensions to the comments. It is instructive to see what is suggested by captains, vs
FO, vs check airmen, or Hobbits vs Nationals. The particular subgroups chosen should be dictated by which
sub group splits have been most productive in other analyses. For this particular report we broke out National
Captains, National F/O’s, National S/O’s, National instructors, National management/check airmen, and
Hobbits.

Appendix A-2: Verbatim Comments: Please name your top three
recommendations to improve flight operations and training.

Appendix A-3: Verbatim Comments: What is/are the best thing(s)
about flying with multi-national crews? [International version only]

Appendix A-4: What is/are the most frustrating thing(s) about flying
with multi-national crews? [International version only]

Appendix B. The FMAQ Survey
Be sure to always attach a blank copy of the survey so the reader can refer to exact wording of questions.




                                                                                                       33
Appendix To the Technical Report 01-02 – Scoring Routine for
Scales Used in the Generic Report
This is an SPSS/PC scoring routine.

**John Wilhelm 6/4/2001. Computes needed for FMAQ/FMASS Generic FMAQ Report.
*
*
**Items from Bryan Sexton FMASS attitude - performance linkage study 4/01
*and from the FMAQ 2.0 and 2.1.
*For the generic report, we use the old org climate scale ORGCLIM instead of the
*Sexton JOBATTD scale and include the old 4-item CMAQ Command Responsibilities (CR) Scale.
*Team Factor is also not computed for the Generic Report.

*Here is the computation for making a 0-100 point computation.
*This computation is used in the cross airline comparisons.
**org climate revised 4/99, items now are "large family", "proud to work for this org"
**and "pilot morale is high". The new computation dropped "I like my job" UAR45 and
**substituted pimorale.
**Cronbach alpha for this scale is .79, computed from an airline sample with 8,937 pilots
**from 9 airlines in three countries.
COMPUTE ORGCLIM= (((misc21+misc35+pimorale)/3)-1)*100/4.
Var lab ORGCLIM 'Organizational Climate'.

**Scale Computes for FMASS items.
COMPUTE sculture = (((ftmgmt + fmavail +foplistn + safeactd + mgmtsafe +safeenco ) / 6) - 1)*25.
VARIABLE LABELS sculture 'Safety Culture Scale Score (6 items)' .

COMPUTE COMMAND = ((((6-cma9)+(6-cma18)+(6-cma11)+(6-cma15))/4)-1)*100/4.
Var lab COMMAND 'Command Responsibilities Scale (4 items)'.

**Reversed item computes for stress scale.
COMPUTE rcma25 = 6 - cma25.
VARIABLE LABELS rcma25 '(Reversed) My decision making ability is as good in emergencies as in routine
flying conditions' .
COMPUTE rcma17 = 6 - cma17 .
VARIABLE LABELS rcma17 '(Reversed) My performance is not adversely affected by working with an
inexperienced or less capable crew member' .
COMPUTE rcma24 = 6 - cma24.
VARIABLE LABELS rcma24 '(Reversed) A truly professional crew member can leave personal problems
behind when flying' .
EXECUTE.
COMPUTE strssrec =( ((cma31 + cma32 + cma34 + rcma25 + rcma17 + rcma24)/6)-1)*25.
VARIABLE LABELS strssrec 'Stress Recognition Scale Score (6 items)' .

**the following two scales are not used for the generic report.
*COMPUTE jobattd =( ((pimorale + srtrust + srmgmt + uar45 + misc21 + misc35)/6)-1)*25.
*VARIABLE LABELS jobattd 'Job Attitudes Scale Score (job satisfaction & morale - 6 items)' .

*COMPUTE teamfact = (((teamcock + teamops + teamgsvc + teamfa + teamdisp + teammain +
teamsked)/7)-1) * 25 .
*VARIABLE LABELS teamfact 'Teamwork Scale Score (7 items)' .




                                                                                                   34
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                                 Page 35


Appendix To the Technical Report 01-02 –CODING MASTER
for the FMAQ 2.0 International Version
12/96 NOTE: PAGES DO NOT SPLIT SAME AS ORIGINAL SURVEY…
                               Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire 2.0 (International)
                                                       XX4 Pilots

          FOR ALL SCALED ITEMS, EITHER BLANK OR ZERO CAN BE USED FOR MISSING ITEMS.

The success of the survey depends on your contribution, so it is important that you answer questions as honestly as
you can. There are no right or wrong answers, and often the first answer that comes to mind is best. Individual
responses are absolutely confidential.


Part I - XX Pilot Views: This portion of the questionnaire is designed for you to express your view of your company.
Please answer by writing beside each item a letter from the corresponding scale.
        A=1                     B=2                      C=3                       D=4                     E=5
     Very Low                   Low                    Adequate                    High                  Very High
A. Please evaluate your level of satisfaction with these different aspects of flight operations.

____1. GSCHOOL Ground School NEW ITEM                               ____12. MANUALS Operations Manuals
____2. SIMTRNG Simulator-based training NEW                         ____13. FTCHECKL Checklists
        ITEM
____3. RELEVANC Line relevance of training                          B. Please describe your personal perception of the
        material                                                    quality of teamwork & cooperation you have
____4. NHTRNG Quality of new-hire training NEW                      experienced with:
        ITEM
____5. FTINST Instructor skills                                     ____14.   TEAMCOCK Other cockpit crewmembers
____6. FTOVERAL Flight Training Overall                             ____15.   TEAMOPS Gate Agents
____7. FTFAIR Fairness of checking                                  ____16.   TEAMGSVC Ramp Personnel
____8. FMAVAILFlight Manager/Chief Pilot                            ____17.   TEAMFA Flight Attendants
        availability                                                ____18.   TEAMDISP Dispatch
____9. FTMGMT Flight Ops Management                                 ____19.   TEAMMAIN Maintenance
____10. DISCIP Disciplinary policy and enforcement                  ____20.   TEAMSKED Crew Scheduling
____11. PIUTIL Pilot utilization and productivity

C. Please answer the following by writing your response beside each item using the following scale.
          A=1                       B=2                    C=3                      D=4                    E=5
    Disagree Strongly         Disagree Slightly           Neutral               Agree Slightly        Agree Strongly

____21. FOPLISTN The managers in Flight                             ____25. EMERG Our training has prepared pilots and
        Operations listen to us and care about our                          flight attendants to work as a well-
        concerns.                                                           coordinated team.
____22. SAFECHNL I know the proper channels to                      ____26. LCPOS My last line check was a positive
        direct questions regarding safety practices.                        learning experience. NEW ITEM
____23. CKMODELS Check Airmen are respected                         ____27. SAFEENCO I am encouraged by my
        role models in our airline. NEW ITEM                                supervisors and coworkers to report any
____24. CHFOPS89 I feel comfortable going to the                            unsafe conditions I may observe.
        Chief Pilot’s office to discuss problems or                 ____28. MISC21 Working here is like being part of a
        operational issues.                                                 large family.

4
    “XX” in the text is replaced by the name of the airline.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                                Page 36

____29. PROBPI99 Flight Management staff                          ____36. SRMGMT Senior management at XX is
        constructively deal with problem pilots.                          doing a good job.
____30. MISC35 I am proud to work for this                        ____37. BRFSTART Cabin personnel should be
        organization.                                                     included in the crew briefing at the start of a
____31. MGMTSAFE Management will never                                    duty day.
        compromise safety concerns for profitability.             ____38. SOP102 Crew members that I fly with
____32. CRMDEBR My last simulator instructor                              comply with XX SOP’s.
        effectively debriefed the flight’s human                  ____39. PIMORALE Pilot morale is high.
        factors issues.                                           ____40. MGMTSUP Flight Operations Management
____33. SAFEACTD My suggestions about safety                              fully supports my daily efforts on the line.
        would be acted upon if I expressed them to                ____41. UAR45 I like my job.
        management.                                               ____42. SRTRUST Pilots trust senior management at
____34. SAMESTDZ Check Airmen across all fleets                           XX.
        hold pilots to the same standard. NEW ITEM                ____43. SAFECULT This airline has a positive safety
____35. INSTROPS Our Instructors have a good                              culture. NEW ITEM
        understanding of line operations. NEW ITEM                ____44. MXSTDS XX practices the highest
                                                                          maintenance standards
.

D. Please name your top three recommendations to improve XX flight operations and training.

_____FOPS1, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
_____FOPS2, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
_____FOPS3, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Part II - Flight Management Attitudes.
Please answer the following items by writing your response beside each item using the following scale
          A=1                         B=2                C=3                      D=4                     E=5
    Disagree Strongly           Disagree Slightly       Neutral               Agree Slightly         Agree Strongly


____1. CMA9 The captain should take physical control and fly the aircraft in emergency and non-standard situations.
____2. CMA14 Captains should encourage crewmember questions during normal flight operations and in
       emergencies.
____3. CMA13 Even when fatigued, I perform effectively during critical times in a flight.
____4. HUA7 The airline’s rules should not be broken - even when the employee thinks it is in the airline’s best
       interests.
____5. PDR8 I expect to be consulted on matters that affect the performance of my duties.
____6. PD9 Senior staff deserve extra benefits and privileges.
____7. CMA3012 I let other crewmembers know when my workload is becoming (or about to become) excessive.
____8. PD11 Captains who encourage suggestions from crewmembers are weak leaders.
____9. CMA25 My decision making ability is as good in emergencies as in routine flying conditions.
____10. PD15 Junior crewmembers should not question the captain's or senior crewmembers' decisions.
____11. ICR17 It is better to agree with other crewmembers than to voice a different opinion.
____12. CMA23 The captain’s responsibilities include coordination between the cockpit and cabin crew.
____13. CMA31 I am more likely to make judgment errors in an emergency.
____14. CMA18 Successful flight deck management is primarily a function of the captain's flying proficiency.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                                  Page 37

____15. IC24 If I perceive a problem with the flight, I will speak up, regardless of who might be affected.
____16. MISC25I am ashamed when I make a mistake in front of my other crewmembers.
____17. PD26 In abnormal situations, I rely on my superiors to tell me what to do.
____18. CMA11 Crewmembers should not question actions of the captain except when they threaten the safety of the
        flight.
____19. CMA32 I am less effective when stressed or fatigued.
____20. CMA17 My performance is not adversely affected by working with an inexperienced or less capable
        crewmember.
____21. IC32 To resolve conflicts, crewmembers should openly discuss their differences with each other.
____22. CMA6 Crewmembers should monitor each other for signs of stress or fatigue.
____23. CMA34 Personal problems can adversely affect my performance.
____24. CMA24 A truly professional crewmember can leave personal problems behind when flying.
____25. CMA15 Except for total incapacitation of the captain, the first officer should never assume command of the
        aircraft.
____26. UA38 Written procedures are necessary for all in-flight situations.
____27. CMA2 Crewmembers should mention their stress or physical problems to other crew before or during a
        flight.
____28. CMA7 Good communication and crew coordination are as important as technical proficiency for flight
        safety.
____29. CMA22 Effective crew coordination requires crewmembers to consider the personal work styles of other
       crewmembers.
____30. UAR41 During periods of low work activity, I would rather relax than keep busy with small tasks.
____31. NOMISTAK A true professional does not make mistakes. NEW ITEM
____32. CATRAIN An essential captain duty is training first officers.
____33. HPDR46 How frequently, in your work environment, are subordinates afraid to express disagreement with
        their superiors?

          1=A. Very frequently           2=B. Frequently 3=C. Sometimes 4=D. Seldom         5=E. Very seldom

____34. HUAR47 How often do you feel nervous or tense at work?

          1=A. Always          2=B. Usually          3=C. Sometimes 4=D. Seldom   5=E. Never

Part III. Leadership Styles
Please read the following descriptions of four different leadership styles, and answer the questions that follow.

1=Style A Leader usually makes decisions promptly and communicates them to subordinates clearly and firmly.
          Expects them to carry out the decisions loyally and without raising difficulties.
2=Style B Leader usually makes decisions promptly, but, before going ahead, tries to explain them fully to
          subordinates. Gives them the reasons for the decisions and answers whatever questions they may have.
3=Style C Leader usually consults with subordinates before reaching decisions. Listens to their advice, considers it,
          and then announces decision. Expects all to work loyally to implement it whether or not it is in accordance
          with the advice they gave.
4=Style D Leader usually calls a meeting of subordinates when there is an important decision to be made. Puts the
          problem before the group and invites discussion. Accepts the majority viewpoint as the decision.


First and Second officers, please think of Captains when answering the next two questions; Captains, please think of
Flight Ops. Management.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                              Page 38

                          ___ 1. HPD48 Which one of the above styles of leadership would you most prefer to work
          under?

                          ___2. HPD49 In your organization, which style do you find yourself most often working
          under?


Part IV - Work values and goals

Please answer the items below by writing beside each item a letter from the scale below.
         A=1                      B=2                    C=3                      D=4                    E=5
 Of very little or no    Of little importance         Of moderate           Very Important            Of Utmost
     importance                                       importance                                     Importance
Please think of your ideal job - disregarding your present job. In choosing an ideal job, how important would it be to
you to:
NOTE: DROPPED ITEMS 53,56,58,64
_____1. MFR50 Maintain good interpersonal relationships with fellow workers or crewmembers?
_____2.      HMF51 Have an opportunity for advancement to higher level jobs?
_____3.      HMFR52 Have security of employment?
_____4.      HIC54 Live in an area desirable to you and your family?
_____5.      UAR55 Have a changing work routine with new, unfamiliar tasks?
_____6.      MFR57 Have a warm relationship with your direct superior?
_____7.      HMF59 Have an opportunity for high earnings?
_____8.      ICMF60 Have challenging tasks to do, from which you get a personal sense of accomplishment?
_____9.      UA61 Know everything about the job, to have no surprises?
_____10. HIC62 Have sufficient time left for your personal or family life?
_____11. HICMFR63 Work with people who cooperate well with one another?
_____12. MISC65 Find the truth, the correct answer, the one solution?
_____13. MISC66 Observe strict time limits for work projects?
Part V Cockpit Automation
The following items deal with attitudes regarding flightdeck automation. For purposes of this survey, automated
aircraft are defined as those with a programmable Flight Management Computer (FMC). If you are currently flying an
automated aircraft, base you responses on experience in this airplane. If you have not flown such an airplane, base
your answers on your expectations regarding such aircraft. Please answer by writing beside each item a letter from
the scale below.

       A=1                      B=2                    C=3                    D=4                   E=5
 Disagree Strongly       Disagree Slightly            Neutral            Agree Slightly        Agree Strongly
NOTES: DROPPED ITEMS SC70, AP78, SC81
____1. PC67 I prefer flying automated aircraft.
____2. PC68 Under abnormal conditions, I can rapidly access the information I need in the FMC.
____3. AP69 The effective crewmember always uses the automation tools provided.
____4. FS71 I am concerned that the use of automation will cause me to lose flying skills.
____5. PC72 It's easy to forget how to do FMC operations that are not performed often.
____6. PC73 I look forward to more automation - the more the better.
____7. SC74 Pilots should avoid disengaging automated systems.
____8. PC75 There are modes and features of the FMC that I do not fully understand.
____9. SC76 Automated cockpits require more verbal communication between crewmembers.
____10. FS77 I regularly maintain flying proficiency by disengaging automation.
____11. SC79 Automated cockpits require more cross-checking of crewmember actions.
____12. AP80 My company expects me to always use automation.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                            Page 39

____13.   SC82 I feel free to select the level of automation at any given time.
____14.   AUTO83 Automated systems should be used at the crews' discretion.
____15.   AUTO84 Flying highly automated aircraft alters the way crewmembers transfer information.
____16.   AUTO85 I try to use automation as much as possible during flight operations.
____17.   AUTO86 It is difficult to know what FMC operations the other crewmember is performing.


                                          MULTINATIONAL CREWS (if applicable)
 A.    What is/are the best thing(s) about flying with multi-national crews?
_________BEST1,C,240__________________________________________________________________________
_________BEST2,C,240__________________________________________________________________________
________BEST3,C,240___________________________________________________________________________


 B.    What is/are the most frustrating thing(s) about flying with multi-national crews?
_______FRUST1,C,240__________________________________________________________________________
_______FRUST2,C,240__________________________________________________________________________
_______FRUST3,C,240__________________________________________________________________________

Part VI -Background Information.

NOTE: EITHER BLANK OR ZERO ARE OK FOR ALL DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS EXCEPT YRSORG,
YRSAV, YRSINAC, WHICH SHOULD BE 9-FILLED IF MISSING IN ORDER TO DISTINGUISH
BETWEEN ZERO YRS, WHICH IS VALID, AND MISSING.
SEX__ Gender (1=M or 2= F) __BASE,C,3_ Base ___YRSORG,N,4.1 Years at XX YRSAV,N,4.1 Years in
Aviation
AC,C,15_, SERIES,C,5 Fleet (A/C type & series) __YRSINAC,N,4.1_How much experience do you have in this
aircraft ? (years)
BACKGRND Nature of flying background (check one) __1= Military __2=Civilian __3=Both
POS Crew Position: _____1= Captain _____ 2=First Officer _____ 3=Second Officer
STATUS Status: ____1= Line Pilot _____2= Instructor _____3= Check Airman _____ 4=Management 5=OTHER
NATION,C,20 What is your nationality? _________________
BNATION,C,20 What was your nationality at birth (if different from your present nationality?) _____________

            Thank you for taking the time to complete the questionnaire. Your participation is appreciated.
   University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                                Page 40


   Appendix To the Technical Report 01-02 –CODING MASTER
   for the FMAQ 2.1 – USA/Anglo-Western Airlines
         NOTE: PAGES DO NOT SPLIT SAME AS ORIGINAL SURVEY…2/97
                        Flight Management Attitudes Questionnaire 2.1 (USA/Anglo-Western Airlines)
                                                       XX5 Pilots

             FOR ALL SCALED ITEMS, EITHER BLANK OR ZERO CAN BE USED FOR MISSING ITEMS.

   The success of the survey depends on your contribution, so it is important that you answer questions as honestly as
   you can. There are no right or wrong answers, and often the first answer that comes to mind is best. Individual
   responses are absolutely confidential.


   Part I - XX Pilot Views: This portion of the questionnaire is designed for you to express your view of your company.
   Please answer by writing beside each item a letter from the corresponding scale.
            A=1                         B=2                   C=3                     D=4                   E=5
          Very Low                      Low                 Adequate                  High                Very High

A. Please evaluate your level of satisfaction with these               ____13. FTCHECKL Checklists
different aspects of flight operations.
                                                                                    B. Please describe your personal perception
____1.    GSCHOOL Ground School NEW ITEM                                               of the quality of teamwork &
____2.    SIMTRNG Simulator-based training NEW ITEM                                    cooperation you have experienced with:
____3.    RELEVANC Line relevance of training material
____4.    NHTRNG Quality of new-hire training NEW                      ____14.   TEAMCOCK Other cockpit crewmembers
          ITEM                                                         ____15.   TEAMOPS Gate Agents
____5.    FTINST Instructor skills                                     ____16.   TEAMGSVC Ramp Personnel
____6.    FTOVERAL Flight Training Overall                             ____17.   TEAMFA Flight Attendants
____7.    FTFAIR Fairness of checking                                  ____18.   TEAMDISP Dispatch
____8.    FMAVAILFlight Manager/Chief Pilot availability               ____19.   TEAMMAIN Maintenance
____9.    FTMGMT Flight Ops Management                                 ____20.   TEAMSKED Crew Scheduling
____10.   DISCIP Disciplinary policy and enforcement
____11.   PIUTIL Pilot utilization and productivity
____12.   MANUALS Operations Manuals

C. Please answer the following by writing your response beside each item using the following scale.
       A=1                         B=2                     C=3                   D=4                     E=5
 Disagree Strongly           Disagree Slightly            Neutral            Agree Slightly         Agree Strongly

____21. FOPLISTN The managers in Flight Operations                     ____25. EMERG Our training has prepared pilots and
        listen to us and care about our concerns.                              flight attendants to work as a well-coordinated
____22. SAFECHNL I know the proper channels to direct                          team.
        questions regarding safety practices.                          ____26. LCPOS My last line check was a positive
____23. CKMODELS Check Airmen are respected role                               learning experience. NEW ITEM
        models in our airline. NEW ITEM                                ____27. SAFEENCO I am encouraged by my supervisors
____24. CHFOPS89 I feel comfortable going to the Chief                         and coworkers to report any unsafe conditions I
        Pilot’s office to discuss problems or operational                      may observe.
        issues.                                                        ____28. MISC21 Working here is like being part of a
                                                                               large family.

   5
       “XX” in the text is replaced by the name of the airline.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                             Page 41

____29. PROBPI99 Flight Management staff                        ____39. MXSTDS XX practices the highest maintenance
        constructively deal with problem pilots.                         standards. NOTE: ITEMS 39 THRU 46 HAVE
____30. MISC35 I am proud to work for this organization.                 DIFFERENT ORDER THAN INTL VERS 2.0,
____31. MGMTSAFE Management will never                                   AND THERE ARE 2 MORE ITEMS IN 2.1 AS
        compromise safety concerns for profitability.                    WELL. DATABASE IS IN SURVEY ORDER.
____32. CRMDEBR My last simulator instructor                    ____40. PIMORALE Pilot morale is high.
        effectively debriefed the flight’s human factors        ____41. MGMTSUP Flight Operations Management fully
        issues.                                                          supports my daily efforts on the line.
____33. SAFEACTD My suggestions about safety would              ____42. UAR45 I like my job.
        be acted upon if I expressed them to management.        ____43. CRMERODE The current CRM environment has
____34. SAMESTDZ Check Airmen across all fleets hold                     eroded the captain’s effectiveness. THIS ITEM
        pilots to the same standard. NEW ITEM                            NOT ON INTL VERSION
____35. INSTROPS Our Instructors have a good                    ____44. SRTRUST Pilots trust senior management at XX.
        understanding of line operations. NEW ITEM              ____45. BASESTD Standards are the same at all bases.
____36. SRMGMT Senior management at XX is doing a                        THIS ITEM NOT ON INTL VERSION
        good job.                                               ____46. SAFECULT This airline has a positive safety
____37. BRFSTART Cabin personnel should be included                      culture. NEW ITEM
        in the crew briefing at the start of a duty day.
____38. SOP102 Crew members that I fly with comply
        with XX SOP’s.
D. Please name your top three recommendations to improve XX flight operations and training.

_____FOPS1, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
_____FOPS2, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
_____FOPS3, C, 240___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Part II - Flight Management Attitudes.
Please answer the following items by writing your response beside each item using the following scale
          A=1                         B=2                 C=3                   D=4                     E=5
    Disagree Strongly           Disagree Slightly        Neutral            Agree Slightly         Agree Strongly


____1. CMA9 The captain should take physical control and fly the aircraft in emergency and non-standard situations.
____2. CMA13 Even when fatigued, I perform effectively during critical times in a flight.
____3. HUA7 The airline’s rules should not be broken - even when the employee thinks it is in the airline’s best interests.
____4. PD9 Senior staff deserve extra benefits and privileges.
____5. CMA3012 I let other crewmembers know when my workload is becoming (or about to become) excessive.
____6. DEBRVALU Debriefing the flight can be a valuable learning experience. THIS ITEM NOT ON 2.0
    INTERNATIONAL VERSION.
____7. CMA25 My decision making ability is as good in emergencies as in routine flying conditions.
____8. CMA31 I am more likely to make judgment errors in an emergency.
____9. CMA18 Successful flight deck management is primarily a function of the captain's flying proficiency.
____10.             MISC25I am ashamed when I make a mistake in front of my other crewmembers.
____11.             CMA11 Crewmembers should not question actions of the captain except when they threaten the safety of the
    flight.
____12.             CMA32 I am less effective when stressed or fatigued.
____13.    CATRAIN An essential captain duty is training first officers. FROM HERE ON DOWN, ITEMS ARE IN A
    SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT ORDER THAN THEY ARE IN VERSION 2.0 INTERNATIONAL.
____14.        CMA17 My performance is not adversely affected by working with an inexperienced or less capable
    crewmember.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                                  Page 42

____15.             CMA6 Crewmembers should monitor each other for signs of stress or fatigue.
____16.             CMA34 Personal problems can adversely affect my performance.
____17.             CMA24 A truly professional crewmember can leave personal problems behind when flying.
____18.             CMA15 Except for total incapacitation of the captain, the first officer should never assume command of the
    aircraft.
____19.             UA38 Written procedures are necessary for all in-flight situations.
____20.             NOMISTAK A true professional does not make mistakes. NEW ITEM
____21.             CMA2 Crewmembers should mention their stress or physical problems to other crew before or during a
    flight.
Part III. Leadership Styles
Please read the following descriptions of four different leadership styles, and answer the questions that follow.

1=Style A Leader usually makes decisions promptly and communicates them to subordinates clearly and firmly. Expects them
          to carry out the decisions loyally and without raising difficulties.
2=Style B Leader usually makes decisions promptly, but, before going ahead, tries to explain them fully to subordinates.
          Gives them the reasons for the decisions and answers whatever questions they may have.
3=Style C Leader usually consults with subordinates before reaching decisions. Listens to their advice, considers it, and then
          announces decision. Expects all to work loyally to implement it whether or not it is in accordance with the advice
          they gave.
4=Style D Leader usually calls a meeting of subordinates when there is an important decision to be made. Puts the problem
          before the group and invites discussion. Accepts the majority viewpoint as the decision.


First and Second officers, please think of Captains when answering the next two questions; Captains, please think of Flight
Ops. Management.
                      ___ 1. HPD48 Which one of the above styles of leadership would you most prefer to work under?

                          ___2. HPD49 In your organization, which style do you find yourself most often working under?


Part V Cockpit Automation
The following items deal with attitudes regarding flightdeck automation. For purposes of this survey, automated aircraft are
defined as those with a programmable Flight Management Computer (FMC). If you are currently flying an automated aircraft,
base you responses on experience in this airplane. If you have not flown such an airplane, base your answers on your
expectations regarding such aircraft. Please answer by writing beside each item a letter from the scale below.

       A=1                       B=2                     C=3                     D=4                E=5
 Disagree Strongly        Disagree Slightly             Neutral              Agree Slightly    Agree Strongly
NOTES: DROPPED ITEMS SC70, AP78, SC81
____1. PC67 I prefer flying automated aircraft.
____2. PC68 Under abnormal conditions, I can rapidly access the information I need in the FMC.
____3. AP69 The effective crewmember always uses the automation tools provided.
____4. FS71 I am concerned that the use of automation will cause me to lose flying skills.
____5. PC72 It's easy to forget how to do FMC operations that are not performed often.
____6. PC73 I look forward to more automation - the more the better.
____7. SC74 Pilots should avoid disengaging automated systems.
____8. PC75 There are modes and features of the FMC that I do not fully understand.
____9. SC76 Automated cockpits require more verbal communication between crewmembers.
____10. FS77 I regularly maintain flying proficiency by disengaging automation.
____11. SC79 Automated cockpits require more cross-checking of crewmember actions.
____12. AP80 My company expects me to always use automation.
____13. SC82 I feel free to select the level of automation at any given time.
____14. AUTO83 Automated systems should be used at the crews' discretion.
____15. AUTO84 Flying highly automated aircraft alters the way crewmembers transfer information.
____16. AUTO85 I try to use automation as much as possible during flight operations.
University of Texas/FMAQ 2.0 International  10/96                                                            Page 43

____17. AUTO86 It is difficult to know what FMC operations the other crewmember is performing.


Part VI -Background Information.

NOTE: EITHER BLANK OR ZERO ARE OK FOR ALL DEMOGRAPHIC ITEMS EXCEPT YRSORG, YRSAV,
YRSINAC, WHICH SHOULD BE 9-FILLED IF MISSING IN ORDER TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN ZERO YRS,
WHICH IS VALID, AND MISSING.
SEX__ Gender (1=M or 2= F) __BASE,C,3_ Base ___YRSORG,N,4.1 Years at XX YRSAV,N,4.1 Years in Aviation
AC,C,15_, SERIES,C,5 Fleet (A/C type & series) __YRSINAC,N,4.1_How much experience do you have in this aircraft ?
(years)
BACKGRND Nature of flying background (check one) __1= Military __2=Civilian __3=Both
POS Crew Position: _____1= Captain _____ 2=First Officer _____ 3=Second Officer
STATUS Status: ____1= Line Pilot _____2= Instructor _____3= Check Airman _____ 4=Management 5=OTHER
NATION,C,20 What is your nationality? _________________
BNATION,C,20 What was your nationality at birth (if different from your present nationality?) _____________

                 Thank you for taking the time to complete the questionnaire. Your participation is appreciated.
Appendix To the Technical Report 01-02 – CODING MASTER for
the FMASS 6_01 Short Version
CODING MASTER Flightdeck Management and Safety Survey 6-1-01
Included here are the item’s scale assignment (if any) in italics and its variable label in CAPS.
Please note that pages do not split the same as in the actual survey.

Scales: SC = Safety Culture Scale, SR = Stress Recognition Scale, CR = Command Scale, JA = Job Attitudes
Scale
Part I –Pilot Views:
        A                         B                       C                        D                     E
    1=Very Low                  2=Low                 3=Adequate                 4=High              5=Very High

A. Please evaluate your level of satisfaction with these              ____12.MANUALS Operations Manuals
different aspects of flight operations.                               ____13.DISCIP Disciplinary policy and enforcement

____1. NHTRNG Quality of initial training on this                     B. Please describe your personal perception of the quality
       A/C                                                            of teamwork & cooperation you have experienced with:
____2. GSCHOOL Ground School
____3. SIMTRNG Simulator-based training                               ____1. TE TEAMCOCK Other cockpit
____4. FTFAIR Fairness of checking                                           crewmembers
____5. FTOVERAL Flight Training Overall                               ____2. TE TEAMOPS Gate Agents
____6. SC FMAVAIL Chief Pilot availability                            ____3. TE TEAMGSVC Ramp Personnel
____7. FTMGMT Flight Ops Management                                   ____4. TE TEAMFA Flight Attendants
____8. FTCHECKL Checklists                                            ____5. TE TEAMDISP Dispatch
____9. PIUTIL Pilot utilization & productivity                        ____6. TE TEAMMAIN Maintenance
____10.RELEVANC Line relevance of training                            ____7. TE TEAMSKED Crew Scheduling
____11.FTINST Instructor skills



C. Please answer the following safety and cockpit management attitudes by writing a letter beside each
item using the following scale.
       1=A                      2=B                      3=C                      4=D                    5=E
 Disagree Strongly        Disagree Slightly             Neutral               Agree Slightly        Agree Strongly



____1.     SC FOPLISTN The managers in Flight                         ____7.      JA PIMORALE Pilot morale is high.
           Operations listen to us and care about our                 ____8.      JA SRTRUST Pilots trust senior
           concerns.                                                              management at this airline.
____2.     JA MISC35 I am proud to work for this                      ____9.      CHFOPS89 I feel comfortable going to the
           organization.                                                          Chief Pilot’s office to discuss problems or
____3.     SC SAFEACTD My suggestions about                                       operational issues.
           safety would be acted upon if I expressed                  ____10.     CR CMA11 Crewmembers should not
           them to management.                                                    question actions of the captain except when
____4.     JA SRMGMT Senior management (VP                                        they threaten the safety of flight.
           and above) at this airline is doing a good                 ____11.     SAMESTDZ Check airmen are respected
           job.                                                                   role models in our airline.
____5.     EMERG Our training has prepared pilots                     ____12.     YRS3AGO Safety at this airline is better
           and flight attendants to work as a well-                               now than three years ago.
           coordinated team.                                          ____13.     JA UAR45 I like my job.
____6.     SOP102 Crewmembers that I fly with
           comply with this airline’s SOP’s.
The University of Texas/FMASS Short Form  7/99                                               Page 45

____14. SR CMA25 My decision-making ability is           ____27. JA MISC21 Working here is like being
        as good in emergencies as in routine flying              part of a large family.
        conditions.                                      ____28. HUA7 This airline’s rules should not be
____15. CR CMA18 Successful flight deck                          broken – even when the employee thinks it
        management is primarily a function of the                is in the airline’s best interest.
        captain's flying proficiency.                    ____29. MGMTSUP Flight Operations
                                                                 Management fully supports my daily
____16. SC MGMTSAFE Management will never
                                                                 efforts on the line.
        compromise safety concerns for
        profitability.                                   ____30. SR CMA24 A truly professional
                                                                 crewmember can leave personal problems
____17. SR CMA32 I am less effective when
                                                                 behind when flying.
        stressed or fatigued.
                                                         ____31. TIMELY Flight operations provides
____18. SR CMA34 Personal problems can                           adequate, timely information about events
        adversely affect my performance.                         that might affect my work.
____19. SCULTURE This airline has a positive             ____32. FS71 I am concerned that the use of
        safety culture.                                          automation will cause me to lose flying
____20. SC SAFEENCO I am encouraged by my                        skills.
        supervisors and coworkers to report any          ____33. SR CMA31 I am more likely to make
        unsafe conditions I may observe.                         judgment errors in abnormal or emergency
____21. MXSTDS This airline practices the highest                situations.
        maintenance standards.                           ____34. CR CMA9 The captain should take
____22. CATRAIN An essential captain duty is                     physical control and fly the aircraft in
        training first officers.                                 emergency and nonstandard situations.
____23. SR CMA17 My performance is not                   ____35. AP69 The effective crewmember always
        adversely affected by working with an                    uses the automation tools provided.
        inexperienced or less capable crew
        member.                                          ____36. SC74 Pilots should avoid disengaging
                                                                 automated systems.
____24. SC SAFECHNL I know the proper
        channels to report my safety concerns.           ____37. AP80 My company expects me to always
____25. CR CMA15 Except for total incapacitation                 use automation.
        of the captain, the first officer should never   ____38. TOOMUCH We currently receive too
        assume command of the aircraft.                          much CRM training.
____26. BRFSTART Cabin personnel should be               ____39.   LOSAGOOD Non-jeopardy line
        included in the crew briefing at the start of              observations are a good means of
        a duty day.                                                collecting operations and safety
                                                                   data/information. (OPTIONAL ITEM)
____40.
 The University of Texas/FMASS Short Form  7/99                                                                Page 46




 D. Comments:
 COMSAFE Please name your top three recommendations to improve flight safety.
 COMOPTRN Please name your top three recommendations to improve flight operations & training.

Part II -Background Information.
SEX Gender (M or F)             BASE Base          AC Fleet (A/C type & series)
YRSORGC Years at this airline (circle one): 1=less than 1yr               2=1yr to <3yrs   3=3yrs to <10yrs       4=10yrs or
more
YRSPOSC Years in position (this A/C):                 1=less than 1yr    2=1yr to <3yrs    3=3yrs to <8yrs     4=8yrs or more
YRSAVC Years experience all airlines: 1=less than 10yrs                 2=10yr to <15yrs   3=15yrs to <20yrs      4=20yrs or
more
PREVAUTO Do you have previous experience flying automated (FMC) aircraft? ( 1=yes / 2=no )?
BACKGRND Flying background (check one)                    ___1= Military       ___2= Civilian     ___3=Both
POS Crew Position: ____1=CA ____2=FO ____3=SO _____4=IRO1 _____5=IRO2
STATUS Status: __1= Line Pilot __ 2=Instructor __ 3=Sim Check Airman __ 4=Line Check Airman __
5=Mgmt __ 6=Other
OBSBEFOR I have been previously observed on a non-jeopardy line observation (1996/1998). 1=Yes_ 2=No_
(OPTIONAL ITEM)

                Thank you for taking the time to complete the questionnaire. Your participation is appreciated.

				
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