From the President of The University of South Dakota

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From the President of The University of South Dakota Powered By Docstoc
					                                 From the President of
                             The University of South Dakota




Dear 2011 IdeaFest Participants:

Congratulations on the presentation of your work at the 2011 IdeaFest, The University of South Dakota’s
premier annual showcase of graduate and undergraduate student research, creative activity, and
academic engagement. We take pride in both the breadth of the graduate and professional programs
offered at USD and the liberal arts identity that is at the core of the institution. There is no better
representation of all that the University of South Dakota is than the work of its students, guided by
faculty mentors, as presented at IdeaFest.

During this event, you and your fellow students, graduate and undergraduate, will present the results of
your research, engagement, and creative activity. Enjoy the opportunity to share your work and ideas,
but also take advantage of the opportunity that this event gives you to learn more about the work of
your fellow students.

On behalf of the University, thank you for your hard work. Your accomplishments symbolize what a
truly extraordinary environment we have at USD. I hope you enjoy this year’s festivities!

Sincerely,



James W. Abbott, President




                                                   1
                             Message from the IdeaFest Chair




Welcome to The University of South Dakota’s 2011 IdeaFest! By presenting at IdeaFest you further a USD
tradition dating back to 1992. I am genuinely impressed by the diversity of student work being presented in
this year’s event. IdeaFest continues to grow, this year featuring 369 students, graduate and undergraduate,
presenting 188 oral presentations, posters, performances, and panels. I urge you to attend as many of your
fellow students’ presentations as you possibly can. Make a point of attending presentations not only in your
own academic subject, but also in others that represent the broad spectrum of academic activity across the
USD campus. Support fellow students and share in the exchange of ideas that is at the heart of this event.

Don’t miss the outstanding keynote lectures. At noon on Wednesday, April 13th, Dr. Lawrence Wangh
(Brandeis University) will give a presentation entitled “Role of Serendipity in Scientific Discovery: A Personal
Account,” and at 7:30 pm on Thursday, April 14th, Dr. Beth Shapiro (Penn State University & National
Geographic Emerging Explorer), will present “Sequencing the Dead.” Both keynote addresses will be in the
Muenster University Center Ballroom, and are free and open to the public.

I would like to thank the student presenters, their faculty mentors, and members of the audience for
participating in this year’s IdeaFest. I would also like to thank the members of the organizing committee –
Rich Braunstein (Political Science); Brian Burrell (Basic Biomedical Sciences); Patricia Downey (Theatre);
Raimondo Genna (Theatre); Karl Reasoner (graduate student); Catalin Georgescu (Mathematics); Whitney
Siegfried (Coordinator, Center for Academic Engagement); Jill Ward (Campus Events Coordinator); Mandie
Weinandt (Graduate School); and Sarah Wittmuss, (Director, Center for Academic Engagement)– for their
assistance in putting together the event.

Sincerely,



Dr. Brennan Jordan
Associate Professor of Earth Sciences




                                                        2
                     Summary of IdeaFest and Satellite Events
 If you are a person with a disability and need special accomodations to fully participate, please contact
                  Disability Services at the U at 605-677-6389 48 hours before the event.

April 11      Arthur A. Volk Accounting Symposium: “Financial Reform”
              5:00 pm, Farber Hall

April 12      46th Annual Student History Conference
              9:00am – 4:00pm, Muenster University Center Conference Room

April 12      American Experience Freem Riders Film Screening
              7:00 pm, Freedom Forum Conference Room

April 13      IdeaFest 2011
              9:00 - 11:50 am        Oral Presentations (Muenster University Center)
              12:00 - 1:00 pm        Jazz Ensemble (Muenster University Center Pit Lounge)
              12:00 - 1:00 pm        Keynote address by Dr. Lawrence J. Wangh – “Role of Serendipity
                                     in Scientific Discovery: A Personal Account” (Muenster University
                                     Center Ballroom)
              1:30 - 3:00 pm         Poster Session 1 (Muenster University Center: Downstairs and 2nd
                                     Floor Balcony)
              3:00 - 4:00 pm         Vermillion Literary Project (VLP) Poetry Reading (Muenster
                                     University Center Pit Lounge)
              3:00 - 5:00 pm         Oral Presentations (Muenster University Center)

April 14      IdeaFest 2011
              9:00 am - 12:40 pm     Oral Presentations (Muenster University Center)
              11:00 – 11:30 am       Excerpts from “25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee”
                                     (Muenster University Center Pit Lounge)
              12:00 – 1:00 pm        Acoustic Guitar - Matt Hittle
              12:00 – 1:00 pm        Faculty Brown Bag “How to Get Inolved in Undergraduate
                                     Research” (Muenster University Center Faculty Lounge)
              1:00 - 2:30 pm         Poster Session 2 (Muenster University Center: Downstairs and 2 nd
                                     Floor Balcony)
              2:30 - 5:00 pm         Oral Presentations (Muenster University Center)
              6:00 pm                Graduate & Undergraduate Student Banquet (Muenster
                                     University Center Ballroom)
              7:30 pm                Keynote Address by Dr. Beth Shapiro – “Sequencing the Dead”
                                     (Muenster University Center Ballroom)

April 15      Brown Bag Lunch Program: All About Jazz
              12:05 pm, National Music Museum

April 15      Musical: “The 25th Annual Putman County Spelling Bee”
              7:30 pm – Wayne S. Knutson Theatre


                                                    3
                     2011 Featured Keynote Speakers
                                 IdeaFest Keynote Speaker
                 April 13, 12:00 pm Muenster University Center Ballroom

             “Role of Serendipity in Scientific Discovery: A Personal Account”

                        Lawrence J. Wangh, PhD, Brandeis University

Lawrence J. Wangh is a professor in the Department of Biology at Brandeis University. In 1997, Wangh
and his laboratory colleagues decided to enter the field of molecular diagnostics. Several serendipitous discoveries lead them
to invent LATE-PCR, an advanced form of asymmetric PCR, as well as several other related chemistries. These platform
technologies provide the basis for improved diagnostics in many fields because they generate more information and are
quantitatively more accurate than conventional PCR.

Currently, some members of his laboratory are working in veterinary medicine to develop tests for Foot and Mouth Disease
and Avian Influenza, while others are working in human medicine to develop sophisticated tests for hospital acquired
infections (MRSA), multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and the side effects of treating HIV patients with nucleic acid
analogues.

Additional projects Wangh is working on are related to stem cell research and early detection of cancer. He and his
colleagues are now working in close collaboration with a biotechnology company with the intention of moving their science
from the bench-to-the-bedside as quickly as possible. The past five years have been a thrilling global adventure comprised of
discovery, invention, new learning, business, travel, and building collaborations. Wangh’s major task in the next five years is
to teach about their discoveries as widely as possible.




                                                                 IdeaFest Keynote Speaker
                                                 April 14, 7:30 pm Muenster University Center Ballroom

                                                                     “Sequencing the Dead”

                                                          Beth Shapiro, PhD, Penn State University

Beth Shapiro is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology at Penn State. Within the last 10,000 years, more than
70% of the North American megafauna, including mammoths, lions, camels, giant bears and wild horses, went extinct. Why
and how quickly this mass extinction happened remains unresolved. Climate change, overhunting by humans, an
extraterrestrial impact and rapidly-spreading disease are all commonly implicated in the disappearance of the megafauna. In
response to the dramatic climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene ice ages, populations of large mammals grew and
shrank, moved across the landscape tracking available habitat, and responded to the pressures of human hunters.
Fortunately, the signal of each of these changes is preserved in their DNA sequences.

In Shapiro’s research, they collect bones and teeth from animals that lived in ice-age North America and Siberia and use DNA
extracted from these to reconstruct the last 100,000 years of evolutionary history of the now-extinct megafaunal community.
Their results suggest that climate change associated with the peak of the last ice age was an important stressor for most
megafauna, but that humans were ultimately responsible for most, if not all, of the extinctions that occurred within the last
10,000 years. They identify two modes of extinction: a gradual extinction, which is commonly associated with significant
fragmentation of formerly widespread populations, and a rapid extinction, which most often occurs when species are rare.
Shapiro’s results have important implications for designing and implementing strategies for the conservation of species than
are under threat of extinction today.




                                                               4
                                Detailed Schedule of Events
                                             April 13, 2011

Presentations in oral presentation and performance sessions are 15 minutes with 5 minutes of questions
                                           and change-over.

Session 1a: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Mixed Themes I
       Ilmira Dulyanova, Multi-ethnic Individuals: Navigating and Choosing Ethnic Identity [Carolyn
            Prentice, Communication Studies]
       Melissa A. Johnson, The Myth of Happiness: Social Constructions of Love, Marriage, Family, and
            Happiness in Elfriede Jelinek’s Women As Lovers [Carol Leibiger, Honors]
       Tina Pietsch, Somatization and Cultural Idioms of Distress: Treating the Hispanic Population
            [Angela Helmer, Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy]
       Lori Newcomb, Potential vs. Pathology in Young Frankenstein [Skip Willman, English]
       Heather M. Siebert, The Transition to Parenthood: Women’s Experiences of Change, Challenges,
            and Marital Satisfaction [Carolyn Prentice, Communication Studies]

Session 1b: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 216
Research in Cardiac Health
       Jessica Freeling, Altered cholinergic function of intracardiac ganglia is involved in the attenuation
            of PSNS control of the heart in the aging mouse. [Yi-Fan Li, Basic Biomedical Sciences,
            Sanford School of Medicine]
       Julie A. Garry, A proposal to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3
            PUFAs) on cardiac fibrosis in hypertensive mice and rats [Timothy OConnell, Cardiovascular
            Health Research Center, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Shuai Li, Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, attenuates Ang II induced hypertension. [Douglas
            Martin, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Mark John Ranek, The Role of PKG in the Stimulation of the UPS by the Muscarinic 2 Receptor
            [Xuejun Wang, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]

Session 1c: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Panel: Mock Trial
       USD Mock Trial, USD Mock Trial: Davis v. HappyLand Toy Company [Sandy McKeown, Criminal
            Justice]

Session 1d: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 216A
Fine Arts and Theatre
       Nicole Geary, Dialogue and Discourse Through Portfolio Print Exchanges [John Timothy Pizzuto,
            Photography]
       Garrett Schnathorst, Automation for “The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee” [Scott
            Mollman, Theatre]




                                                     5
Session 2a: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 216
Immigration 1
       Sarah Aker, Immigrant Health: Accessibility and Health Outcomes [Wenqian Dai, Anthropology
            and Sociology]
       Sarah Scherr, Mental Health of Immigrant Children [Wenqian Dai, Anthropology and Sociology]
       Alissa VanMeeteren, Children & Immigration [Wenquian Dai, Political Science]
       Alexa Rae Walker, The Diverse Adaptive Experiences of Immigrants [Wenqian Dai, Sociology]

Session 2b: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Research in Materials Chemistry
       Aubrey Jones, Phthalocyanine- and Calixarene-Templated Deposition of Vanadia on Solid
            Supports [Grigoriy Sereda, Chemistry]
       Nathan L. Netzer, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Study of Silver Nanowire Langmuir-
            Blodgett Films [Chaoyang Jiang, Chemistry]
       Revathi Padmanabhuni, N-Halamine based Antimicrobial Fillers for Polymers [YuYu Sun,
            Chemistry]
       Chao Qiu, Trace Detection of Melamine by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Silver
            Nanostructured Thin Films [Chaoyang Jiang, Chemistry]

Session 2c: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Panel: Political Communications
       Jacob Christian Bobby, Jared Clay, Bill Muller, Brigid Hoffman, Brooke Fodness, Shane Semmler,
             Functional Analysis of the Political Communication in South Dakota’s 2010 Congressional
             Election [Shane Semmler, Communication Studies]

Session 2d: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 216A
Philosophy of Law Symposium
       Joey Appley, What is Civil Disobedience? [Leroy Meyer, Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy]
       Stephanie Gruba, Law and Morality: the Hart-Fuller Debate [Leroy Meyer, Languages, Linguistics,
            & Philosophy]
       Mitchell O’Hara, Inconsistency in the Legal Positivism Tradition [Leroy Meyer, Languages,
            Linguistics, & Philosophy]




                                    KEYNOTE ADDRESS
                             Muenster University Center Ballroom

 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm – Keynote Address by Dr. Lawrence J. Wangh, University of Kansas. Dr. Wangh’s
address is entitled, “Role of Serendipity in Scientific Discovery: A Personal Account” and is open to the
                                           public free of charge.




                                                   6
Session 2e: 1:00 pm - 1:30 pm - Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge
Paradox of Divine Violence
       Nolan Goetzinger, The Paradox of Divine Violence in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness [Emily
            Haddad, English]

Poster Session 1: 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm Muenster University Center Main Floor
       1: Leslie Adajar Addengast, BST2, Tetherin Protein Characterization in A549 and MDCK cells
               [Victor Huber - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       2: Prem Nath Basa, Arundhati Bhowmik, Mariah Schulz, A novel anthraquinone based imine
               derivative for selective detection of Barium (II) over other cations in organic solvents
               [Andrew Sykes - Chemistry]
       3: Heather E. Blom, Jared L. Burcham, Management of Acute Sports Injuries and Medical
               Conditions by Physical Therapy Students Following Completion of an Emergency Response
               Course: Preliminary Results [Joy Karges, Pat Cross - Physical Therapy]
       4: Mallory Boor, Hormonal contraceptives and the female cycle: Is better education needed?
               [Elizabeth Freeburg - Health Sciences]
       5: Amanda Bullene, Cami Ahrenholtz, Sex Role Stereotypic Personality Traits of College Women
               Over Twenty-Five Years [Cindy Struckman-Johnson - Psychology]
       6: Kevin Cwach, Alyssa Day, Katie Nielsen, Addie Mulligan, Cassie Garner, Reanne Zahn, Nick
               Weinandt, Abby Gillogly, Derek Seeley, Katie Beckman, Dan Davies, Katherine
               Christianson, Tyler Miiller, Anna Knotek, AWOL Guatemala [Whitney Siegfried and Karl
               Reasoner - Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
       7: Dan Davies, Increased Anxiety States and Contextual Fear Conditioning in Closed Traumatic
               Brain Injury Mirroring Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [Gina Forster - Basic Biomedial
               Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       8: Devon Fingland, Communication Sciences & Disorders - Dialogic Reading with Preschoolers At-
               Risk for Reading Deficits [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
       9: Nolan Goetzinger, Get Your Name in LIGHTS: Charles Bukowski’s Artistic Progression with Fame
               [Skip Willman - English]
       10: Max Grandi, Mouse Atrial Preparation and Response to Varenicline [Yifan Li - Basic Biomedical
               Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       11: Kristi Karlson, Communication Sciences & Disorders: An Oral Motor Therapy Approach for
               Articulation Disorders [Liz Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
       12: Nathan Russell LeMaster, Nicolas Ross Albers, Gender Differences in the Definition of and the
               Reasons for “Hooking Up” Among College Students at a Rural University [Jean Caraway -
               Psychology]
       13: Iseley A. Marshall, Solar/Thermal Radiation Control Materials for Thermoelectric Solar Cells
               [Jin Ho Kang - Physics]
       14: Ronda Mayrose, William J. Sweeney, Combining The Use of Repeated Practice Through The
               Use of SAFMEDS With Precision Teaching Measurement Procedures To Build Fluency In
               Musical Notation Recognition With Elementary Students [William Sweeney - Education
               Curriculum & Instruction]
       15: Lorena Reichert, Ethnic Enclave Implications [Wenqian Dai - Anthropology and Sociology]
       16: Christina Roberts, Mechanisms underlying deficits in cortical dopamine caused by adolescent
               social defeat [Mick Watt - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       17: Michael Alvin Roberts, What Factors Affect a Students Standardized Test Score? [Mike
               Allgrunn - Economics]

                                                   7
18: Jenna S. Thies, Communication Sciences and Disorders: The Effect of Specially Designed
         Robots on Social Interaction Skills in Children with Autism [Elizabeth Hanson -
         Communication Sciences and Disorders]
19: Alexa Walker, Shane Bryan, Caitlin Blumer, Leah Kobes, Becca Linneweber, Travis Snyders,
         Sara Boyum, Jessica Colburn, Erin Krause, Tanner Hento, AWOL Crow Creek [Whitney
         Siegfried - Service Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
20: Nathan Weltman, Development of a Non-Invasive, Long Term Animal Model of Thyroid
         Hormone Treatment in Heart Disease [A. Martin Gerdes - Basic Biomedical Sciences,
         Sanford School of Medicine]
21: Allie Aasen, Kelsea Beig, Wade Fligge, Analyses of Special Olympics Athlete’s Balance Data
         [Lana Svien - Physical Therapy]
22: Ashley M. Arens, Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Deliberate Self-harm
         [Raluca Gaher - Clinical Psychology]
23: Ainsley Elizabeth Askew, Communication Sciences and Disorder’s Augmentative and
         Alternative Communication and Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities [Elizabeth Hanson
         - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
24: Jeff Baldus, New Sculpture by Jeff Baldus [Christopher Meyer - Sculpture]
25: Aravind Baride, Brandon Dustin Burum, Two-Photon Uncaging of Coumarin from Cinnamate-
         Coated CdSe Quantum Dots as a Model Drug Delivery System [P. Stanley May - Chemistry]
26: Jennie Bellis, Communication Sciences and Disorders: Benefit of Particle Repositioning
         Maneuvers for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo via Patient Report [Liz Hanson -
         Communication Sciences and Disorders]
27: Neeraj Chauhan, Therapeutic Effects of Ormeloxifene on Cervical Cancer [Subhash Chauhan -
         Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
28: Patrick Davis, Measuring Muon Induced Processes at Homestake [Dongming Mei - Physics]
29: Dennise Garcia Sevilla, The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Clinical
         Psychology: Implications for Science and Practice [Gemma Skillman - Psychology]
30: Brij K. Gupta, Clinical Significance and Functional role of MUC13 in Colon Cancer Progression
         [Subhash Chauhan - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
31: Erika Rose Holzer, Drew William Stevens, Marta Stephanie Adamczyk, Teresa Marie Taylor,
         Shane Michael Barron, Samuel S. Gaster, Predicting Academic Performance of College
         Students: Difference in Gender, Course Load, Extracurricular Involvement, and Living
         Environment [Gemma Skillman - Psychology]
32: Elizabeth Hunziker, The Relationship between Trait Self-Objectification, Shame, Guilt, and
         Eating Disorder Symptoms [S. Jean Caraway - Clinical Psychology]
33: Justin Johnson, Growth Effects of Bisphenol A on Female Paraurethral (Skenes) Glands [Barry
         Timms - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
34: Megan Karr, Communication Sciences & Disorders: Teaching Children with Autism Appropriate
         Social Interaction and Communication Using Pivotal Response Training versus the Picture
         Exchange Communication System [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and
         Disorders]
35: Chelsie Lael Kennedy, Insuring Our Children: Providing Healthcare Insurance to Enhance Total
         Wellbeing [Michael Allgrunn - Economics]
36: Rachel Kittelson, Communication Sciences and Disorders, Auditory Stimulation (voices) and
         Arousal from Comatose [Liz Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
37: Laura Koepsell, Tissue Engineering of the Annulus Fibrosus Using Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds
         with Aligned Polycaprolactone Fibers [Ying Deng - Biomedical Engineering]

                                             8
38: Mara A. Lindokken, Where Does the Money Go? An Analysis of Student Spending at South
          Dakotas Public Universities [Bill Anderson - Political Science]
39: Jill Lockie, Communication Sciences and Disorders: Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Is It Suitable?
          [Liz Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
40: Andrea L. Lucas, Inflammatory Responses Induced and Intracellular Survival of sar-family
          Mutants in Staphylococcus aureus in Macrophages and Neutrophils [Adhar Manna - Basic
          Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
41: Tyler Miiller, Impact of an emerging contaminant Triclosan on the emerging Amphibian
          Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Jake Kerby - Biology]
42: Ben Nebelsick, Leah Fulker, Ashley Halseth, Pulmonary Function in Female Collegiate Runners
          [Pat Hauer - Physical Therapy]
43: Zachary R. Niemann, Desiccation and freezing tolerance of a dehydrin knockout line of the
          moss Physcomitrella patens [Karen Koster - Biology]
44: Andrew Michael Novick, Effects of Adolescent Social Defeat on Executive Function [Michael
          Watt - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
45: Seth Parsons, Alex Brummer, Erica Johnson, Christina Ray, Emillee Davenport, Katarina
          Gombocz, Aleisia Gomez, Krista Wilson, Leah Akland, Emily Tracy, Hillaree Farrell, Abby
          Wolf, Moses Kiplaget, Alyssa Limke, Haleigh Kreber, Allison McEntee, AWOL Memphis
          [Brock Schardin - Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
46: Brianna J. Paulsen, Communication Sciences & Disorders: “What are the affects of PECS
          (Picture Exchange Communication System) treatment on children with autism in terms of
          MLU (mean length of utterance)? [Liz Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
47: Sarah Permann, “Communication Sciences & Disorders” Musically Adapted Social Stories for
          Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and
          Disorders]
48: Kendra C. Ractliffe, The Impact of Rumination and Behavioral Inhibition and Activation on
          PTSD Symptom Severity [Gerard Jacobs - Psychology]
49: Mary Ridder, Communication Sciences and Disorders Vocal Functioning Exercises: Whipping
          Your Vocal Folds Into Shape [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
50: Sanam Sane, Proteome-wide Profiling of Ubiquitinated and Sumoylated Substrates Targeted
          by UBX Containing Protein, UBXN2A. [Khosrow Rezvani - Basic Biomedical Sciences,
          Sanford School of Medicine]
51: Margaret Schuneman, Contribution of inactivated influenza virus (IIV) and live, attenuated
          influenza virus (LAIV) to vaccine-induced immunity toward limiting influenza: GAS super-
          infections [Victor Huber - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
52: Tiffany Trask, Communication Sciences & Disorders: Augmentative and Alternative
          Communication (AAC) and Stuttering [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and
          Disorders]
53: Eric Wiedenmann, Tyler Miiller, Mollie Friedmann, Rhonda Kneifl, Darcy Leischner, Rachel
          Weber, AWOL Sioux Falls [Amanda Hill - Service-Learning - Center for Academic
          Engagement]
54: Xiaoyi Yang, Andrew Schmitz, Constructing a Radon Air Filter Prototype [Dongming Mei -
          Physics]
55: Yufeng Zhang, Metabolic Rates in Swallows: Do Energetically Expensive Lifestyles Affect
          Metabolic Capacities in Birds? [David Swanson - Biology]
56: Jianqiu Zou, Study of a specific protein in DNA repairing pathway. [Dong Zhang - Basic
          Biomedical Sciences. Samford School of Medicine]

                                             9
Session 3a: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 216
Research in Evolution, Ecology, and Plant Biology
       Jeffrey M. Engeman, Development of the Major Cartilages in the Branchiocranium of Cypriniform
            Fishes [Paula Mabee, Biology]
       Steven Adam Higgins, Analysis of urea and glycerol as cryoprotectants in the freezing tolerant
            Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) [David Swanson, Biology]
       Erica L. Mize, Preliminary Plague Assay Results From Five National Parks [Hugh Britten, Biology]
       Lynn Riley, Phylogeography of two buckwheats (Eriogonum (Polygonaceae)) endemic to
            Californias Channel Islands [Kaius Helenurm, Biology]

Session 3b: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
Brain & Behavioral Research I
       Samantha Hersrud, The role of the immune system in juvenile Batten disease [Steve Waller - Basic
            Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Justin P. Smith, Escape from Social Aggression Alleviates Anxiety [Cliff Summers, Biology]
       Andrea D. Stripling, Easing the Transition for South Dakotans with Asperger Syndrome into Higher
            Education [Gemma Skillman, Center for Disabilities, SD LEND Program]
       Sharleen Yuan, LTD in a nociceptive synapse requires postsynaptic endocannabinoid synthesis and
            presynaptic TRPV receptor activation [Brian Burrell - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford
            School of Medicine]

Session 3c: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Panel: Theatre: Team Development
       Rachel Foulks, Rachel Matthews, Megan Parrish, Gabriel Gomez, Erin Gallion, Anthony Pellecchia,
            Creating the World of The Woman in Black [Eric Hagen, Theatre]

Session 3d: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Performance 1
       Ashley Evelyn Mazur, How Hungary Influenced the Music of Brahms [Tracelyn Gesteland, Music]
       Kirstin M. Roble, “And so it came to be: A discussion on the evolution and development of the
            coloratura soprano from the 1640s-1791” [Tracelyn Gesteland, Music]


                                           April 14, 2011

Session 4a: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Immigration 2
       Kayla Fox, Immigration Reform: Why it is needed and how it can be achieved [Wenqian Dai,
            Anthropology and Sociology]
       Alissa Lee Horn, Success in the Model Minorities [Wenqian Dai, Anthropology and Sociology]
       Erin Marie Rasmussen, America’s Immigration: The Reverse Brain Drain [Wenqian Dai,
            Anthropology and Sociology]
       Jessica Tennant, The Impact of Media-Portrayed Ethnic Stereotypes [Wenqian Dai, Anthropology
            and Sociology]
       Brenan Tjelmeland, Contemporary Immigration & The Arizona Law [Wenquian Dai, Political
            Science]
                                                  10
Session 4b: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 216
Research in Women's Health
       BreeAnn Brandhagen, Anti-metastatic effect of mifepristone upon known aggressive cancer cell
            lines [Carlos Telleria, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Abha J. Chalpe, Endometriosis - Development of an In Vitro Model [Kathleen Eyster, Basic
            Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Daniel K. Chan, Effects of metabolic and mitochondrial-targeted compounds on ovarian cancer
            cells [Keith Miskimins, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Michelle Lynn Clark, Identification of Estrogen Responsive Genes in Atherosclerosis [Kathleen
            Eyster, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Michelle A. Phillips, The Role of Cellular Iron Metabolism in Breast Cancer Treatment [Keith
            Miskimins, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]

Session 4c: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 216A
Research in Photochemistry
       Vinothini Balasubramanian, Kadarkaraisamy Mariappan, Luminescent Sensor for Detection of
            Mercury (II) [Andrew Sykes, Chemistry]
       Luther Mahoney, Solar Light Energy Materials: Attempting to Solve the World’s Energy Crisis
            [Ranjit Koodali, Chemistry]
       Rui Peng, Room Temperature Synthesis of Ti-MCM-48 and Ti-MCM-41 Mesoporous Materials and
            Their Performance on Photocatalytic Splitting of Water [Ranjit Koodali, Chemistry]
       Shivatharsiny Rasalingam, Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutant Using Titania-Silica
            Materials [Ranjit Koodali, Chemistry]
       Usha K. Tottempudi, Synthesis and characterization of perfluoroalkylated 1,10-phenanthroline
            ligands and its zinc complexes for stable DSSCs [Haoran Sun, Chemistry]

Session 4d: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Performance II
       Jessie Atkinson, “bare” The process of creating a concert benefit performance event in support of
            gay rights awareness and The Trevor Project [Priscilla Hagen, Theatre]
       Maggie Conley, Brian Muldoon, Marcus Langseth, Lindsay Qualls, Patrick Beasley, Building the
            Fight: The Role of Fight Director as a Storyteller [Eric Hagen, Theatre]
       Cody Perk, Sacred in the Vernacular: A Devotional Song from Medieval England [Tracelyn
            Gesteland, Music]

Session 5a: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Panel: From the Page to the Stage
        David Mancini, Jay Seevers, Cody Juttelstad, Devon Muko, Maggie Conley, Anthony Pellecchia,
             From the Page to the Stage: “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead” [Eric Hagen, Theatre]
Session 5b: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
English
        Katlynn Beck, Blind Agents and Bearers of Cultural Ideals: Women in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
             [Emily Haddad, English]
        Lara C. Carlson, Amanda K. Zalud, Conjunction Junction, Linking Function: Tutor Collaboration
             within the Writing Center [Michelle Rogge Gannon, English]
        Tyler Klatt, The Subaltern in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness [Emily Haddad, English]


                                                   11
       Christopher Lozensky, “For Bynderes Love Ich Neveremo”: Rereading the Romance of Torture
            Porn [John Dudley, English]

Session 5c: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 216
Mathematics
       Douglas Dailey, On the Dynamics of Quadratic and Cubic Maps [Catalin Georgescu, Mathematical
            Sciences]
       Stephanie Reed, Controlling Plague Among Prairie Dogs: An Inter and Intracolony Model [Dan
            Van Peursem, Mathematical Sciences]
       Michael Alvin Roberts, Mathematical Ecology: How to Control a Pest [Jose Flores, Mathematical
            Sciences]
       Madeline J. Schrier, The Recognition Problem in One-Dimensional and Planar Dynamical Systems
            [Catalin Georgescu, Mathematical Sciences]

Session 5d: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
Research in Physical Therapy & Kinesiology
       Melissa Beckstrom, Heidi Strobush, Lori Amick, The Effects on Motor Development in a Child
            Exposed in utero to Methamphetamine: A Case Study Report [Lana Svien, Physical Therapy]
       Carter Jacobson, Comparative Analysis of Weighted Vests and Weighted Shorts on Power
            Production in Strength Training Practices of NCAA College Athletes [Andrew Shim,
            Kinesiology and Sport Science]
       Amanda Trost, Alicia Verhulst, Renae Keppen, Rob Lynde, Assessing Various Body Composition
            Measurements as an Appropriate Tool for Estimating Body Fat in National Collegiate Athletic
            Association Division I Female Collegiate Athletes [Pat Cross, Physical Therapy]
       Elizabeth Woodruff, Jill Rasmussen, Nick Liming, Conservative Treatment for Urinary Incontinence
            [Becca Jordre, Physical Therapy]


Poster Session 2: 1:00 pm – 2:30 pm Muenster University Center Main Floor
       1: Carrie Anderson, Evaluation of Multimedia Training Modules for Employees Working with
               Adults with Disabilities [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
       2: Kevin Cwach, Inhibition of influenza virus of the H3N2 subtype by innate serum inhibitors
               [Victor Huber - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       3: Tom Dahlseid, My Own Nature: A Study of Creation in Sculpture [Chris Meyer - Sculpture]
       4: Joshua M. Doorn, Preparation and Optical Properties of Silver Nanowires and Silver-Nanowire
               Thin Films [P. Stanley May - Chemistry]
       5: Samuel Gaster, Melissa A. Johnson, Gabby May-Shingle, Texting While Driving [Cindy
               Struckman-Johnson - Psychology]
       6: Zachary Irvine, Analysis of Dust Sources in Western Nebraska [Mark Sweeney - Earth Science]
       7: Kayla Konkol, Safety In the Science Classroom [Cathy Ezrailson - Education]
       8: Rebecca L. Matlock, Terrance Coombs, Factors Related to Employee Retention in Mental
               Health Treatment Provided in a Juvenile Justice Setting [Gemma Skillman - Clinical
               Psychology Training Program]
       9: Collin Michels, Sadie Hansen, Emily Struck, Los Cabos Childrens Foundation [Kristine Djerf -
               Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy]
       10: Ali Ortiz, Erik Junso, Molly Long, Meaghan Loos, Alissa VanMeeteren, Jessica Ward, AWOL
               Arches [Karl Reasoner - Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
                                                  12
11: Lorena Reichert, Enclaves: An Econometric Examination [Mike Allgrunn - Economics]
12: Dan Rexwinkel, Cody Ulven, Weight Lifting and Steroid Use [Mike Allgrunn - Economics]
13: Alicia Schieffer, Comparison of quantitative PCR techniques to detect chytridiomycosis [Jake
        Kerby - Biology]
14: Kristen Stott, Communication Sciences and Disorders- High Viscosity Earmold Impression
        Material Versus Low Viscosity Earmold Impression Material [Elizabeth Hanson -
        Communication Sciences and Disorders]
15: Keenan Thomas, Radon Monitoring and the role of iron oxide at the Homestake Mine for
        DUSEL Experiments [Dongming Mei - Physics]
16: Michael R. Thomas, Tyler B. Wray, The Role of Farm Stress, Self-Control, and Motives in
        Alcohol Use and Problems among Farmers and Ranchers [Randy Quevillon - Psychology]
17: Nyah Vanterpool, Erin Holtquist, Jacob Lyngaas, Derek Seeley, McKenzie Shroyer, Anne
        Torczon, Catherine Vietor, Elizabeth Wetering, Michelle Williams, AWOL Chicago [Lindy
        Laubenthal - Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
18: Nick Weinandt, High Purity Germanium Characterization [Tina Keller - Physics]
19: Alex Wetering, Cassandra Ceremuga, Jack Claussen, Luke Fuhrman, Ali Gress, Angela Luedke,
        Chelsea McKinney, Morgan Nelson, Cristin Turner, AWOL New Orleans [Carly Heard -
        Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
20: Richard D. Altena, The Prediction of the Outcome of Horse Racing [Mike Allgrunn - Economics]
21: Heather Borah, Erika Holzer, Jenna Urban, The Elusive Search for the Mechanism(s)
        Responsible for the Enhanced Visual Conspicuity of Fluorescent Colored Materials [Frank
        Schieber - Psychology]
22: Dominique Boudreau, UBXN2A Regulates p53 Localization and Stability through interaction
        with Mortalin2 [Khosrow Rezvani - Basic Biomedical Science, Sanford School of Medicine]
23: Clare J. Bucklin, Andrea D Stripling, Nicolas R Albers, Nathan R LeMaster, Andrew W Reed, An
        Investigation of the Relationship between Gender, Religiosity, and Perceptions of Female
        Sexual Responsibility [S. Jean Caraway - Psychology]
24: Laura M. Bunner, Terrance Coombs, The Process of Help-Seeking in Mothers of Children with
        Developmental Disabilities: A Phenomenological Exploration [Gemma Skillman - Clinical
        Psychology Training Program]
25: Joseph Bures, Jackie Iverson, Paula Williams, Restorative Care: Current Trends and the
        Involvement of Physical Therapists [Becca Jordre - Physical Therapy]
26: Dana Byram, Thermal Diffusion of Argon for Dark Matter Detectors [Dongming Mei - Physics]
27: Drew A. Cosand, An Econometric Analysis on the Sioux Falls Hotel Market [Mike Allgrunn -
        Economics]
28: Alyssa Day, CdWO4 and CsI Crystal Detectors [Dongming Mei - Physics]
29: Bridget De Yager, Communication Sciences and Disorders Critically Appraised Topic: Partner
        Augmented Input to Increase Expressive Language in a 14 Year Old Female with a
        Moderate Cognitive Delay [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
30: Erik A Ehli, Identification and functional characterization of three novel alleles for the
        serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region [Gareth Davies - Basic Biomedical
        Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
31: Emma Erickson, Anne Roche, Visualization Application in College Athletics: Open vs. Closed
        Sports [Jean Caraway - Psychology]
32: Lois Erstad, AphasiaScriptsTM [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]



                                           13
33: Stephanie Havelaar, Communication Sciences and Disorders: Success of Stapedectomy in
        Treating Unilateral Otosclerosis and Resultant Conductive Hearing Loss: A Critically
        Appraised Topic [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Sciences and Disorders]
34: Tanner Hento, Eric Schlimgen, Megan Farris, Casey Kelly, Stacie Kjelden, Hanna McElroy, Brett
        Monahan, Tim Nelson, Nicolas Rohde, Jennifer Schofield, AWOL Tennessee [Whitney
        Siegfried - Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement]
35: Don Hixon, Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb [Vincente Guiseppe -
        Physics]
36: Joshua Hughes, Protein Kinase D1 expression attenuates colon cancer progression [Meena
        Jaggi - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
37: Marie Koster, The effects of fire on species composition in a native tall grass prairie remnant
        [Molly Nepokroeff - Biology]
38: Lindsey Kozel, Jill Wenande, Jenna Kraayenbrink, The Effects of Competition and Fatigue on
        Balance in Female Collegiate Athletes: Preliminary Results [Joy Karges & Patti Berg -
        Physical Therapy]
39: Jordana Renae Lamb, Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Struggle for Children, Parents, and
        Care Providers [Gemma Skillman - Psychology]
40: Briana Nelson Kraayenbrink, The Influence of Aesthetics and Affect on Perceived Usability
        [Doug Peterson - Psychology]
41: Maegan Nimick, Kaitlin Gebhart, Potentially Harmful Effects of Text Messaging upon
        Simulated Driving Performance [Frank Schieber - Psychology]
42: Juliana Paquette, Communication Sciences & Disorders Childhood Apraxia of Speech
        Interventions: PROMPT vs. Moving Across Syllables [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication
        Sciences and Disorders]
43: Emily D. Reinbold, Effects of CRF2 receptor antagonism in the brain on anxiety states during
        amphetamine withdrawal [Gina Forster - Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of
        Medicine]
44: Christin Karen Roberts, Megan Rae Jung, Jessica Kim Patterson, Jennifer F. Hsia, Selecting a
        Coping Measure for Farm Families [Randal Quevillon - Psychology]
45: Megan Sengos, Communication Sciences & Disorders - Dynamic temporal and tactile cueing
        (DTTC) and severe childhood apraxia of speech [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication
        Sciences and Disorders]
46: Hanako Shishido, The Effects of Difficulties Identifying and Describing Feelings on Impulsivity
        and Alcohol-Related Problems [Raluca Gaher - Clinical Psychology]
47: Mindy S. Stewart, Chao Qiu, Ramesh Kattumenu, Srikanth Singamaneni, Diameter-Dependent
        Coloration of Green Synthesized Silver Nanowires [Chaoyang Jiang - Chemistry]
48: Kristi E. Tschetter, Leah B. Callahan, Effects of Early Life Stress in Adolescence [Pat Ronan -
        Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
49: Jenna Lynn Urban, Tiffany Paulson, Improving Winter Vitality [Michael Granaas - Psychology]
50: Eric Matthew Vander May, Social Stories for Adults with Autism and Concomitant Intellectual
        Disability: Reducing Self-Injurious Behavior [Elizabeth Hanson - Communication Studies]
51: Ally VanderWeide, Properties of a Nociceptive Synapse in the Medicinal Leech [Brian Burrell -
        Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
52: Gesine Elisabeth Ziebarth, How do we choose consumer electronics? Exploring the fit
        between proposed decision strategies/heuristics and empirical choices in multi-attribute
        choice tasks [X. T. Wang - Psychology]


                                            14
Session 6a: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 216
Economics and Finance
       Amanda Nadine Barton, Nationality’s Effect on the Labor Market: Are Immigrants Really Taking
            Our Jobs? [Mike Allgrunn, Economics]
       Tim Binder, Rebecca Duncan, David Janssen, Tyler Stewart, Ryan Thimjon, An investment analysis
            of Werner Enterprises, Inc. [Angeline Lavin, Finance]
       Tim Carr, Rural Public Golf Courses & Their Effect on Housing Prices: A Case Study of The Bluffs
            Golf Course in Vermillion, South Dakota [David Carr, Economics]

Session 6b: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
Political Science
        Travis Moths, The Rise of the Republican Party in the 1850’s and Bleeding Kansas [Elizabeth
             Smith, Political Science]
        Catherine Viviana Quinones, Strategies in National Security: Handling Sub-National Units [Shane
             Nordyke, Political Science]

Session 6c: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
Panel: Moroccan Politics
       Ben Hausman, Amanda Schackow, Sarah Aker, Danielle Knutson, Morgan Peck, Moroccan Politics
            [Elizabeth Smith, Political Science]

Session 6d: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Brain & Behavior Research II
       Jeffrey L. Barr, Exposure to repeated amphetamine alters stress-related neurotransmission in the
            rat brain [Gina Forster, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Andrew R. Burke, Gina L. Foster, Andrew M. Novick, Christina L. Roberts, Michael J. Watt, Adult
            medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens amphetamine-induced dopamine release
            following adolescent social defeat [Gina Forster, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School
            of Medicine]
       Maneeshi Prasad, A combination of transcription factors regulate the spatially restricted
            expression of cadherin-7 in developing neural epithelium [Alicia Paulson, Biology]


Session 7a: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 216
Art Research Forum
       Jaymee Harvey, Heterotopias and the City [Julie Schlarman, Art]
       Marci Smith, An Exploration in Understanding the Human Form [Julie Schlarman, Art]
       Cody Spiegel, Regression: The Work and Research of Cody Spiegel [Chris Meyer, Art]
       Kelsey Van Gerpen, Art Collectors and Artists: The Business [Julie Schlarman, Art]

Session 7b: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
Research in Infectious Diseases and the Immune System
       Srivishnupriya Anbalagan, Rgg mediated regulation of virulence associated genes in
            Streptococcus pyogenes [Michael Chaussee, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of
            Medicine]


                                                   15
       Cassandra Brinkman, Identification of chromosomal mutations linked to resistance to the PSK
           toxin Fst in Enterococcus faecalis [Keith Weaver, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School
           of Medicine]
       Frank P. DePaula, Lung histopathology of H3N2:GAS super-infection limited by vaccine-induced
           immunity [Evelyn Schlenker, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]
       Kara Leah McCormick, Creation of a chimeric hemagglutinin H1N1 glycoprotein for vaccination
           against influenza virus [Victor Huber, Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine]

Session 7c: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge
Policy Analysis in Our Community
        Kelli Bullert, Joshua Baldwin, Lindsey Dorneman, Stephanie Gruba, Melissa Johnson, Leah Kobes,
              Damon Leader Charge, Malene Little, Catherine Quinones, Jane Reasoner [Shane Nordyke,
              Political Science]

Session 7d: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
Mixed Themes II
       Brendan (Bo) Fox Pons, A Rawlsian Revitalization of Gewirths Normative Structure of Action
            [Vaughn Huckfeldt, Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy]
       Kendra Van Nyhuis, Identification Guide for East Asian Bamboo Flutes [Deborah Check Reeves,
            Music]
       Jennifer Newberry, The American School Band Movement [David Moskowitz, Music]
       Josh Lacey, Germany’s RAF: From Political Curiosity to Failure by Terrorism [Istvan Gombocz,
            Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy]
       Joya Weir, Matthew Ballard, Leading Online [Matthew Fairholm, Political Science]


                         IDEAFEST BANQUET AND KEYNOTE ADDRESS
                            Muenster University Center Ballroom

             6:00 pm – 7:15 pm Banquet (complimentary for IdeaFest student participants)

 7:30 pm Keynote address by Dr. Beth Shapiro, Penn State University. Dr. Shapiro’s address is entitled
                  “Sequencing the Dead” and is open to the public free of charge.




                                                  16
                             Abstracts of Student Presentations
                                   *Graduate Research Award Winners
                              †CURCA Undergraduate Research Award Winners
                                        ‡U. Discover Participants

                                          Wednesday, April 13th

           Session 1a: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
                        Multi-ethnic Individuals: Navigating and Choosing Ethnic Identity
                                              ILMIRA DULYANOVA
                               Communication Studies, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Carolyn Prentice

Sometimes the question “What are you?” is not easily answered and requires a long explanation, especially for
people whose parents come from different ethnic or racial groups. This study explored the ethnic identity of
multi-ethnic individuals in the Midwestern part of the United Sates. It focused on how multi-ethnic individuals
navigate and choose their ethnic identity. Interviews with 13 multi-ethnic individuals revealed the situational
nature of ethnic identity. The participants discussed how they chose one ethnic identity in a certain situation and
how they selected another ethnic identity in a different situation. The data were interpreted through the lens of
the Communication Theory of Identity. The personal-enacted and personal-relational identity gaps were
identified. The findings discussed different themes that center around how and why multi-ethnic individuals
navigate their ethnic identity, and how others perceive their ethnic identification.

                     The Myth of Happiness: Social Constructions of Love, Marriage, Family,
                             and Happiness in Elfriede Jelinek’s Women As Lovers
                                             MELISSA A. JOHNSON
                              Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Carol Leibiger

Roland Barthes theorizes that myth is a cultural tool used to create a false, “universal order,” causing individuals
to strive for unobtainable goals of artificial perfection. This is particularly evident in Elfriede Jelinek’s book
Women as Lovers. The ideal family, consisting of a husband and wife who love one another and two beautiful
children born within the marriage, is an image that makes up the theology of Jelinek's world. It is constantly
presented as the state to which all, male and female, should strive. Despite this, it seems that no one, not even
those who manage to achieve the house, marriage, and children, are capable of exemplifying the true nature of
the perfect package.

Jelinek presents Brigette and Paula, two women who behave in similar ways, attempting to snare a man in hopes
for a better future and the “happy family” that cultural myth tells them they need to obtain the perfect life. At
the end of Jelinek’s tale Brigitte, the supposed “good example,” finds herself miserable and living with the family
that she was told would make her happy; she must develop a type of selective blindness to see her family as
happy or ideal. In order project happiness Brigitte must overlook that she hates her husband and takes joy only in
the fact that, outwardly, she has obtained the overt trappings of the mythical perfect life. Paula, in contrast to
Brigitte, has lost her husband, children, and home and finds herself in the position of social pariah and just as
miserable as her more successful counterpart. As Barthes suggests, the myth of the happy family presents an
unobtainable ideal that thrusts people toward that which will fail to make them happy and creates outcasts of
those who fail to achieve the appearance of success.

                                                         17
                 Somatization and Cultural Idioms of Distress: Treating the Hispanic Population
                                                TINA PIETSCH
                       Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Angela Helmer

A discussion of the major issues in trans/cross-cultural assessment and diagnosis, focusing on the impact of
somatization and cultural idioms of distress on health care, particularly among Hispanic populations. Potential
solutions for these issues will be reviewed.

                                  Potential vs. Pathology in Young Frankenstein
                                                 LORI NEWCOMB
                                       English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Skip Willman

In her noted work on Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, Anne Mellor asks “What is Victor Frankenstein really afraid of?”
The answer, she argues, is women’s reproductive power. In fact, Mellor describes the novels disastrous outcome
as the result of male usurping of the reproductive role in parenting. Shelley’s novel inspired numerous film
versions, but a major difference between the novel and the 1930’s films involves the amount of parenting the
creator provides. While in the novel Victor immediately abandons the creature, the films show a greater attempt
at parenting the creature: emphasis is placed on controlled behavior and linguistic skill. While good vs. evil
dominates the novel, potential vs. pathology pervades the films. Young Frankenstein, the 1974 spoof of the early
films, revisits the idea of potential vs. pathology as it reveals, through hyperbole, another answer to Mellors
“What are we really afraid of” question--namely, Young Frankenstein reveals our collective anxiety about children.
We must “cure” children of their “uncivilized” state through training and education because their present state is
acceptable only temporarily: full-grown individuals who fail to prescribe to normative adult behavior are viewed
as societal monsters. Just as children hover between the subhuman and the human in this regard, so does the
creature: both the small child and the creature lack linguistic skill, respond violently when angry or hurt, and lack
cultural sophistication. Young Frankenstein exaggerates the creatures childlike state to full comic effect, and
recognizing that it is the childishness of the creature that makes him monstrous to the public, Frederick
Frankenstein tirelessly parents the creature to allow him to embody society’s view of humanity. This paper is a
shortened version of one I presented this past November at the Midwest Modern Language Associations 2010
convention, held in Chicago.

     The Transition to Parenthood: Women’s Experiences of Change, Challenges, and Marital Satisfaction
                                            HEATHER M. SIEBERT
                              Communication Studies, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Carolyn Prentice

This study examines mothers perceptions of everyday marital change across the transition to parenthood,
including support during pregnancy, relationships with family-of-origins, challenges relating directly to newborn
care, and adapting to new roles and identities. Previous studies have primarily used quantitative methods and
have demonstrated a noticeable decline in marriage satisfaction. This study employed in-depth qualitative
interviews with twenty married women who had given birth to their first child within the last eighteen months.
Womens ages ranged two full decades, from early twenties to early forties. At the time of interview, babies ages
varied from three months to thirteen months. Average time of marriage was four and a half years. Initial
conclusions demonstrate a surprisingly positive experience during the transition to parenthood. Nearly all women
described challenges and difficulties related to pregnancy and newborn care, inevitably resulting in stress upon
the marital relationship. However, the majority of marital relationships were not negatively impacted. Participants
told stories of growing closer to their husbands and of reaching a new level of maturity in both their relationships
and their personal development. Relationship difficulties were mediated by open communication, such as clearly
expressing ones feelings and needs. Results demonstrate a need for further qualitative research in the area of the

                                                         18
transition to parenthood. While the transition is clearly challenging to the new parents, perhaps it is not as
damaging to the marital relationship as some research presents.


               Session 1b: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 216
               Altered cholinergic function of intracardiac ganglia is involved in the attenuation of
                                  PSNS control of the heart in the aging mouse
                                                 JESSICA FREELING
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                          Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Yi-Fan Li

The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis through the complex balance of the sympathetic nervous
system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS). Especially evident in the heart, where
parasympathetic activation affects sinoatrial nodal pacemaker activity and atrioventricular nodal conduction via
the vagal nerve, maintenance of this balance is important for control of heart rate, conduction, and contractility.
It is known that aging and heart disease both result in an increase in SNS activity and a decrease in PSNS activity,
which may contribute to age-related cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. However, the mechanisms underlying
this autonomic dysfunction, particularly impairment of PSNS function in aging, remains to be fully understood.

Intracardiac ganglia relay and integrate the PSNS signals to the heart. This study investigated the major
cholinergic components of intracardiac ganglia in the aging state. Utilizing young (1-2 month) and old (11-12
month) mice, this study shows that aging mice exhibit diminishment of baroreflex sensitivity and decline of
response to rostral-severed cardiac vagal stimulation. However, this aging model exhibits maintenance of
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) function comparable to young animals, as evidenced by preserved
response to administration of mAchR agonist, Bethanechol. Analysis of protein expression of aging mouse atria
reveals a decrease in acetylcholine synthesizing protein, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as well as a decrease in
acetylcholine packaging protein, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAchT). In contrast, a clear and dramatic
upregulation of the rate-limiting protein, choline transporter (CHT), is seen in the aging animals. Additionally,
immunohistochemistry of cardiac atria further suggests that these changes occur in the cholinergic neurons within
intracardiac ganglia. These findings point towards altered cholinergic signals in the intracardiac ganglia as being
involved in the attenuation of PSNS control of the heart in the aging mouse.

            A proposal to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFAs)
                                 on cardiac fibrosis in hypertensive mice and rats
                                                  JULIE A. GARRY
                      Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford School of Medicine
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Timothy O’Connell

Heart failure is the common end-stage of many cardiovascular diseases, affecting more than five million people,
with over one million hospitalizations annually costing nearly 35 billion dollars. Heart failure with preserved
ejection fraction, a condition associated with impaired ventricular relaxation and cardiac fibrosis, now accounts
for nearly half of all heart failure diagnoses. However, there are no effective pharmacologic approaches to
prevent or reverse cardiac fibrosis that might offer novel therapies to the management of heart failure with
preserved ejection fraction or other instances of heart failure with significant cardiac fibrosis. Recently, our lab
showed that dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFAs) prevented cardiac
fibrosis in a mouse model of hypertension. In mice subjected to aortic constriction to induce pressure overload, a
laboratory model of hypertension, w-3 PUFAs prevented pathologic ventricular remodeling by inhibiting cardiac
fibroblast transformation into mature myofibroblasts and blocking collagen synthesis. My proposal is to examine
the therapeutic efficacy of w-3 PUFA treatment in two models of heart disease involving cardiac fibrosis. I
hypothesize that dietary supplementation with w-3 PUFAs subsequent to disease onset will prevent further
progression or reverse progression of cardiac fibrosis. This hypothesis will be tested using two models of heart
                                                           19
failure associated with cardiac fibrosis, pressure overload induced by aortic constriction (hypertension) and the
Dahl-salt-sensitive rat, a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. To determine if dietary
supplementation with w-3 PUFAs following onset of fibrosis improves outcomes in each model, we will compare
cardiac function, cardiac fibrosis, and collagen synthesis, for eight weeks. In summary, these studies could provide
the first evidence that w-3 PUFAs might be used clinically to reduce cardiac fibrosis and improve outcomes in
heart failure induced by hypertension or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

                  Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, attenuates Ang II induced hypertension.
                                                    SHUAI LI
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Douglas Martin

Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major health care issue affecting about 30% of adults in United States.
Hypertension also links with other cardiovascular diseases including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, myocardial
infarction, stroke, renal disease and atherosclerosis. During hypertension development, circulation system
remodeling contributes importantly to the progression and sequelae of hypertension including target organ
damages. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a regulatory mechanism for protein quantity, quality, and
therefore regulates cell signaling and functions. Increasing data suggest that UPS modulates vascular activity from
both functional and structural aspects. The UPS was implicated in the remodeling of skeletal muscle and the
heart. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertension and increased UPS activity in skeletal muscle. However, the
role of the UPS in hypertensive vascular remodeling remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that: UPS
inhibition attenuates vascular structural remodeling in angiotensin II induced hypertensive rats.

The specific aims were to characterize the effect of UPS inhibition on: i) Ang II - induced hypertension, ii)
proteasome activity, iii) resistance artery remodeling, iv) capillary density. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were
assigned to four treatment groups: vehicle treatment, two week Ang II infusion, treatment with bortezomib
(PS341, Velcade) - a proteasome inhibitor, or a combination of Ang II infusion and bortezomib treatment. Blood
pressure and heart rate were measured in conscious rats. Proteasome activity assay was used to access UPS
activity changes. Masson’s trichrome staining was used to evaluate resistance artery remodeling.
Immunohistochemistry was used to assess capillary density. Ang II infusion increased in blood pressure and
proteasome activity, and altered vascular structure. Bortezomib treatment attenuated Ang II induced
hypertension, proteasome activation, and vascular structural changes. These data suggest that the UPS plays a
role in the hypertensive vascular structural remodeling process.

                   The Role of PKG in the Stimulation of the UPS by the Muscarinic 2 Receptor
                                               MARK JOHN RANEK
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Xuejun Wang

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) mediates degradation of most proteins in the cell and regulates diverse
cellular processes, including protein quality control (PQC). Proteasome functional insufficiency (PFI), PQC
inadequacy, and the resultant accumulation of misfolded proteins in cardiomyocytes were implicated in human
congestive heart failure (CHF). Proteasome dysfunction may play an important role in the development of at least
a subset of CHF. A better understanding of how proteasome functions are regulated in cardiomyocytes may help
develop new strategies to treat heart disease. Some intracellular signaling proteins were shown to regulate the
activity of the proteasome. To this end, however, the role of protein kinase G (PKG) and associating factors
remains unknown. My pilot studies reveal that stimulation of the muscarinic (M) receptors in both cultured
neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and the hearts of intact mice resulted in a significant reduction of the
protein levels of a surrogate substrate of the UPS while inhibition of PKG in NRVMs did the opposite and reversed
the effect of M receptor stimulation. Furthermore, stimulating the M receptor rapidly altered the biochemical
property of key proteasome subunits in NRVMs. Such changes have been associated with altered proteasome
proteolytic activity. These exciting new findings strongly support a significant regulatory role for the
                                                          20
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and PKG on the UPS. Hence, elucidation of this role and its underlying
mechanisms is warranted.

          Session 1c: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
                           USD Mock Trial: Davis v. HappyLand Toy Company
       ANDY FICK, DILLON DELL, SETH LOPOUR, CHAD BOELHOWER, LINDSEY VANBEEK, BRETT SIMON,
     AMBER ROBBINS, JIM BESSON, JESSICA MCNAMARA, ANGELA O’KANE, BECCA REITER, TRAVIS MOTHS
                                Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Sandy McKeown

This past year the USD Mock Trial Team has competed in several regional and national tournaments in the case of
Davis v. HappyLand Toy Company. In this case, a small child named Joey Davis ingested a toy called Princess
Beads. After Joey ingested the toy, he passed away in a nearby hospital. Joey’s father (Andy Davis) has brought a
suit of strict liability and is suing the toy company who made the product. In this dramatic presentation of a civil
case, students will display their skills in trial advocacy, evidentiary argumentation, oral interpretation, and legal
analysis, and at the end of trial, participants and observers are given the unique opportunity to examine the
Midlands Civil Code and decide if the defendant is liable by a preponderance of the evidence.

              Session 1d: 9:00 am - 10:30 am - Muenster University Center 216A
                            Dialogue and Discourse Through Portfolio Print Exchanges
                                                 NICOLE GEARY*
                                       Photography, College of Fine Arts
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Johntimothy Pizzuto

A print exchange is a unique opportunity for artists to create an edition of work and share it with other
participants across a large geographic area. Artists are asked to create a set of original fine art prints based on a
theme, following various guidelines on paper size, media type, and other particulars. Once an edition size is
decided, participating artists will go to work making their suite of prints up to that number. For example, if the
edition size is 20, the artist will typically only create 20 images from his or her matrix, and the resultant set of
prints will create the edition for the exchange. In some cases, the artists can be invited to participate in a juried
portfolio exchange, ensuring a certain level of quality to the work and a prestige in participation. Well-known and
respected jurors also attract participants to submit their work for consideration. In addition, most print exchanges
are produced with the goal of showing the collection in a gallery or museum, giving exposure to the artists and
displaying a wide range of printmaking for the public to see and appreciate. The presentation will show various
types of portfolio exchanges, from portfolios that were juried to ones open to all participants, to exchanges that
share only student work, or collections with various thematic responses. In conclusion, the talk will highlight the
exchange that is currently being organized with the help of the Graduate Research Grant to show such a collection
on the University of South Dakota campus. Print portfolio exchanges can be a dynamic way to involve many
participants from across the globe to share ideas and images about what moves us in the contemporary art world.

                         Automation for “The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee”
                                          GARRETT SCHNATHORST†
                                         Theatre, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Scott Mollman

Automation is spreading through theatre around the world from high schools to Broadway. The technology has
been advancing over the years to become more accessible for widespread use. The University of South Dakota’s
production of “The 25th Annual Putnam Counting Spelling Bee” will potentially be using the help of automated
scenery. A few proposed ideas are to automate the curtains and bleachers used in the show to enhance the
                                                         21
performance. The advantage of using automated scenery will provide the performance with clean looking
transitions and a greater spectacle for the audience.

              Session 2a: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 216
                               Immigrant Health: Accessibility and Health Outcomes
                                                  SARAH AKER
                              Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

As of 2005, immigrants made up just over 16% of the adult population of the United States, a number that
continues to increase each year as more immigrants enter the United States. As a significant portion of the United
States’ population, the health of immigrants affects the public health of all Americans. Immigrants access to
health care is limited by their low income, lack of employer sponsored and government-subsidized insurance,
language and cultural differences, and their fear of political repercussions for utilizing health care services. These
obstacles have contributed to the declining trust between immigrants and health care professions, ultimately
leading to poorer health outcomes for the immigrant population. As Americans ignore immigrant health and leave
communicable diseases untreated, they ignore the possible repercussions that ignorance of immigrant health has
towards the public health of the nation.

                                      Mental Health of Immigrant Children
                                                SARAH SCHERR
                              Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

Immigration can be a challenging and frightening experience for anyone, but for children it can be downright
terrifying. The changes to their everyday lives can be hard to adjust to as they enter a new culture. A new
language, culture, school, and way of life are all new experiences that children will need to cope with. It also
needs to be examined that if the child has immigrated illegally there will be more adverse side effects to their
mental health. An examination of a child’s mental health from immigration will look at the affects legal
immigration, illegal immigration, and what parents and society can do to help improve the mental health of
migrant children. Immigration can have some negative side effects on the mental health of immigrant children.

                                               Children & Immigration
                                               ALISSA VANMEETEREN
                                    Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenquian Dai

Throughout the past decade, record numbers of immigrants have made their way into the American public and
private school systems. Consequently, a problem of language universality and language development has
emerged. Foreign school children come knowing little or no English, forcing school systems to spend extra money
on language development programs, classes, and professors. Both English and non-English speaking students are
experiencing setbacks in their educations due to increasing ethnicity schools are upholding. Additionally, while
the severity of social issues varies from school to school, racism and hatred have not been completely eliminated.
Because of this, some student immigrants find assimilation into the public school system difficult or even
impossible. This bodes the question, what is the best way to educate the immigration population? English is the
official language of America, but is this still majority pleasing? As more and more immigrants flow into America,
more and more diversity in language exists. As a result, education standards regarding language ought to be
examined. In addition, the flow of external culture into the country has also had an effect on the American school
systems curriculum. Students are not subjected to simply American history. The past decade has yielded a greater


                                                         22
emphasis on the importance of the impact of foreign nations on American soil. As immigration continues to exist
and expand, education must be conducted differently.

                                 The Diverse Adaptive Experiences of Immigrants
                                               ALEXA RAE WALKER
                                      Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

The United States of America has long been known as a “melting pot.” This is a notion that most American citizens
seem to embrace. Our diversity as a nation is often celebrated. However, some immigrant populations experience
segmented assimilation and are often seen as a separate part of society rather than embraced. This is not a new
phenomenon. In actuality, it has been occurring since the 1880’s. Because of segmented assimilation, many social
problems are created that affect Americans from all walks of life. This paper will explore what factors contribute
to segmented assimilation, such as ethnic enclaves, employment niches, and countrys of origin. The impact of the
segmented assimilation on the second and third generations of immigrants in terms of their educational
attainment and social mobility will be also be examined. To conclude, there will be discussion on the positive and
negative aspects of segmented assimilation along with policies that could be proposed to aid in lowering or
eliminating segmented assimilation.

          Session 2b: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
              Phthalocyanine- and Calixarene-Templated Deposition of Vanadia on Solid Supports
                                              AUBREY JONES†
                                    Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Grigoriy Sereda

Catalytic performance of solid supported vanadia catalysts toward many industrially important processes is
significantly affected by the structure of the deposited species and their interaction with the solid support. Hence,
controlled deposition of vanadia on various types of solid supports, specifically, by varying the vanadium
precursor, is an extensive area of research. Here we report the templating effect of calixarene derivatives and
phthalocyanine ligands on the structure and catalytic performance of ?-Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2 - supported vanadia
toward oxidation of propane. The catalysts were characterized by the temperature programmed reduction (TPR)
with hydrogen, nitrogen adsorption surface analysis at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and by the UV-vis.
Diffuse Refluctance Spectroscopy (DRS) at the University of South Dakota (USD). Oxidation of propane was studied
in the flow reactor designed by Christopher Marshalls group at the ANL. We found that the trends of all kinetic
parameters and selectivity in the series ?-Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2 are significantly influenced by the templating
effect. Using vanadyl phthalocyanine as the vanadia precursor markedly shifts selectivity of ?-Al2O3, TiO2 -
supported propane combustion catalysts toward CO and propene. This effect is sensitive for the vanadium load.
Templated effect of the phthalocyanine ligands in the vanadyl phthalocyanine precursor noticeably exceeded the
one exhibited by the calixarene derivatives.

             Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Study of Silver Nanowire Langmuir-Blodgett Films
                                            NATHAN L. NETZER
                                  Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Chaoyang Jiang

The fabrication of nanostructure material is a key component in the analytical technique known as surface
enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Uniformed thin films composed of silver nanowires (Ag NWs) will be
manufactured using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, which allows for unprecedented control over the
assembly process of nanomaterial. The ability to generate a uniformed noble-metal nanomaterial film is essential
in constructing a highly active SERS substrate. After the highly ordered thin films were produced, we used

                                                         23
Rhodamine 6G (R6G) at the ppm and ppb concentrations to evaluate its detection limit. With improved detection
limit, these nanostructured thin films show great potential to be implemented in NASA’s quest for detecting
organic material on Mars.

                               N-Halamine based Antimicrobial Fillers for Polymers
                                          REVATHI PADMANABHUNI
                                     Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dr. Yuyu Sun

Microbial contamination of polymeric materials is a global concern and remains one of the most serious
complications in several areas such as health care, medical devices, water purification systems, hygienic
applications, food packaging and food storage. The contaminated polymeric materials serve as important sources
of cross-infections. To meet the microbial challenges, there is a clear need to develop antimicrobial polymers that
can effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms. To date, a number of antimicrobial polymers have been
developed. Amongst, organic N-halamines have been demonstrated as a class of potent biocides with broad range
of inhibitory activities.

An N-halamine is a compound containing one or more nitrogen-halogen covalent bonds that are formed by the
halogenation of imide, amide, or amine groups. The antimicrobial activity of N-halamines is due to a halogen
exchange reaction between the microorganism and N-halamine.

The aim of this study is to synthesize N-halamine based antimicrobial filler that can be used as polymer additive to
provide potent biocidal functions. Given the fact that hydantoin derivatives are potential N-halamine precursors,
we decided to prepare hydantoin based N-halamine antimicrobial filler.

3-undecanoic acid-5, 5-dimethylhydantoin was synthesized by reacting the potassium salt of 5, 5-
dimethylhydantoin with 11-bromoundecanoic acid. Upon chlorination, it was transformed into 1-chloro-3-
undecanoic acid-5, 5-dimethyl hydantoin (CUADMH). The obtained N-halamine was reacted with mineral filler
such as CaCO3. The treated CaCO3 containing N-halamine (CaCO3-CUADMH) can be used as antimicrobial additive
to various polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, and cellulose acetate to provide potent
biocidal functions.

The antimicrobial activity of CUADMH samples and CaCO3-CUADMH samples were challenged with Escherichia coli
(gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria). In the present study, surface
modified mineral filler CaCO3 was used as antimicrobial additive to cellulose acetate in different amounts (1%, 3%,
and 5%) and the corresponding antimicrobial activity was evaluated.

   Trace Detection of Melamine by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Silver Nanostructured Thin Films
                                                 CHAO QIU
                                   Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Chaoyang Jiang

Silver based nanostructures such as nanowires and nanoparticles are synthesized and investigated in providing
suitable thin film substrates with strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering for melamine detection. With silver
nanostructured substrates, the Raman spectrum of melamine solution is distinct and the detectable
concentration can be achieved as low as a tenth of a nanogram. We estimated that an enhancement factor of up
to 105 is obtained for our substrate. Optimization of the silver nanostructured thin films can result in increase of
Raman hot spots, thus further tremendously enhancing the Raman intensities. We demonstrated that the
crossing silver nanowires, silver nanowire and nanoparticle junctions, and silver nanowire bundles can
considerably affect the plasmonic absorption and lead the multiple surface plasmon resonances for strong SERS
activity. Such silver based nanostructures thin films exhibits great potential in new devices for chemical sensing
and molecular identifications.
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          Session 2c: 10:00 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
        Functional Analysis of the Political Communication in South Dakotas 2010 Congressional Election
          JACOB CHRISTIAN BOBBY, JARED CLAY, BILL MULLER, BRIGID HOFFMAN, BROOKE FODNESS
                                Communication Studies, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Shane Semmler

Student coders in the Fall, 2010 SPCM 417/517 Political Communication class content analyzed more than 2000
themes drawn from the political communication in South Dakotas 2010 congressional mid-term campaign. From a
period from 08/01/2010 - 11/01/2010, five communication forms were analyzed: newspapers (The Argus Leader
and The Rapid City Journal), local television news (KELO, KSFY, and KDLT), candidate debates, candidate press
releases, and televised political advertising (candidate and third-party sponsors). Dr. William Benoits Functional
Theory of Campaign Discourse (FTCD) provided the predictive framework for analyzing the function and topic of
the campaign communication themes. Using the FTCD, five students will each present a hypothesis concerning
the political campaign communication in South Dakotas 2010 congressional election. Brigid Hoffman, Jake Bobby,
Jared Clay, Bill Muller, and Brooke Fodness will present their hypotheses. Dr. Shane Semmler will present the
method and results that answered the students hypotheses. The students will conclude the presentation with a
brief discussion of their findings.

              Session 2d: 10:30 am - 11:50 am - Muenster University Center 216A
                                           What is Civil Disobedience?
                                                    JOEY APPLEY
                          Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Leroy Meyer

The question whether civil disobedience is morally justifiable requires the identification of the characteristics of
such an act. This paper develops a working definition of “civil disobedience.” The definition must be broad
enough to capture a wide range of practices, yet narrow enough to avoid vague generalization. The definition
proposed by John Rawls in “The Justification of Civil Disobedience” is used as a point of departure. To develop a
working definition of greater application, the justification of civil disobedience will be considered in relation to the
work of Thomas Aquinas and Natural Law Theory. Thus, the endeavor to construct a working definition entails a
close examination of what constitutes civil disobedience, as well as reflection upon the role of morality in the
realm of law.

                                    Law and Morality: the Hart-Fuller Debate
                                                STEPHANIE GRUBA
                          Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Leroy Meyer

The relation between law and morality- a central question of debate in legal philosophy since antiquity-is
addressed in regard to the viewpoints of H.L.A. Hart and Lon Fuller, two leading philosophers of law.
Resemblances between Hart’s concept of secondary rules and Fuller’s notion of inner morality of law are
discussed, and morality in relation to each concept of legal system is explored. Fuller contends law must be moral
to be considered law; and, to be moral, law must meet eight requirements of the inner morality. Hart argues that
Fuller unnecessarily connects morality with law. Hart criticizes Fuller for creating a label of morality for his
concept of legal system. However, a legal system with no affinity to morality is hard to imagine. Neither
philosopher solves the issue of morality and law, but case studies, such as Nazi Germany, reveal flaws and
practical implications of each philosophical view.


                                                          25
                                Inconsistency in the Legal Positivism Tradition
                                                MITCHELL O’HARA
                         Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Leroy Meyer

This paper examines inconsistencies within the positivist theory of law, promoted by Jeremy Bentham and John
Austin. Although they are both legal positivists, each takes a normative stance on how law ought to be dispensed.
Both philosophers describe law as positional: law is simply an expression of sovereign desires conveyed to the
subjects with the threat of punishment. Yet, both philosophers maintain that law is only to be established
according to the principle of utility. How can one demand that law be moral and normative, while maintaining a
positivist account of law? By investigating their original works, I will show how each of these philosophers
contradicts himself as a positive law theorist, who sets up a normative framework for his respective theory of law.


        Session 2e: 1:00 pm - 1:30 pm - Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge

                      The Paradox of Divine Violence in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
                                             NOLAN GOETZINGER‡
                                      English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Emily Haddad

In a letter, Joseph Conrad wrote, “I am like a man who has lost his gods,” and, in his 1902 Heart of Darkness, he
forces readers to witness the same struggle via Kurtz and his actions in the Congo. Traditionally, Kurtz is read as a
symbol of moral nihilism, but Michael Lackey argues against these moral interpretations in “The Moral Conditions
for Genocide in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.” He contends that moral readings of Kurtz are “problematic”
because Conrad had a different understanding of morality, believing morality and conscience were contradictory
terms, so critics referring to the novella’s morality are working with false assumptions. However, with a
theoretical approach to a moral interpretation of Kurtz based on Jacques Derrida’s “Sign, Structure and Play in the
Discourse of Human Sciences,” the problematic nature is irrelevant; I examine Kurtz’s structure of morality as his
confusion of morality and conscience into one concept. This concept makes Kurtz God of his moral system
because his conscience is its center, the fixed origin, making his actions self-referential. His system’s flaws appear
in a deconstructive reading because, as the center, Kurtz is both a part of and outside the structure in that he
governs the structure. With Kurtz as the moral center, I analyze the implications of him living in his system using
Slavoj Zizek’s notion of “Divine Violence.” Kurtz resorts to divine violence, the direct intervention of God, to
correct imperfections in his system because he is a part of it. This intervention culminates in Kurtz’s belief that
genocide is the only way to save the natives, a final admission of his morality’s failure. With Kurtz’s God-complex
and the following implications, Conrad expresses the danger of systems of morality without foundation after the
loss of God, especially the danger of man as God.

                Session 3a: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 216
               Development of the Major Cartilages in the Branchiocranium of Cypriniform Fishes
                                           JEFFREY M. ENGEMAN
                                     Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Paula Mabee

The branchiocranium of fishes consists of the bones and cartilages that form the jaws, the jaw suspension
apparatus (suspensorium), and the gill supports (gill arches or branchial arches). The five largest cartilages in the
larval branchiocranium of cypriniform fishes (suckers, minnows, and loaches) are named Meckel’s cartilage,
palatoquadrate cartilage, hyosymplectic cartilage, ceratohyal cartilage, and ceratobranchial cartilage number 5. I
                                                          26
will report on the development of and fate of these five cartilages in four species of cypriniforms from three
different families. From the Family Catostomidae (the sucker family), two species—the white sucker (Catostomus
commersonii), and the blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus); from the Family Cyprinidae (the minnow family), one
species—the bleeding shiner (Luxilus zonatus); and from the Family Cobitidae (the loach family), one species—a
small Asian loach found in Japan and Korea, Cobitis striata. All of these species show a remarkable similarity in
their larval cartilage development, though they differ greatly in other aspects such as mode of feeding and size.

                     Analysis of urea and glycerol as cryoprotectants in the freezing tolerant
                                    Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata)
                                             STEVEN ADAM HIGGINS
                                        Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: David Swanson

Boreal chorus frogs are able to mobilize glucose as a cryoprotectant from liver glycogen stores upon freezing.
However, seasonal variation in freezing survival exists within this species. Known cryoprotectants in other freeze-
tolerant frog species remain unstudied in the boreal chorus frog, and may contribute to freezing survival in this
species. Levels of glucose, glycogen, glycerol, and urea in the liver, muscle, and heart tissue were measured via
spectrophotometric assay kits on a seasonal basis as well as after an experimentally induced 24 hour freezing
bout. In addition, urea levels were manipulated via subcutaneous injections to measure effect on freezing
survival. No significant seasonal variation was observed in urea or glycerol, consequently suggesting their limited
role as cryoprotectants in the boreal chorus frog. Furthermore, urea-loading experiments did not have a
significant effect on freezing survival in this species.

                            Preliminary Plague Assay Results From Five National Parks
                                                  ERICA L. MIZE
                                        Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Hugh Britten

Sylvatic plague, the wildlife form of bubonic plague, is enzootic in black-tailed prairie dog colonies across the
western northern plains and has become prevalent in South Dakota colonies only in the last three years. The loss
of prairie dog colonies due to plague can drive the loss of other species that have close ecological ties to the
colonies, including the federally endangered Black-footed ferret. Fleas were collected from burrows on prairie
dog colonies across national parks in the northern plains region during the summers of 2009 and 2010. Whole
genomic DNA was extracted from fleas after they were identified to species. Flea DNA was tested using a highly
sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol to detect the pla gene in the plague-causing bacterium,
Yersinia pestis. An active outbreak of plague began on one of the colonies at Badlands National Park concurrently
with our flea collections there and Y. pestis - positive fleas were detected from these samples for the first time in
Badlands National Park. These findings may trigger management actions including ferret immunization against
plague and dusting of prairie dog colonies with deltamethrine.

   Phylogeography of two buckwheats (Eriogonum (Polygonaceae)) endemic to California’s Channel Islands
                                              LYNN RILEY
                                  Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Kaius Helenurm

The California Channel Islands harbor many endemic animals and plants, including several endemic species and
subspecies within the genus Eriogonum (Polygonaceae). Although a few Channel Island phylogeographic studies
have been published, patterns of colonization and divergence have not been inferred for any Channel Island plant
taxon. The current study uses DNA sequence divergence to infer colonization and gene flow patterns within and
between two Channel Island endemic Eriogonum species. Data are presented from the monotypic endemic
species Eriogonum arborescens and the three subspecies of the endemic species E. giganteum. Six populations of
Eriogonum arborescens and fourteen populations of E. giganteum were sampled from throughout the
                                                       27
archipelago. One to three individuals from each population were sequenced for three chloroplast regions and
one low copy nuclear gene region. Distinct patterns of DNA diversity and divergence were detected with the
chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. Implications for colonization patterns and inter-island gene flow are
discussed.

               Session 3b: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
                            The role of the immune system in juvenile Batten disease
                                              SAMANTHA HERSRUD
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Steve Waller

Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), also known as “Batten disease,”is a rare genetic disorder caused by
mutation of the CLN3 gene. The function of the associated protein product remains unknown. Although CLN3 is
expressed at low levels throughout the body, JNCL predominately affects the central nervous system. Symptoms
begin with visual deterioration around age five, followed by progressive motor dysfunction, behavioral problems,
seizures, and eventually death in the third decade of life. Recent evidence suggests that the immune system plays
a role in JNCL pathology. Autoantibodies against brain proteins circulate in patient blood and deposit in neural
tissue, as seen at autopsy. The same is found in the CLN3 knockout mouse model of JNCL. The full spectrum of
immune dysfunction in the disease has not been characterized. We thus sought to investigate possible changes in
cytokines and chemokines, immune signaling molecules, in patient serum. Multiplex protein assays revealed
significant differences in five cytokines/chemokines between patients and healthy controls. These data support
the need for further studies of the immune systems role in JNCL pathology.

                                Escape From Social Aggression Alleviates Anxiety
                                                JUSTIN P. SMITH
                                       Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Cliff Summers

Utilization of “Learned Escape” appears to transform the relationship between stress and neurotrophin reactivity,
potentially facilitating the expression of adaptive learning. Complex emotional components influence learning
strategies developed during aggressive interactions that produce adaptive responses. Social responses to the
anxiety induced by aggressiveness include conditioned submission and “Learned Escape”. Either response is
potentially valuable for reducing social stress, by limiting the extent or duration of aggression. These responses
are exhibited by a wide variety of vertebrate species. During social interactions in the Learned Escape model, a
hole is available that is only large enough for the smaller test animal to escape through. Training is carried out
over a number of days; an audible tone (conditioned stimulus = CS) preceded social interaction (larger male is the
unconditioned stimulus = US). Latency to escape dramatically decreases over time, as has been demonstrated in
fish using this model. Following training, animals escape in response to the CS alone, however, latency differences
suggest that learning is a crucial component of using learned escape behaviors. Hippocampal BDNF and TrkB
receptor expression appears to explain the capacity to escape from aggressive interactions. The aptitude for rapid
escape and hippocampal regulation thereof are likely to be influenced by anxiety and amygdalar activity. The
availability of an escape route influences both anxiety and aggression during social interaction. Supported by NIH
Grant P20 RR15567 and NSF IBO 0518272 (YD).




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            Easing the Transition for South Dakotans with Asperger Syndrome into Higher Education
                                               ANDREA D. STRIPLING
                     Center for Disabilities, SD LEND Program, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a socially debilitating pervasive developmental disorder (American Psychiatric
Association, 2000) relatively common in the Midwest (Kogan, Blumberg, Schieve, Boyle, Perrin, Ghandour, Singh,
Strickland, Trevathan, & van Dyck, 2009). In fact, the Midwestern region of the United States has one of the
highest prevalence rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in the country, second only to the Northeast
(Kogan et al., 2009). Under the umbrella of ASDs, AS significantly impairs social, occupational, and other important
areas of functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). As such, there is a growing need of community
services and support for this special population. Since students with AS are often academically successful, they are
not necessarily found eligible for transitioning services legally mandated by IDEA (Hurewitz, & Berger, 2008).
Therefore, students who need more individualized guidance to help them transition into higher education are
falling through the cracks in the system, and may never have a chance to achieve their academic aspirations
(Hurewitz, & Berger, 2008). Using a multi-modal approach, I will identify best practices of transitioning programs
available to individuals with AS. Seeking out resources available in Southeastern South Dakota for those with AS
wishing to attend higher education will allow for the dissemination of recommendations for students, universities,
and educators to aid in the facilitation of a smooth transition (Rossi, Freeman, & Lipsey, 1999). Currently, data
collection is underway and the final results will be presented.

                 LTD in a nociceptive synapse requires postsynaptic endocannabinoid synthesis
                                    and presynaptic TRPV receptor activation
                                                SHARLEEN YUAN
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Brian Burrell

Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that LTD in a nociceptive synapse in the leech CNS is mediated by
endocannabinoid activation of TRPV receptors. The ability of TRPV receptors to mediate endocannabinoid-
dependent LTD (ecLTD) has only recently been appreciated and the cellular properties and functional role of this
form of synaptic plasticity is not well understood. Therefore, we examined pre- versus postsynaptic processes that
mediate this endocannabinoid/TRPV-dependent LTD. In the leech, both non-nociceptive touch (T) and
nociceptive (N) sensory cells have synaptic input onto the longitudinal (L) motor neuron. Low frequency
stimulation (LFS) of the T-cell induces LTD in the N-to-L synapse that is endocannabinoid (2AG) and TRPV
dependent. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator EGTA into either the N- or L-cell blocked LTD, indicating that increased
intracellular Ca2+ is required in both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. LTD was blocked by presynaptic but not
postsynaptic injection of the TRPV antagonist capsazepine, indicating that the TRPV receptors mediating LTD were
presynaptic. On the other hand, LTD was blocked by postsynaptic, but not presynaptic injection of THL, an
inhibitor of DAG lipase which is necessary for 2AG synthesis. Given that TRPV receptors flux Ca2+ and Ca2+
sensitive protein phosphatases contribute to cannabinoid-dependent LTD, we examined the role of protein
phosphatase 2B/calcineurin during this form of LTD. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, blocked LTD at
the N-to-L synapse indicating that protein phosphatase is necessary for this endocannabinoid/TRPV-mediated
synaptic plasticity. We propose that persistent synaptic activation stimulates postsynaptic 2AG synthesis in a
Ca2+-dependent manner. This 2AG is transmitted in a retrograde manner, activating presynaptic TRPV receptors.
The resulting presynaptic Ca2+ influx through the TRPV receptors activates calcineurin and cascades that results in
a decrease in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These results represent a potentially important process
involving endocannabinoids and TRPV activation in modulating synapses.




                                                        29
            Session 3c: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
                                 Creating the World of The Woman in Black
                    RACHEL FOULKS, RACHEL MATTHEWS, MEGAN PARRISH, GABRIEL GOMEZ,
                                    ERIN GALLION, ANTHONY PELLECCHIA
                                        Theatre, College of Fine Arts
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Eric Hagen

The process of getting a play from words in a script to a living, breathing thing onstage takes dedication and
collaboration. Come hear how this team of student and faculty designers went about creating the spine-chilling
production, The Woman in Black. The lights, the sounds, the set, the costumes, and the hair and makeup were all
meticulously designed to work together in such a way that the audience would be captivated by the storytelling,
and terrified of the ghost who appears and disappears without warning.


           Session 3d: 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A

                                   How Hungary Influenced the Music of Brahms
                                             ASHLEY EVELYN MAZUR
                                            Music, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Tracelyn Gesteland

In 1853, a 20-year-old Johannes Brahms fell asleep at an exhibition of the music of Franz Liszt, a rising star in
Hungary's musical world. Despite the initial lack of enthusiasm for Hungary's music Brahms seemed to exhibit,
Brahms would eventually use the Hungarian idiom to create a unique musical style that today is distinct and
instantly recognizable. The Hungarian influences are wholly present in the Zigeunerlieder song set. In my
performance-lecture, I will be discussing what cultures contributed to the Hungarian musical style, in addition to
pinpointing which influences Brahms found most helpful in his compositions. In addition, I will be discussing how
Bruno Nettl, a revolutionary ethnomusicologist, distinguishes which features are distinctly Hungarian, along with
Carol Kimball's thoughts on how the language lends itself to the Hungarian style. I will discuss Brahms'
Zigeunerlieder, and how these pieces came to represent the Brahmsian interpretation of the Hungarian style, and
selections from the Zigeunerlieder will be presented via voice and piano.

                   And so it came to be: A discussion on the evolution and development of the
                                     coloratura soprano from the 1640s-1791
                                               KIRSTIN M. ROBLE*
                                            Music, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Tracelyn Gesteland

This project seeks to explore the historical evolution of the female role in society. The project will utilize a series
of important events throughout history to illustrate the growth of the female role. The lecture will begin will a
series of corresponding historical events that will interweave in and out through the soprano’s development. The
period that this research falls under is from approximately 1643 and spans through 1791. Two very different
musical periods will also be discussed. The arias chosen represent the changing female image as well as the
evolution of music. This recital is coupled with a 20-minute lecture discussing the historical evolution of the role
of women and how these arias depict their changing role as well as the development of music composition as a
whole. This research is being funded in part by a research grant from the USD Graduate School.




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       Poster Session 1: 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm - Muenster University Center Main Floor
                                                     Poster 1
                         BST2, Tetherin Protein Characterization in A549 and MDCK cells
                                          LESLIE ADAJAR ADDENGAST
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Victor Huber

BST2, or bone marrow stromal antigen 2, is also known as Tetherin for its ability to inhibit the spread of viral
particles budding from host cells. BST2 has been studied in many retroviruses, including HIV-1, and has been
noted to perform similar actions; this suggests a common mechanism for the inhibition of viral release. While
BST2 is well studied in the context of HIV, information involving influenza A remains limited. The Viral Protein U
(Vpu) expressed by HIV is involved in the cleavage of BST2, thereby releasing budding virions and allowing for viral
proliferation. The mechanism by which BST2 is cleaved and influenza A is allowed to spread is yet unknown.

The A549, or adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells, are frequently used as a cellular model for
bacterial adhesion studies. Compared to other cell lines, in this case Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK),
A549s retain a moderately healthy composition after viral infection. It is hypothesized that A549 cells remain
intact due to a greater degree of BST2 expression which prevents viral spread. This BST2, in addition to other viral
proteins, may play a role in increasing bacterial adhesion in the A549 cell line.

                                                    Poster 2
                     A novel anthraquinone based imine derivative for selective detection of
                                Barium (II) over other cations in organic solvents
                        PREM NATH BASA, ARUNDHATI BHOWMIK, MARIAH M. SCHULZ
                                     Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Andrew Sykes

Metal ions play a key role in regulating proper functioning of enzymes, oxygen transport, signal transduction and
osmotic balance. An excess or dearth of metal ions in the body, lead to a series of physiological changes that may
ultimately lead to disease conditions. Transition metal ions, when present at elevated levels in ecosystems, also
result in toxic or adverse effects on human health and other species. Therefore the need for continuous
monitoring of metal ions is of great concern for the well being human health and for a safer ecosystem.
Fluoroionophores are chemical systems with two integrated or separate components, one for recognition, usually
for metal ions, and the other as a signal unit for change in fluorescence intensity based on the binding event.
Designing such systems with better properties in terms selectivity, sensitivity and solubility is an ongoing research
area. Our research team is developing novel fluorescent sensors that can able to sense a particular metal ion of
interest, by developing new methodologies of fluorescence sensing. Recent work lead us to synthesize a series of
compounds that are called Schiff base imines that are derivatives of an anthraquinone-crown ether macrocycle.
One particular imine with a chelatable ortho-phenylenediamine group showed enhanced selectivity towards Ba(II)
ion over 16 other metal cations. We have completely characterized a number of Schiff base imine compounds via
NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and other spectroscopic means to confirm the utility of
this class of fluorescence sensor compounds.




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                                                Poster 3
     Management of Acute Sports Injuries and Medical Conditions by Physical Therapy Students Following
                   Completion of an Emergency Response Course: Preliminary Results
                                 HEATHER E. BLOM, JARED L. BURCHAM
                               Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                               Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Joy Karges, Pat Cross

Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of the American Red Cross Emergency Response Course in improving
decision-making skills of first year physical therapy (PT) students when assessing acute sports injuries and medical
conditions. Subjects: 23 of 24 (95.83%) eligible PT students completed the pre- and post-test questionnaires.
Materials/Methods: An existing questionnaire was modified, with permission from the original authors of the
instrument, to suite the student population that was tested. Subjects were administered a pre-test, prior to the
start of the 3-day course, and a post-test was administered immediately after the course. Appropriate answers for
the 17 case scenarios were determined based on expert consensus and current literature. The percentage of
“Appropriate” responses for all cases were calculated for each participant for the pre-and post-tests. In order to
identify the level of preparedness for managing various conditions, the participants rate themselves using a Likert
Scale (1=Prepared, 2=Somewhat Prepared, 3=Neutral, 4=Somewhat Unprepared, 5=Unprepared). The percentage
of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for all cases were calculated for each participant for the pre-and
post-tests. Paired t-tests were used to analyze the data using SPSS version 19.0. Results: The percentage of
“Appropriate” responses for all cases, as well as the percentage of “Prepared/Somewhat Prepared” responses for
all conditions, were significantly different from pre-test to post-test (P=.000) . There was also a significant
difference in the overall preparedness mean Likert Scale score for each condition (concussion, dislocations,
fatigue, fractures, open wounds, sprains, strains, asthma, cardiac arrest, head injuries, heat stroke, neck injuries,
seizures, spinal cord injuries, diabetes, and internal organ injuries) from pre-test to post-test (P=.000).
Conclusions: The course was effective in improving decision-making, as well as perceived level of preparedness,
for PT students in the management of acute sports injuries and medical conditions.

                                                  Poster 4
                  Hormonal contraceptives and the female cycle: Is better education needed?
                                             MALLORY BOOR†
                                 Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Freeburg

While the popularity of hormonal contraceptives has grown over the years, steps to better educate people on the
female reproductive cycle in order to maximize the effectiveness of hormonal birth control methods have not
necessarily been taken. Therefore, the focus of this research project is better educating college students about
the normal female cycle and the various hormonal contraceptive methods available. As a part of the research
project, an educational video on the normal female cycle and hormonal contraceptives was produced. After
completing the video, college students understanding of the normal female cycle, the female cycle on hormonal
contraceptives, and the contraceptive mechanisms of action was tested before and after video education. The
hypothesis is that students will better understand the hormones in various types of hormonal contraceptives and
the importance of patient compliance following video education on these issues. Statistical analysis on the results
of the study has found the hypothesis to be true, with the overall number correct improving from 40% prior to
video education to 70% after video education. Overall, better education on the normal female cycle,
contraceptive use, and contraceptive mechanisms of action will not only increase understanding, improve
efficacy, and decrease unplanned pregnancy rates, but it promotes awareness, allowing patients to make more
informed decisions.




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                                                     Poster 5
                Sex Role Stereotypic Personality Traits of College Women Over Twenty-Five Years
                                     AMANDA BULLENE, CAMI AHRENHOLTZ
                                      Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Cindy Struckman-Johnson

Sex role stereotypes are the beliefs about the personality traits, characteristics, and activities that are perceived
as appropriate to women and men. According to research from the 1970’s, women were perceived as being
passive, gentle, and tactful. In addition, women were perceived as having the opposite traits of men, including
being emotional, dependent, not aggressive, not self confident, and not able to lead. In our study, we analyzed
how female college students self- described levels of these key sex role stereotypic traits changed over a 25-year
period. Data were obtained from the archives of a sex roles class taught at USD where the survey was given
annually to approximately 100 women. We compared means of self trait ratings for the years 1982, 1987, 1990,
1994, 1998, 2002, 2007, and 2010. We hypothesized that womens self- described levels of self-confidence,
independence, and leadership ability would increase over the years due to the social effects of equality for
women. We expected no change in emotion and aggression as these traits are more closely tied to biological-
hormonal factors. Preliminary results and implications of the research will be presented.

                                                 Poster 6
                                         AWOL 2011: Guatemala
     KEVIN CWACH, ALYSSA DAY, KATIE NIELSEN, ADDIE MULLIGAN, CASSIE GARNER, REANNE ZAHN, NICK
     WEINANDT, ABBY GILLOGLY, DEREK SEELEY, KATIE BECKMAN, DAN DAVIES, KATHERIN CHRISTIANSON,
                                      TYLER MIILLER, ANNA KNOTEK
                  Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Whitney Siegfried and Karl Reasoner

In the past year, Guatemala has been struck by volcanic eruption, tropical storms, and mudslides. As a result,
hundreds of people have lost their lives, thousands have been affected, and the country is in need of
rebuilding. The group worked with the organization Community Collaborations, directly teaming with
Guatemalans to help rebuild a home and school lost to the natural disasters. Additionally, students experienced
the culture of Guatemala while working on a coffee plantation, traveling to ancient ruins, tasting authentic
Guatemalan cuisine in farmers’ homes, and much more.

                                                   Poster 7
  Increased Anxiety States and Contextual Fear Conditioning in Closed Traumatic Brain Injury Mirroring Post-
                                         Traumatic Stress Disorder
                                                 DAN DAVIES
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gina Forster

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common type of brain injury, which may cause emotional and
cognitive effects including difficulty in concentration, amnesia and anxiety (Henninger, 2005; Experimental
Neurology, 195, 447). Over 40% of individuals that suffer an mTBI meet the diagnosis criteria for post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD; Hoge, C.W., et al. (2008). The New England Journal of Medicine, 453-463.). Neurologically,
PTSD can be associated with the hyperfunction of the amygdala paired with the hypofunction of the prefrontal
cortex and hippocampus (Rauch, S.L., et al. (2006). Biol Psychiatry, 372-382.). The goal of this study was to
determine whether mTBI in an animal model resulted in neurological and associated behavioral changes similar to
PTSD. No large-scale structural brain damage was visible 4 or 9 days after inducing closed head mTBI in male
Sprague-Dawley rats, and showed no difference in motor function or pain response compared to controls.
However, rats undergoing mTBI showed significant cell loss in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus as well as
an increase of neurons in the amygdala at 9 days post-mTBI. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus and the amygdala are
linked to retrieval of contextual fear conditioning (Hunsaker, M.R. & Kesner, R.P. (2008). Neurobiol Learn Mem.,
                                                           33
61-690.). During contextual footshock, mTBI rats showed increased freezing behavior on conditioning test day, but
similar extinction on the two test days following. Hyperactivity of the amygdala is also related to high anxiety
(Goosens, K.A. & Maren, S. (2001). Learn. Mem., 148-155.). Consistent with this, mTBI rats showed increased
latency to enter open arms as well as decreased time spent in open arms of the elevated plus maze, indicative of
increased general anxiety. Overall, results of cell counting as well as fear conditioning and anxiety testing show a
neurobiological link between mTBI and anxiety states similar to PTSD. Supported by: South Dakota Board of
Regents Competitive Research Grant, and Department of Defense Grant # PT090761

                                                  Poster 8
     Communication Sciences & Disorders - Dialogic Reading with Preschoolers At-Risk for Reading Deficits
                                            DEVON FINGLAND
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

Research shows a positive correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and parent education, and quality and
quantity of shared storybook reading interactions. Average rural SES and level of parent education is less than in
urban areas, which can contribute to poor emergent literacy skills of rural children upon kindergarten entry.
There is little evidence to support the use of home-based reading programs for rural preschool children at-risk for
future reading deficits. The existing literature was appraised to determine whether or not there was evidence to
support the use of a 3-week home-based dialogic reading program for rural preschoolers at-risk for future reading
deficits as measured by mean length of utterance (MLU). After searching research databases, three meta-
analyses were found that support dialogic readings positive effects on the expressive oral language of
preschoolers. However, none of these studies specifically addressed rural families or the 3-week treatment
duration. Nonetheless, results showed dialogic reading to be an efficacious home-based intervention for
preschool children at-risk for future reading deficits, with overall large effects on oral language. Before
implementation with the population of interest, variables such as parent motivation/education/cultural beliefs,
should be taken into account to determine treatment fidelity and effectiveness.

                                                    Poster 9
                  Get Your Name in LIGHTS: Charles Bukowski’s Artistic Progression with Fame
                                            NOLAN GOETZINGER‡
                                      English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Skip Willman

Through his poetry, novels, and short stories, the twentieth century author Charles Bukowski has allowed readers
to follow his journey from living bar to bar all the way to tending his garden in San Pedro, California. Despite his
aversion to the spotlight, Bukowski achieved literary success leading to fame in his lifetime, but he faced the
challenge confronting all modern-day artists, which is creating art under the economic demands of capitalism.
Using Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer’s “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” and
Fredric Jameson’s “Reification and Utopia in Mass Culture,” I analyze Bukowski’s progression from a his first full
length book of poetry, The Days Run Away Like Wild Horse Over The Hills, through his writing of the film Barfly, to
The Last Night of the Earth Poems, the final book of poetry published in his lifetime. During this time, Bukowski
rose from a small press poet on the margins to an underground hero. However, it was also during this time that
Bukowski was pulled into the economic machine when he was asked to start generating profit for publishers.
Publishers as well as the film Barfly sold the “Buk-Beast” image of him, in which he is no more than a rambling
drunk, vagrant ladies-man who also writes. As a result of this commodification of the Bukowski image, he
repositioned himself on the margins at the end of his career by shedding the “Buk-Beast” image, writing from the
new perspective of his age through self-reflection instead of his life on the streets. Bukowski was pulled into the
economic machine, and he comes out on the other side as a transformed artist. So long as there is capitalism, art
will shift according to the economic demands put on the artist.


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                                                    Poster 10
                              Mouse Atrial Preparation and Response to Varenicline
                                                  MAX GRANDI‡
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                         Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Yifan Li

Nearly 80 million American adults have cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease has been the number one
cause of death for the last century in the United States. With an estimated cost of $475.3 billion in 2008, this disease
puts an enormous strain on the health care system and on the economy. Although considerable progress has been
made in past two decades in basic research and clinical care, much is still left to be understood. New therapies are
being discovered, however given the death rates, more still needs to be done.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) which is responsible for “fight or flight” response and the parasympathetic
nervous system (PSNS) which is responsible for “rest and digest” response are in constant balance to maintain heart
rate. The parasympathetic nervous system therefore plays an important role in regulation of normal heart rate. In a
variety of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, and diabetes, PSNS control of the heart is
inhibited. This is associated with the risk of arrhythmia (irregular heart rhythm) and sudden death. One of our
current research goals is to seek an effective approach to specifically increase the PSNS activity in the heart in the
hope of restoring normal function in these disease states.

The PSNS control of the heart is via vagal nerves. These nerves serve to control heart rate and rhythm. The vagal
nerve transmits signals from the brain to neurons gathering within the heart called intracardiac ganglia. PSNS
ganglionic transmission is mediated by nicotinic receptors (nRs). Receptors are proteins that convey signals from the
outside of a cell to the inside of a cell and allow nerves to pass transmission on to other nerves. Several different
subtypes of nRs are expressed in the intracardiac ganglia. The goal of the present project is to test the different roles
of the nRs subtypes, 42 and 3, in the ganglia on regulation of heart rate in isolated mouse heart atria.

                                                Poster 11
       Communication Sciences & Disorders: An Oral Motor Therapy Approach for Articulation Disorders
                                             KRISTI KARLSON
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Liz Hanson

Nonspeech oral motor exercises are commonly used within the field of speech language pathology to treat speech
sound articulation disorders. Oral motor exercises are non-speech movements such as blowing a horn, sucking
through a straw, puffing the cheeks, or wagging the tongue, which are thought to improve speech by increasing
the strength of the articulators. The purpose of this research was to determine if there is evidence to support the
use of an oral motor therapy approach for my 6 year-old male client with an articulation disorder compared to
baseline in terms of accurate productions. A review of the literature was completed and a total of six articles were
included for appraisal. Evidence was appraised based on the hierarchical level of evidence, internal and external
validity, inter-rater agreement, treatment integrity, and how well the evidence matched the client. Results of the
critical appraisal suggest that there is not evidence to support an oral motor approach for my client. Evidence
suggests that oral motor exercises do not improve speech production and may in fact decrease the accuracy of
speech production.




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                                                    Poster 12
                Gender Differences in the Definition of and the Reasons for “Hooking Up” Among
                                     College Students at a Rural University
                              NATHAN RUSSELL LEMASTER, NICOLAS ROSS ALBERS
                                     Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jean Caraway

“Hooking up” is becoming more and more socially accepted by students on college campuses today. Different
definitions and rationale of this sexual behavior permeate the literature. For our research, we want to examine
the different reasons why rural men and women “hook up.” When considering each gender’s perspective, we will
investigate the range of understanding of hooking up such as whether it is “kissing someone who you think is
sexually attractive” or going beyond the point of kissing another individual. We will also study how an individual
feels about the opposite genders feeling towards hooking up, expectations after the hook up, and who comprises
the population that the participant believes does NOT hook up within a university. We used archival data for this
study in which approximately 150 sturveys were collected. The surveys had various questions related to the
subject of hooking up. Our hypothesis is that the definition among students on what hooking up is will be roughly
the same despite gender, whereas we expect that women will be more likely to hook up with the expectation of a
future relationship, while men would be more likely to hook up for the purpose of slef indulgence and conforming
to social acceptance. The results and implications will be discussed as the data is analyzed.

                                                   Poster 13
                    Solar/Thermal Radiation Control Materials for Thermoelectric Solar Cells
                                             ISELEY A. MARSHALL
                                      Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jin Ho Kang

One alternative in the future of energy (for both earth and space) relies on the development of proficient
thermoelectric solar devices. The most effective thermoelectric device must have the ability to maintain its
temperature difference in order to create any source of current. In thermoelectric solar cells, that temperature
difference is reliant upon the sun. Materials coated on the surface of thermoelectric solar cells help to control the
thermal emission and solar absorption and maximize the cell’s thermoelectric properties. Specifically, a series of
good candidate materials for the top (two) layers and bottom layer of the solar cell were made, tested, and
compared. The top layer functions to trap thermal emission generated by the second layer (thus, the material
should display low thermal emissivity). Specifically, several different metal-oxides were tested to determine the
most advantageous compound. The second layer is the absorbance layer, which functions to trap the heat.
Carbon black and carbon nanotubes were tested and compared by their ability to absorb visible range
electromagnetic waves and transform them into thermal energy. This thermal energy will help to maintain the
temperature difference that the solar cell requires to generate voltage. The same material used for the second
layer will potentially be used in the bottom layer of the device, which will require high thermal emissivity. All of
these compounds (the semiconductor metal-oxides, carbon nanotubes, and carbon black) will be thoroughly
dispersed in polyurethane to give them some flexibility and durability in their application. These materials are
being tested to discover the best possible working combination that will maximize solar absorption while
controlling thermal transmittance in the thermoelectric device. Each combination is coated on a pre-made basic
thermoelectric device for testing. The device is then subjected to solar conditions, using a solar simulator and a
black box (designed and prepared specifically for the experiment), respectively imitating the conditions in space
and testing the effectiveness of these thermoelectric control materials.




                                                         36
                                                 Poster 14
Combining The Use of Repeated Practice Through The Use of SAFMEDS With Precision Teaching Measurement
          Procedures To Build Fluency In Musical Notation Recognition With Elementary Students
                                            RONDA MAYROSE
                         Education Curriculum & Instruction, School of Education
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: William Sweeney

Music educators often advocate repeated practice approaches for the acquisition and to build proficiency in
playing an instrument or in a choral ensemble, recognizing musical notation in a composition, and performing in
front of an audience, as well as a host of other important skill related areas related to musical appreciation.
Although repeated practice approaches are often advocated by music educators, after a thorough review of the
literature, the authors discovered a significant void in the music education research related to empirically based
research to validate these pedagogical approaches Additionally, although the technology of Precision Teaching is
very robust measurement approach, little empirical research was available on the effectiveness of combining
repeated practice techniques with Precision Teaching measurement approaches. The purpose of this study was to
investigate the effectiveness of using a SAFMEDS (i.e., Say All Fast One-Minute Each Day Shuffle) flashcards
combined with Precision Teaching measurement approaches to build fluency in the recognition of musical
notation with elementary students during a summer school program. Three first- and second-grade students
participated in this study during a structured summer day-school program in a small university town in the upper
Midwest. Results from the study show promising results related to the combination of SAFMEDS flashcard
strategies with Precision Teaching measurement approaches with these primary aged students. Further, the
music teachers and other caregivers perceptions of the effectiveness and acceptability of the repeated practice
procedures combined with Precision Teaching measurement techniques were evaluated in
this study. Finally, the implications of the SAFMEDS intervention for the acquisition and fluency development of
music notation are also discussed as they relate to effective empirically based instruction in elementary music
education.

                                                  Poster 15
                                         Ethnic Enclave Implications
                                             LORENA REICHERT
                             Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

The prevalence of ethnic enclaves throughout the United States brings concern among citizens who view America
as a melting pot. Assimilation rates for new immigrants may not be as high for those whose cultures have a strong
ethnic network. Also, immigration rates, legal and illegal, will be considered as a consequence of strong ethnic
networks. The economic implication of enclaves will be examined using econometric methods with a focus on
elements such as race, geographic region, and socio-economic comparisons. A history of enclaves will also be
examined to help determine future trends. The economic efficiency of enclaves will be determined.

                                                   Poster 16
            Mechanisms underlying deficits in cortical dopamine caused by adolescent social defeat
                                            CHRISTINA ROBERTS†
                          Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mick Watt

Adolescence is a critical period of behavioral and neural development, making adolescents vulnerable to effects of
negative social experiences such as bullying. We showed that male rats exposed to social defeat in adolescence
exhibit decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine (DA) content as adults, which is associated with
heightened sensation-seeking. Accordingly, rats defeated in adolescence show enhanced novelty responses as
adults compared to non-defeated controls. We hypothesize that reductions in mPFC DA content and subsequently
enhanced novelty responses result from heightened defeat stress-induced activation of DA synthesis-controlling
                                                         37
D2 autoreceptors in the mPFC during adolescence. This was supported by the finding that pharmacological
activation of these receptors in non-defeated adolescent rats resulted in decreased mPFC activity and increased
novelty responding in adulthood. Here, we investigated whether these effects could be prevented by
pharmacological blockade of mPFC D2 autoreceptors during defeat. Male adolescent rats were defeated daily by a
larger aggressive male for 5 days, and received bilateral infusions of the D2 receptor antagonist amisulpride (50 ng
in 0.3 l per side) or vehicle (aCSF) into the mPFC prior to defeat exposure. Non-defeated controls also received
either amisulpride or vehicle infusions, but were placed in novel empty cages for the duration of each defeat trial.
Subjects were then assessed for locomotion responses to a novel environment at either postnatal day (P) 40 or
P56 (early adulthood), and brains were taken the day following behavioral testing. Defeated rats that received
vehicle infusions into the mPFC showed heightened novelty-induced locomotion at P40 compared to both control
groups, but this was prevented by amisulpride pretreatment. Tissue content is currently being assessed for
measurement of mPFC DA content. Combined with earlier findings, current data suggest that repeated activation
of D2 autoreceptors during adolescent social defeat may contribute to alterations in mPFC DA activity and related
behaviors.

                                                    Poster 17
                             What Factors Affect a Students Standardized Test Score?
                                            MICHAEL ALVIN ROBERTS
                                     Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

Standardized test scores play a crucial role in today’s educational system. If a school’s overall standardized test
scores are too low, schools can be considered an “At-Risk School” and lose government funding, as well as
teacher’s can lose credibility as a “highly qualified” teacher and possibly lose their jobs. If a student’s standardized
test score is too low, that student may be targeted for further testing to determine if he or she is in need of
further educational assistance.

Since there is such a heavy emphasis on these standardized test scores, any research done to show a relationship
between these test scores and possible factors, could be beneficial to teachers and schools alike. I will run a
regression, using the ordinary least squares method, to show the relationship between standardized test scores
and several factors which may influence it. These factors include: teacher’s salary, class size, extracurricular
activities, urban versus rural school systems, as well as others. With this data I will show which factors have a
strong correlation with standardized test scores, and attempt to give current educators information which will be
useful for them in their classrooms.

                                                  Poster 18
                     Communication Sciences and Disorders: The Effect of Specially Designed
                          Robots on Social Interaction Skills in Children with Autism
                                               JENNA S. THIES
                       Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The purpose of this paper was to examine whether using specially designed robots for a 4 year old client with
autism is beneficial compared to no other intervention in terms of increasing social interaction skills. Specially
designed robots for autism intervention are a relatively new concept that has gathered a lot of attention in recent
years. The belief behind using robots is that children with autism can more easily interact and relate with a robot
because of its simple, mechanic-like features.

This paper focused on the research of three different robots that were created to interact with children with
autism; they are Robota, Keepon, and Bandit. Robota is a humanoid robotic doll that can imitate movements of an
individual on its own or by the control of another person. Keepon is a simple snowman-like robot that can make
eye contact, engage in interaction, and show emotion; its movements are also operated by an individual in a
                                                        38
separate room. The third robot is Bandit, who is a cartoonish humanoid that uses simple expressions and
movements to interact. The research focused on Robota concluded that simple robots will increase social
interaction skills in children with autism. Repeated exposure to an interactive humanoid robot will increase basic
social interaction skills in children with autism is concluded by the research on Robota. The article on Bandit
stated that in preliminary observations, higher-functioning children responded positively to Bandit while some
lower-functioning children rejected interacting with Bandit.

Overall, there are early indications that specially designed robots will increase social interaction skills in children
with autism, but more controlled research is needed. Researchers also need to examine whether the social
interaction skills gained with robots in a clinical setting carryover to natural interaction with humans.

                                                 Poster 19
                                        AWOL 2011: Crow Creek
    ALEXA WALKER, SHANE BRYAN, CAITLIN BLUMER, LEAH KOBES, BECCA LINNEWEBER, TRAVIS SNYDERS,
                    SARA BOYUM, JESSICA COLBURN, ERIN KRAUSE, TANNER HENTO
                  Service Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Whitney Siegfried

The Crow Creek Sioux Reservation is located in Central South Dakota. Tribal headquarters are located in Fort
Thompson, South Dakota. Buffalo County, located within the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation, is the poorest county
in the United States, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, with a per capita income of $5,213. Unemployment,
alcoholism, suicides and teen pregnancies run high on the reservation. AWOL Crow Creek spent the majority of
the service activities with the youth on the reservation, taking the youth sledding, helping them with homework,
or simply hanging out with them. Students also worked on smaller construction projects within the homes of the
residents on the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation. Individuals on this trip learned about the issues facing Crow Creek
Sioux Reservation and were active in helping the community.

                                                   Poster 20
                           Development of a Non-Invasive, Long Term Animal Model of
                                 Thyroid Hormone Treatment in Heart Disease
                                              NATHAN WELTMAN
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: A. Martin Gerdes

Background- Thyroid hormone (TH) plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular homeostasis in both physiologic and
pathological conditions. Clinical observations suggest a strong link between hypothyroidism and poor outcomes in
patients with and without heart disease. Much of the basic science related to TH administration comes from
animal models. However, the ideal mode of administering TH over long periods of time in experimental animals
has not been demonstrated. Current modes of TH administration are not practical for long term treatment and
are associated with physiological and psychological stress.

Methods and Results- We evaluated the efficacy of a newly developed, non-invasive TH treatment dissolved in
drinking water. Using this new method, cardiovascular changes associated with differing TH concentrations over a
two week treatment period in normal and hypothyroid rats were assessed in order to characterize the dosage of
TH that restores normal cardiovascular function in 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroidism. In both
normal and PTU treated rats, the average dosage of TH consumed in drinking water tightly correlated with the
intended treatment dosage. As expected, PTU treatment was associated with significant depression of serum TH
levels. Treatment with 3µg/kg/day of TH restored serum TH to control levels. PTU treatment was associated with
significant reductions in body weight, heart weight, and cardiac atrophy. Thyroid hormone treatment with
5µg/kg/day and above was necessary to reverse PTU induced cardiac atrophy. In addition, PTU treatment lead to
significant reductions in heart rate, LV end systolic pressure, and +/- dP/dT. Thyroid hormone dosages of
10µg/kg/day and above were necessary to restore cardiac function to control levels.
                                                           39
Conclusions- Oral TH dissolved in drinking water provides an excellent treatment option for extended TH
administration in experimental animal models. TH dosing to restore serum TH to control levels is inadequate to
fully reverse cardiac dysfunction in PTU induced hypothyroidism.

                                                    Poster 21
                               Analyses of Special Olympics Athletes Balance Data
                                   ALLIE AASEN, KELSEA BEIG, WADE FLIGGE
                                  Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Lana Svien

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to establish balance norms of Special Olympics (SO) athletes by analyzing
data gathered at various FUNfitness screens at SO events from around the world. BACKGROUND: Impaired
balance can lead to falls, injury and decreased independence. This is especially true for individuals that have
intellectual disabilities including SO participants. The Functional Reach Test (FRT) and the Unipedal Stance Test
(UPST) are clinical balance measures utilized by the Special Olympics FUNfitness screen to assess fall risk in SO
athletes. The FRT and the UPST have been shown to be reliable measures of balance in various healthy
populations, but there are limited studies that established norms for individuals with intellectual disabilities.
Comparing actual athlete scores to established norms can help determine if physical therapy intervention would
be appropriate. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Subjects: Data from over 32,000 SO athletes who participated in
FUNfitness screens around the world from 2001 to 2009 was obtained from the SO, following IRB approval and a
data user agreement between USD and SO. Analysis: After outliers were identified, means and standard
deviations for the FRT and UPST were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 based on gender and age categories
and compared to established norms from the literature. RESULTS: The study suggests an inverse relationship
between age and UPST scores. UPST with eyes open had higher times than UPST with eyes closed, and males
tend to have a greater UPST scores than females. FRT scores also correlate inversely with age but gender does
not seem to play a role. A large percentage of the athletes balance performance was in the “at risk for
falls”category. CONCLUSIONS: Although age and gender patterns of SO athletes parallel those of healthy
individuals on the FRT and UPST, mean scores were lower across all categories. Based on the literature and
analysis of balance data, many Special Olympic athletes may be at risk for falls and follow-up intervention is
warranted.

                                                     Poster 22
                     Risk Factors Associated with the Development of Deliberate Self-harm
                                                ASHLEY M. ARENS*
                                  Clinical Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Raluca Gaher

Study 1: This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment, impulsivity, and deliberate self-
harm in a sample of college students. Four subtypes of impulsivity (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and
sensation seeking) were examined. Results show that childhood maltreatment history is associated with higher
levels of negative affect and higher levels of impulsivity, specifically negative urgency. In addition, those who
report histories of child maltreatment are more likely to endorse deliberate self-harm behaviors as an adult. Of
the four subtypes of impulsivity, urgency was most strongly related to deliberate self-harm. Urgency, but not the
other subtypes of impulsivity, mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and self-harm. These results
suggest that individuals with histories of child maltreatment are more likely to develop negative urgency, and in
turn may engage in deliberate self-harm in an attempt to quickly reduce intense negative affect.

Study 2: This study extends the results of Study 1 by examining additional variables associated with the
relationship between childhood maltreatment and deliberate self-harm, specifically sense of control, desire for
control, and distress tolerance. A structural equation model with the hypothesized relationships will be tested.
Data collection is currently in progress.
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                                                 Poster 23
            Communication Sciences and Disorders: Augmentative and Alternative Communication
                                and Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities
                                        AINSLEY ELIZABETH ASKEW
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The purpose of my CAT paper was to decide if there is evidence to support the use of augmentative and
alternative communication (AAC) for a male client age 18 with intellectual disabilities compared to nothing in
terms of communicating with a greater number of communication partners. To investigate my research question,
I used four different databases: CINAHL, ASHA Journal Search, Academic Search Premier and Psych Info. After
reading through many articles I selected four to use. I appraised the articles using a hierarchy we discussed in
class and a point system that I came up with based on my client. My results concluded that there is evidence to
support the use of AAC for my client compared to nothing in terms of communicating with a greater number of
partners. I found that the success an individual has with AAC depends on a variety of factors including: training,
intervention, the type of AAC device used, involvement of family/guardians, individual diagnosis and
communication partners.

                                                      Poster 24
                                           New Sculpture by Jeff Baldus
                                                    JEFF BALDUS
                                           Sculpture, College of Fine Arts
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Christopher Meyer

I will be presenting two sculptures from my most recent body of work. These sculptures are a culmination of my
philosophy, research, and my exploration of materials and space. They are the beginnings of my thesis project
and I hope to include them in my thesis exhibit in April, 2012. It is important for me to create works that can
stand on their own as strong formal statements. The works created, however, are not just formal statements.
Through the creative process, I am able to use a variety of materials to delve into very personal issues as well as
the broader issue of who I am as a man, and where I fit in the world today. The works presented also examine my
relationship with my father and how this relationship has lead to my deep connection with nature. This
connection is evident not only in the materials that I chose to use but more importantly in my exploration of the
themes of life, death and rebirth that comes with the changing of the seasons.

                                                    Poster 25
                         Two-Photon Uncaging of Coumarin from Cinnamate-Coated CdSe
                                Quantum Dots as a Model Drug Delivery System
                                 ARAVIND BARIDE, BRANDON DUSTIN BURUM
                                     Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: P. Stanley May

Recently photo-dynamic therapy, combined with targeted drug delivery, has attracted the attention of
researchers due its improved, safer drug delivery. The drug delivery model explored here involves uncaging of
coumarin from cinnamate. Cinnamate upon UV light exposure releases fluorescent coumarin by a ring closure
mechanism. Excitation, emission and absorbance spectra were used to monitor coumarin release. Interestingly,
our cinnamate derivative coordinated with CdSe quantum dots (QD) release coumarin even under visible light
excitation. Ultimately, our goal is to use near infrared (NIR) light, rather than visible or UV light, to achieve the
coumarin release, because human tissue is transparent to NIR light. Our quantum dots were synthesized using
highly reproducible, temperature-dependent (rather than time-dependent) methods. Cinnamate ligands were
introduced to our quantum dots by an indirect ligand-exchange using pyridine coating as an intermediate.

                                                          41
                                                 Poster 26
              Communication Sciences and Disorders: Benefit of Particle Repositioning Maneuvers
                        for Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo via Patient Report
                                               JENNIE BELLIS
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Liz Hanson

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo, affecting millions of Americans
each year. BPPV occurs when calcium carbonate crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and find their way to
the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Particle Repositioning Maneuvers, such as the Semont Maneuver, aim to
moving these crystals back to their natural place. Is there evidence to support the use of the Semont Maneuver
for my 36 year-old, female client suffering from Benign Paroxysmal Postional Vertigo (BPPV) compared to baseline
in terms of decreasing instances of debilitating vertigo via patient report?

                                                    Poster 27
                             Therapeutic Effects of Ormeloxifene on Cervical Cancer
                                               NEERAJ CHAUHAN
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Subhash Chauhan

Cervical cancer is one of the most common and deadly cancers in women worldwide. Pap smear screening is
available to detect pre-cancerous changes at the cervix and treatment can prevent progression to cervical cancer.
However, if cervical cancer progresses to the advanced stages treatment is difficult and often unsuccessful.
Therefore, there is an urgent need for additional treatments. Ormeloxifene (centchroman) is a non-steroidal, non-
hormonal anti-estrogen oral contraceptive for human use that is taken once per week. Data from our laboratory
suggested that ormeloxifene has potent anti-cancer properties. Based on this information, we hypothesized that
ormeloxifene may inhibit the growth of cervical cancer cells and may suppress expression of E6/7 HPV
oncoproteins. To test this hypothesis we used 4 cervical cancer cell lines (Caski, SiHa, C33A and HT3) for in vitro
experiments such as cell proliferation, colony formation, PCR and Western blotting assays with ormeloxifene
(drug dose ranging from 0.5 m to 40 m). In all 4 cell lines ormeloxifene effectively inhibited cervical cancer cell
growth in cell proliferation and colony formation assays. Interestingly, quantitative PCR analysis showed a marked
decrease in level of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, immunoblot analysis
showed PARP cleavage which is a marker of cell apoptosis. To improve therapeutic efficacy of ormeloxifene,
future directions include generation of a nanoparticle formulation of ormeloxifene with ߭cyclodextrin by using
nanoprecipitation methods. Cyclodextrins are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides having a hydrophilic outer surface
and lipophilic central cavity. They have been used as complexing agents to enhance water solubility of
hydrophobic drugs in order to improve the bioavailability and stability of a drug. The nanoparticles formulation(s)
of ormeloxifene will be tested in vitro and in vivo for improved therapeutic efficacy compared to free
ormeloxifene. Taken together our findings suggest that ormeloxifene may be an effective treatment for cervical
cancer.

                                                    Poster 28
                                Measuring Muon Induced Processes at Homestake
                                                 PATRICK DAVIS
                                       Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dongming Mei

Muon-induced processes are important background to the low background experiments in searching for rare
event physics such as neutrinoless double-beta decay, dark matter, and neutrino oscillation. Measuring muon-
induced processes including muon- induced fast neutrons and negative muon capture on different nucleus are
critical to the next generation ultra-low background experiments. An R&D project has been studying the individual
properties of different scintillating liquids, housing designs, inner reflective materials, and construction concerns
                                                            42
in developing a liquid scintillator detector to detect these backgrounds. The detector array will be optimized to
measure the stopping muon flux underground, specifically looking at the muon-induced fast neutron yield. The
R&D project will conclude with the placement of the finished detector underground and results will be presented
with analysis of the efficiency of the detector. If these results are successfully retrieved, a new larger scale
experiment will be constructed with a similar motivation but greater accuracy needs. 1NSF Grant Number PHY-
0758120, South Dakota EPSCoR Office

                                                   Poster 29
                  The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Clinical Psychology:
                                     Implications for Science and Practice
                                          DENNISE GARCIA SEVILLA*
                                    Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

A primary goal within the field of clinical psychology has been to promote the use of empirically based
interventions. Models merging science with the practice of psychology, such as the scientist-practitioner model in
numerous accredited clinical psychology programs, has further facilitated these efforts. Although there has been
success in validating and utilizing empirically based practices to treat psychological conditions, a growing number
of individuals seek relief from psychological distress through the use of complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM), an area of intervention that the field of clinical psychology as a whole has generally ignored. The increase
in the use of CAM among those with certain types of psychological conditions may be a result of an increasing
appreciation for contextual aspects of healing, including the role of human relationships (Harrington, 2008).
Though relevant to the practice of clinical psychology, the process of CAM use and referral by psychologists
remains to be well understood. In hopes of addressing the paucity of knowledge regarding CAM therapy in the
field of psychology, this study aims to assess attitudes, and current use of CAM by psychologists. As such, existing
demographic trends of CAM use and the impact of graduate training models will be used to assess psychologists
referrals to CAM therapies and practitioners. Clinical psychologists registered with several American Psychological
Association (APA) Divisions will be invited to participate to take an online CAM survey. Efforts will be made to
recruit a sample that is equally representative of clinical psychologists who reside in the West coast, the Midwest,
and the East coast. The study will utilize a multivariate method of analysis to asses the relation between the
demographic variables and referral to CAM practitioners to better understand the role of CAM in the field of
clinical psychology.

                                                     Poster 30
                 Clinical Significance and Functional role of MUC13 in Colon Cancer Progression
                                                   BRIJ K. GUPTA
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Subhash Chauhan

Background: Mucin, a family of high molecular weight glycoprotein has been implicated in a variety of cancers.
MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin which has shown deregulated expression in gastric and
ovarian cancers. However, limited information is available about the role of MUC13 in colon cancer progression.
The present study investigated the expression profile, clinical relevance and functional significance of MUC13
expression in colon cancer progression.

Materials and Methods: The MUC13 expression profile was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis
on a panel of colon cancer tissue microarrays containing non-malignant, colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue
samples. Colon cancer cell lines which showed faint (SW480) and high (SW620) MUC13 expression were selected
for over-expression and knockdown experiments, respectively, to determine the functional role of MUC13 in
colon cancer progression. Functional studies, such as cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and cell
invasion assays were performed in stable clones. The levels of Sonic hedehog (Shh) and B cell moloney murine
leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) were determined using real time PCR and Western blot analyses.
                                                        43
Results: Differential expression and sub-cellular localization of MUC13 was observed in cancerous and non-
malignant tissues. MUC13 IHC analysis showed significantly higher membranous and cytoplasmic MUC13
expression in colon cancer and liver metastasis tissues compared to non-malignant tissue samples. Interestingly,
liver metastasis tissue samples showed significantly higher nuclear MUC13 expression in addition to high
membranous and cytoplasmic expression. The over-expression of MUC13 enhanced cell proliferation, colony
formation, cell migration and cell invasion. In contrast, knockdown of MUC13 resulted in reduced cell
proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and cell invasion. Additionally, over-expression of MUC13
increased the expression level of metastatic associated proteins such as Shh and Bmi-1 while knockdown of
MUC13 decreased the expression level of these proteins.

Conclusions: The aberrant expression of MUC13 could serve as a potential diagnostic/prognostic molecular tool
for clinical use, and MUC13 over-expression may enhance colon cancer carcinogenesis via modulation of
metastatic proteins Bmi-1 and Shh. These data suggest a potential role of MUC13 in colon cancer progression and
metastasis.

                                                 Poster 31
                Predicting Academic Performance of College Students: Difference in Gender,
                     Course Load, Extracurricular Involvement, and Living Environment
     ERIKA ROSE HOLZER, DREW WILLIAM STEVENS, MARTA STEPHAN ADAMCZYK, TERESA MARIE TAYLOR,
                               SHANE MICHAEL BARRON, SAMUEL S. GASTER
                                   Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

Many factors are related to academic performance; among these variables are course load, extracurricular
involvement, and living environment. Gender may also play a mediating role. A strenuous course load, measured
by credit hours, may limit amount of time invested in individual courses, negatively impacting performance.
However, a heavy course load may help a student with time management, perhaps yielding high academic
performance. A related study found a positive relationship between credit hours and grades (Xu Di, 1996).

Extracurricular involvement in organizations, athletics, and employment may be an additional factor playing a role
in academic performance. Being involved in these groups/activities may help students be more socially competent
and academically engaged. These factors may be reflected in academic performance by increasing achievement.
However, especially concerning employment, this extra involvement may hinder academic achievement.
According to Miller et al. (2008), "students [...] who work longer hours in off-campus employment tend to be less
involved in campus life, less likely to interact with faculty, and more likely to have lower grade point averages [...]
than are those who work fewer hours" (p. 675).

The final variable, living environment (e.g. dorm life, Greek life, and on or off campus housing), may also be linked
to academic performance. A related study found, "commuters have significantly higher GPAs than apartment
residents, [...] however, the influence [...] may differ depending on age" (Delucchi, 1993; 97, 99). Distractors such
as noise level and social activities within living environment may impact academic performance.

Taken together, our research question hoped to provide some understanding of college students' academic
performance: How do course load, extracurricular involvement, and living environment predict college student's
academic performance? Our study aimed to answer this question by utilizing an existing database on sleep and
academic performance which includes questions about the said topics.




                                                          44
                                                  Poster 32
       The Relationship between Trait Self-Objectification, Shame, Guilt, and Eating Disorder Symptoms
                                           ELIZABETH HUNZIKER*
                               Clinical Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: S. Jean Caraway

Following Fredrickson and Roberts' Objectification Theory (1997), the current study examined the relationship
between trait self-objectification, shame-proneness, and eating disorder symptoms for samples of college-aged
men and women. The relationship between self-objectification, guilt-proneness, and eating disorder symptoms
was also examined. Mediation models and moderation models were both tested. For women, self-objectification
and shame-proneness were found to be positively related to eating disorder symptoms. However, shame-
proneness was not found to mediate the relationship between self-objectification and eating disorder symptoms.
Guilt-proneness was not found to be related to self-objectification or eating disorder symptoms for women. For
men, shame-proneness, but not self-objectification, was found to be related to eating disorder symptoms. Guilt-
proneness was found to be negatively related to eating disorder symptoms for men. No interaction existed
between self-objectification and shame-proneness for men or women. The results of this study suggest shame-
proneness and self-objectification are independent of one another and are both important predictors of eating
disorder symptoms for women. This may be useful information in terms of prevention and treatment of eating
disorders. In addition, significant gender differences were found to exist. Lastly, these results provide further
evidence that shame and guilt are distinct emotions.

                                                   Poster 33
                     Growth Effects of Bisphenol A on Female Paraurethral (Skenes) Glands
                                              JUSTIN JOHNSON‡
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Barry Timms

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupter that has been shown to cause abnormal growth effects during
embryonic development, especially in the male urogenital tract and the prostate. The effect of BPA on the female
urogenital tracts has not been examined. 3D Reconstructions were performed using Winsurf software to examine
the growth and structure of the paraurethral (Skenes) glands. Using specific markers for basal cells (p63) and cell
proliferation (Ki67) we examined paraurethral glands of the female urogenital tract to determine if the estrogen
mimic BPA affects basal cell proliferation, similar to that previously observed in the developing male prostate.
Immunofluorescent staining will permit quantified and statistical comparison between control and treatment
groups.

                                                 Poster 34
    Communication Sciences & Disorders: Teaching Children with Autism Appropriate Social Interaction and
     Communication Using Pivotal Response Training versus the Picture Exchange Communication System
                                              MEGAN KARR
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

For my critically appraised topic, I wondered if there is enough evidence to support the use of Pivotal Response
Training (PRT) for a seven-year-old male with autism who is non-speaking compared to the Picture Exchange
Communication System (PECS) in terms of appropriately interacting and communicating in a social setting or
context?

I found three articles that used a single-subject-multiple baseline design across subjects that measured the
effectiveness of Pivotal Response Training on young children with autism. Results in each study indicated that
using PRT techniques helps improve social interactions in children with autism, and that after intervention ceased,

                                                        45
participants were able to generalize what they had learned to new settings and individuals. For the Picture
Exchange Communication System research, I found two very different articles. One was a systematic review of
literature on PECS between 1994 and 2009, and the other was a single-subject research design within subjects,
but it had no baseline data. The meta-analysis determined that PECS has potential but is not yet established. The
second article found that the program was mastered quickly for all participants and generalization of skills was
seen across individuals.

In the end, I did not feel that there was enough evidence available to determine whether PRT was a better
method compared to PECS for teaching appropriate social interaction and communication to a child with autism
who is non-speaking. However, both types of treatment yielded positive results overall. In general, because
Pivotal Response Training aims to improve a child’s social interactions, and the Picture Exchange Communication
System focuses on increasing communication, for this particular client, I think it would be appropriate to provide
PECS to first increase his language level, and then follow it with peer-mediated PRT to improve his social
interaction.

                                                   Poster 35
               Insuring Our Children: Providing Healthcare Insurance to Enhance Total Well-Being
                                             CHELSIE LAEL KENNEDY
                                     Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Michael Allgrunn

This paper examines long term consequences children face when they are uninsured. Recent data released from
the Community Population Survey indicates on a national basis, that more than 8 million children are uninsured.
Children without health insurance, experience poorer health, lower investment in human capital and substandard
health in adulthood. This consequently leads to reduced employment opportunities and future earnings. This
analysis of current uninsured rates, coordinated with the negative long-term health and human capital
consequences can pose as a representative model to expand health insurance coverage to all children.

Children have a wide variety of medical needs, such as preventive health like immunizations, dental check-ups,
and annual physicals. Other healthcare needs include the treatment of chronic illness such as asthma. Children
grow and develop rapidly, placing them at high risk for illness and injury. If health problems are not identified and
treated, they can affect children’s overall development. With limited access to health insurance and care, children
face setbacks early in life that can have lasting effects throughout adolescence and adulthood.

Positive externalities resulting from full medical coverage of children result from less illness, higher school
attendance, and more acquired learning and knowledge. Increased educational development increases their
contributions to society later in life, as these individuals have a higher likelihood of careers with higher earnings,
thus allowing them to be less reliant on government support.

Information concerning long-term disparities compiled with data relating to potential positive externalities
explains reasons why Medicaid subsidies for children are necessary. This is accomplished by analyzing current
expenditures on Medicaid, as well as other government funded public assistance programs. Other externalities
stem from a healthier society as children are less susceptible to illness and the visits to clinics and hospitals
become less frequent.




                                                          46
                                                 Poster 36
       Communication Sciences and Disorders, Auditory Stimulation (voices) and Arousal from Comatose
                                            RACHEL KITTELSON
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Liz Hanson

The problem is there is not sufficient research regarding the effect of providing vocal auditory stimulation to
patients with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), who are in a comatose state. The purpose of this research was
to determine whether providing vocal auditory stimuli to patients with severe TBI in comatose state will expedite
arousal from comatose. The research question is: Is there evidence to support the use of providing auditory
stimuli, specifically voices, to a 42-year old male with severe TBI compared to no stimulation in terms of
expediting arousal from a comatose state?

Three relevant studies were critically appraised to support the findings of the research question. The first article,
by Alice E. Davis (2003), was appraised as strong, scoring 11/14 points. The second article, by Rebecca Jones
(1994), was appraised as moderately strong, scoring 8/14 points. The last article, by Staffany Chleboun (2009),
was appraised as moderately strong, also scoring 8/14 points. The appraisal system was developed based on a
combination of the credibility of research methods used and their relevance to the client of interest.

Results indicated that due to the variability of clients within the studies that it cannot be claimed that
implementing vocal auditory stimuli will initiate or expedite arousal from a comatose state in patients with TBI.


                                                    Poster 37
                      Tissue Engineering of the Annulus Fibrosus Using Electrospun Fibrous
                                 Scaffolds with Aligned Polycaprolactone Fibers
                                                LAURA KOEPSELL
                    Biomedical Engineering, Graduate Education and Applied Research Center
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Ying Deng

In tissue engineering, it is important to fabricate a three-dimensional scaffold that resembles the extra cellular
matrix (ECM) and topographical appearance of the native tissue. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis
that varying the microstructures of electrospun fibrous scaffolds by manipulating the relative degree of fiber
alignment would influence the behaviors of porcine annulus fibrosus cells. Five types of electrospun fibrous
scaffolds with polycaprolactone fibers having random or partially aligned arrangements have been prepared and
investigated. The scaffold microstructures have been examined, and in vitro experiments have been carried out
to assess cell-material interaction, cell proliferation, and ECM production. The results indicate that the scaffold
with oriented fibers provides strong guidance to the cell orientation and ECM distribution. In addition, albeit the
elastic moduli of the electrospun fibrous scaffolds are lower than that of native tissue, they are comparable to
those reported in literature; hence, the constructs cultured with optimized conditions including scaffold material
selection and dynamic mechanical conditioning would have the potential to possess the moduli closer to that of
native tissue.

                                                Poster 38
       Where Does the Money Go? An Analysis of Student Spending at South Dakotas Public Universities
                                          MARA A. LINDOKKEN‡
                              Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Bill Anderson

In 2009, the South Dakota Board of Regents embarked on a study to determine the impact the state's public
universities have on South Dakota's economy. As part of this major undertaking, students at each university were
asked to report their monthly expenditures on regular living expenses such as housing, food, transportation,
                                                        47
utilities, and entertainment. We then incorporated tuition and university fees to determine a typical real monthly
budget for students on each state campus. Housing emerges as the largest single spending category, with 28% of
budget dollars flowing into rent or room-and-board fees each month. A smaller percentage, 16%, is dedicated to
discretionary spending, defined here rather broadly as money spent at restaurants or bars, on entertainment, and
on clothing. Based solely on the numbers, Northern State University at Aberdeen emerges as the state's best
"educational value," when factoring in all of the costs associated with living and attending school. Students in
Aberdeen typically spend less money per month while attending college than do students at other South Dakota
universities. Students across the state do not spend their money in statistically significant different ways, but
small local variations emerge when observing housing costs and other variables. Overall, students attending
South Dakota's public universities inject $192 million yearly into the state's economy through day-to-day costs, in
addition to $234 million paid annually to the state in tuition and fees.

                                                 Poster 39
               Communication Sciences and Disorders: Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Is It Suitable?
                                                JILL LOCKIE
                     Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Liz Hanson

This Critically Appraised Topic (CAT) is designed to analyze the effectiveness of Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT)
for a specific patient. This patient's main complaint was a constant tinnitus described as buzzing in both ears. Her
audiogram revealed hearing within normal limits and her tinnitus matched 40 dB SL at 8000 Hz in the left ear. TRT
is designed to habituate the user's brain to the tinnitus they experience (Katz, Medwetsky, Burkard, & Hood,
2009). In other words, TRT trains the brain to rid the novelty of tinnitus. This presentation explores the following
question: is there evidence to support the use of TRT for my female, 30-year-old client with tinnitus matched at
40 dB SL at 8000 Hz compared to baseline based on the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)? The THI is a
questionnaire designed to rank the severity of tinnitus on a scale of one to 100 (Baguley & Andersson, 2003). It
was concluded that there is evidence to support the use of TRT. However, I would only use it under four
conditions. First, counseling alone must not be successful. Second, my client's motivation and optimism must be
at a very high level. Third, my client's initial THI score must be greater than 50. Finally, a trial period must be
available; especially if my client has financial concerns. All in all, I see TRT as an effective treatment for my client;
however, there are certain criteria that need to be met before I would pursue the option.

                                                   Poster 40
                Inflammatory Responses Induced and Intracellular Survival of sar-family Mutants
                          in Staphylococcus aureus in Macrophages and Neutrophils
                                              ANDREA L. LUCAS
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Adhar Manna

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a broad range of human and animal infections,
including acute food poisoning, pneumonia, meningitis, skin conditions, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome.
S. aureus has demonstrated an ability to rapidly develop resistance to virtually all antibiotics, including most
recently resistance to vancomycin. S. aureus produces a large number of factors including enzymes, adhesions,
toxins and capsular polysaccharides. These virulence factors cause tissue colonization and destruction, as well as
immune evasion. In addition, Staphylococcus expresses several oxidative stress-responsive genes, whose products
are involved in neutralization of the reactive oxygen species/intermediates (ROS/I) primarily produced by first
immune defense cells. Expression of many of these factors related to pathogenesis and survival in the host is
controlled by regulatory systems that include transcriptional regulators (i.e., Sar-family, SigB) and two-component
regulatory systems (i.e., agr, saeSR). The staphylococcal specific Sar-family of regulators control both directly and
indirectly large numbers of target genes involved in virulence, regulation, autolysis, biofilm formation, stress
responses and metabolic processes.

                                                           48
Recently, our lab has shown that the sar-family genes play an important role in regulating or combating oxidative
stresses in S. aureus. Knowing that oxidative stresses play an important role in the survival of S. aureus in the host,
the major objects of this research are to 1) investigate differential expression of the sar-family genes under
different conditions; 2) determine the intracellular survival and persistence of various sar-family mutants of S.
aureus once taken up by macrophages and neutrophils; 3) define the effect on inflammatory responses.
Optimization of the murine macrophage model is being conducted using community associated MRSA strain MW2
under various experimental conditions. Presently, we are investigating the temporal expression of various sar-
family genes by qRT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, and analyzing the intracellular survival of sar-family mutants
in murine macrophages.

                                                     Poster 41
                          Impact of an emerging contaminant Triclosan on the emerging
                             Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
                                                  TYLER MIILLER
                                        Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jake Kerby

Abstract: Global amphibian declines and the associated loss of biodiversity is a complex issue facing many
biologists. A lethal fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), causes the emerging infectious
disease chytridiomycosis, which has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations
worldwide. Triclosan, a common active ingredient in anti-bacterial and anti-fungal products, is an important
emerging contaminant that is commonly found in waterways across the United States. As Triclosan is an
antimicrobial, it might serve a role in reducing the impact of the pathogen. Using laboratory techniques, we
examine varying concentrations of Triclosan to describe the effects of it on the growth of BD. We found that a
Triclosan concentration of 10 ug/L had little or no effect, while 100 ug/L significantly inhibited the growth of BD.
Understanding the effects of contaminants on B. dendrobatidis will prove beneficial in mitigating the catastrophic
effects of chytridiomycosis on amphibian populations.

                                                    Poster 42
                                 Pulmonary Function in Female Collegiate Runners
                                  BEN NEBELSICK, LEAH FULKER, ASHLEY HALSETH
                                    Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                         Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Pat Hauer

Design: A non-experimental normative descriptive study of track and field/cross-country athletes at The
University of South Dakota (USD). Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze pulmonary function test
results of track and field/cross-country collegiate athletes based on type of athlete and determine the
relationships between years competing and percent of their predicted values. Methods: Thirty-four female
participants were included in the study. The following pulmonary function tests were performed for each subject
using a MedGraphicsTM metabolic cart and Breeze SoftwareTM: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory
volume in one second (FEV1), slow vital capacity (SVC), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximum
inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Results: Thirty-four females (ages 18—22)
from USD agreed to participate in the study. Sixteen participants were long distance runners, five were mid-
distance runners, seven sprinters, and six were field event athletes. As a group, both MIP (p=.026) and MEP
(p=.035) were found to have statistically higher values for their actual means as compared to their predicted
means for FVC (p<.001), SVC (p=.020), and MVV (p=<.001). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences
between athlete type. Post hoc analyses demonstrated that field event athletes had higher MIP and MEP values
(p=.0013; p=.019, respectively) compared to long distance runners. MIP was found to have no statistical
significance (p=.581) between any group, and interestingly, actual values for MEP were found to be significantly
lower than predicted (p<.001). Minimal relationships existed between years in track and percent of predicted
values for all pulmonary function tests (range .028-.250). Conclusion: Collegiate track and cross-country athletes
have significantly higher than predicted pulmonary function values in regards to FVC, SVC, and MVV. Field event
                                                          49
athletes were able to produce greater inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory force (MEP) compared to sprinters, mid-
distance, and long distance runners.

                                                    Poster 43
       Desiccation and freezing tolerance of a dehydrin knockout line of the moss Physcomitrella patens
                                             ZACHARY R. NIEMANN
                                       Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Karen Koster

The moss Physcomitrella patens is an excellent model organism for studies of dehydration tolerance at the cellular
level. Its morphology is simple, comprised of filaments of large, easily observable, haploid cells. Additionally,
genetic transformation of Physcomitrella is straightforward, with a high frequency of homologous recombination
that allows for targeted gene transfer. Ease of genetic modification and structural simplicity make this an ideal
organism for the study of gene expression and the functions of their corresponding proteins. Physcomitrella can
survive moderate episodes of cellular dehydration brought about by either drought or freezing. One gene
expressed during stress encodes a protein called dehydrin (PpDHNA) that may protect cellular structures as water
is lost. Dehydrins may interact with membranes and partially denatured proteins during stress, although, to our
knowledge, the only evidence for this comes from studies done on model systems in vitro. Arabidopsis plants in
which dehydrins were over-expressed show an increased tolerance to freezing, but the cellular mechanism for the
increased tolerance is not known. In order to study the function of dehydrin, we have generated a Physcomitrella
line (PpdhnA) with a targeted knockout of the PpDHNA gene. Comparison of the wild type and PpdhnA knockout
line may help us elucidate the role of the dehydrin DHNA in desiccation and freezing tolerance. Both wild type and
knockout are being exposed to desiccation and freezing stresses and their survival measured as regrowth. Cellular
damage is quantified as leakage of electrolytes from injured cells. We will discuss results of our current
experiments testing the hypothesis that the knockout line will have less tolerance of cellular dehydration than the
wild type moss.

                                                     Poster 44
                            Effects of Adolescent Social Defeat on Executive Function
                                           ANDREW MICHAEL NOVICK
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Michael Watt

Executive function enables the brain to organize behavior across time. During adolescence, capacity for executive
function increases due to maturation of pre-frontal cortex. It is known that stressful experiences affect the pre-
frontal cortex, altering brain development, and potentially making the individual more susceptible to mental
illness. Previously it was found that rats subjected to a model of teenage bullying known as adolescent social
defeat demonstrated deficits in dopamine in the pre-frontal cortex. Given the relationship between the pre-
frontal dopamine and executive function, the present study evaluated the long term effects of adolescent social
defeat on working memory which is one aspect of executive function. By establishing a direct link between
adolescent victimization and cognitive deficits, the present study will facilitate future investigation into the
specific neurobiological mechanisms affected by adolescent stressors. In turn, this will direct development of
pharmacotherapies in restoring stress-induced cognitive and behavioral dysfunction.




                                                        50
                                                 Poster 45
                                         AWOL 2011: Memphis
    SETH PARSONS, ALEX BRUMMER, ERICA JOHNSON, CHRISTINA RAY, EMILEE DAVENPORT, KATARINA
  GOMBOCZ, ALEISIA GOMEZ, LEAH AKLAND, EMILY TRACY, HILLARY FARRELL, ABBY WOLF, MOSES KIPLAGET,
                           ALYSSA LIMKE, HALEIGH KREBER, ALLISON MCENTEE
                  Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Brock Schardin

During winter break 2010, a group of 16 students had the opportunity to visit Memphis, Tenn. as part of the
Alternative Week of Off-Campus Learning (AWOL) student organization at the University of South Dakota. The
service-learning trip provided a wonderful opportunity for the students to volunteer their time. The main
opportunity during the AWOL Memphis trip was to work at Le Bonheur Childrens Hospital, one of the nations
leading hospitals in child healthcare. Responsibilities at the hospital included baby huggers, unit buddies, pushing
around a coffee cart, emergency department activities, among many others. Another opportunity during the trip
was to work at Kipp Diamond Academy Charter School, where participants painted a new classroom and put
together student work packets. The participants were also able to visit the Lorraine Motel, which was the location
of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.s assassination and is now the National Civil Rights Museum. The AWOL Memphis
group totaled 689 volunteer hours in five days of service, and in addition, were able to take in the sites and
sounds of Beale Street, Graceland, and the entire city of Memphis.

                                                Poster 46
Communication Sciences & Disorders: What are the affects of PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System)
             treatment on children with autism in terms of MLU (mean length of utterance)?
                                          BRIANNA J. PAULSEN
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Liz Hanson

The problem is the lack of evidence supporting the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to
show there is an increase in mean length of utterance (MLU) in children with autism. Currently, there have been
no studies directly examining the relationship between PECS and increasing MLU. The purpose of this study was
to determine if there was enough evidence to support the use of PECS in terms of increasing MLU in a six year old
male diagnosed with autism. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is behaviorally based pictorial
communication system designed for children with social-communicative deficits. Expressive communication skills
are targeted through the training of requests and, later, comments. Children using PECS are taught to approach
and give a picture of a desired item to a communicative partner in exchange for that item. By doing so, the child
initiates a communicative act for a concrete item within a social context. Research articles covering PECS and
MLU were appraised through two systems: our class appraisal system and my personal appraisal system. Two
articles (one being a meta-analysis) were critically appraised to support the results found. Of the articles included
in the meta-analysis, none of them included MLU as a dependent variable. The second article appraised did not
contain enough evidence to support the use of PECS for increasing MLU. Therefore, overall results revealed that
there is not enough evidence to support the use of PECS in terms of increasing MLU. However, evidence supports
the use of PECS for increasing communication outcomes. PECS can be an appropriate intervention to increase
communication outcomes such as exchanges, requests, and initiations.




                                                         51
                                                    Poster 47
                          Communication Sciences & Disorders: Musically Adapted
                          Social Stories for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
                                               SARAH PERMANN
                       Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The research in this presentation questions whether there is enough evidence to support the use of music therapy
for a five year old male client who is diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder compared to the use of social
stories therapy in terms of practicing socially appropriate communicative interactions. The included research
looks at previous studies that used forms of music therapy on different types of clients with communication
disorders that ranged in age and compared the results to the needs of this specific client. The results concluded
that enough evidence exists to support the use of musically adapted social stories for this client, but more
research is needed in order to claim true efficacy of social story use as well as the use of their musical
adaptations.

                                                  Poster 48
         The Impact of Rumination and Behavioral Inhibition and Activation on PTSD Symptom Severity
                                           KENDRA C. RACTLIFFE
                                   Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gerard Jacobs

This study assesses the impact of Gray’s (1981) Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation model of
temperament, as well as ruminative thought style on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. 310
primary care medical patients with a history of exposure to traumatic events were studied. Using correlational
and hierarchical multiple regression analyses, significant relationships between Rumination, the interaction of
Rumination and Behavioral Inhibition, and PTSD symptom severity were identified. This may indicate that
individuals who are high in behavioral inhibition and use ruminative coping may be at risk of developing more
severe PTSD symptoms. Overall, the present study adds to the body of research on individual differences in
vulnerability to PTSD.

                                                 Poster 49
  Communication Sciences and Disorders: Vocal Functioning Exercises: Whipping Your Vocal Folds Into Shape
                                              MARY RIDDER
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

According to the American Speech Language and Hearing Association, a voice disorder is a speech disorder that is
depicted by an atypical production of the voice and/or the nonexistence of vocal quality, pitch, loudness,
resonance, and/or duration that is out of place for the client’s age and/or sex. Voice disorders can affect anyone,
but can cause those who use their voice professionally excessive difficulty. There are a variety of treatment
options for clients with voice disorders including: Vocal Hygiene (VH), which is the preservation and/or restoration
of a normal voice by halting harmful vocal behaviors and replacing them with vocally hygienic ones, or Vocal
Functioning Exercises (VFE), a series of exercises that strengthen and balance the three subsystems of the voice:
respiration, phonation, and resonance. The proposed treatment question asks: is there evidence to support the
use of vocal functioning exercises for my mid-twenties female client with a voice disorder compared to vocal
hygiene techniques to improve her vocal quality, pitch, loudness, and/or duration as documented by patient and
clinician report? I conducted a literature search and appraisal resulting in four research articles that assessed the
effectiveness of Vocal Functioning Exercises as a treatment option for clients enduring or at risk for voice
disorders. According to the results of these research articles and my appraisal system scrutiny, I concluded that
vocal functioning exercises to be an effective treatment option for the client in conjunction with use a variety of
treatment options, such as Vocal Hygiene.
                                                           52
                                                   Poster 50
                      Proteome-wide Profiling of Ubiquitinated and Sumoylated Substrates
                                Targeted by UBX Containing Protein, UBXN2A.
                                                 SANAM SANE
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Khosrow Rezvani

Dysfunction of the ubiquitination and sumoylation pathways leads to diseases such as cancer. These two
pathways have critical roles in regulating protein stability, function and subcellualr localization. Because of the
number of proteins that are modified by ubiquitination or sumoylation at post-translational level, it is expected
that these two pathways influence significantly many essential cellular processes in unstressed condition and in
genotoxic stress. Intriguingly, regulation of ubiquitination and sumolyation are mediated by several fine-tuners
such as ubiquitin-like proteins creating highly regulated feedback loops. The molecular detail of these
modifications by a family of ubiquitin-like protein, UBX domain containing family, has not been fully elucidated.
The objective of this proposal is to define the role of a novel UBX containing protein, UBXN2A in ubiquitination
and sumoylation process in unstressed condition and when cells experience the genotoxic stress. The proposal
consists of three aims. In the first aim we will determine the effect of UBXN2A on its known partners involved in
the ubiquitination (CHIP E3 ubiquitin ligase) and sumoylation (PIAS1 protein) pathways. Aim 2 and aim 3 will be a
proteome-wide characterization of UBXN2A in non-stressed (Aim#2) and genotox stress (Aim#3) which will
provide direct information about the regulatory role of a ubiquitin-like protein at the post-translational level.
Results obtained from this proposal will provide a list of substrates that are specifically modified by UBXN2A, and
can help to design therapeutic agents that ultimately can alter ubiquitination or sumoylation status of specific
targets in cancer cells.

                                                    Poster 51
           Contribution of inactivated influenza virus (IIV) and live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV)
                 to vaccine-induced immunity toward limiting influenza: GAS super-infections
                                           MARGARET SCHUNEMAN‡
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Victor Huber

Influenza virus infections become significantly more severe when they are followed by bacterial
pneumonia. Despite this fact, evaluation of vaccines against influenza viruses only consider prevention of
influenza virus infection, and do not consider protection against secondary bacterial complications. This
research demonstrates that vaccination against influenza virus, using either inactivated (IIV) or live, attenuated
virus (LAIV) vehicles, prompts systemic antibody responses against influenza virus that help decrease the severity
and limits the development of group A streptococcus (GAS) bacterial infections in an influenza virus:GAS super-
infection model. The only difference between the two vaccine vehicles was observed when mucosal antibody of
the IgA isotype was measured, and an expected increase in IgA in the lungs of mice vaccinated with LAIV was
detected. We conclude that both IIV and LAIV inhibit development of secondary bacterial complications in the
model of influenza:GAS super-infection, likely through prevention of primary influenza virus infection.

                                                Poster 52
  Communication Sciences & Disorders: Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) and Stuttering
                                            TIFFANY TRASK
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The preschool age demographic (2 to 4 years old) is the time when most children experience a period of
disfluency. For some children, this disfluency will persist on as the emotional and difficult communication barrier
known as stuttering. The exact cause of stuttering is unknown, but it has been demonstrated that speech and
                                                           53
language intervention can help. How and when we intervene with this demographic is highly controversial, and
currently there is no empirical evidence to support any form of intervention as the best practice approach. Our
growing insight on the disorder of stuttering and the emphasis on evidence-based practice in the field of Speech-
Language Pathology demonstrate the need for exploration in to any and all intervention approaches, and this is
where augmentative and alternative communication enters. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
is a method of equipping individuals with disabilities or speech and language disorders with a means of
communicating through the use of everything from picture symbols to synthesized or digitized speech devices to
programs on an I-pad. AAC is used to assist children with many different disorders, such as autism and motor
speech disorders. The purpose of this critically appraised topic was to determine if there was evidence to support
the use of AAC intervention for a four-year-old male client with a diagnosis of stuttering in terms of increased
fluent speech. While no research existed to support the use of AAC intervention to directly treat stuttering,
evidence did exist to demonstrate that the use of AAC could facilitate overall speech and language development
in preschoolers.

                                                    Poster 53
                                            AWOL2011: Sioux Falls
                  ERIC WIEDENMANN, TYLER MIILLER, MOLLIE FRIEDMANN, RHONDA KNEIFL,
                                      DARCY LEISCHNER, RACHEL WEBER
                     Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Amanda M. Hill

AWOL takes a local trip every year because it is important to recognize important social issues that are abundant
in our own backyard. Sutdents do not need to travel to a large urban city, a location struck by disaster, or another
country to discover poverty. This year, students who participated in this trip worked with several local
organizations to aid efforts to reduce poverty in our own area. In addition to working with the Center for Children
and Families in Vermillion, participants also traveled to Sioux Falls and complete a Habitat for Humanity
deconstruction. Participants had the opportunity to see a side of South Dakota that is sometimes easy to
overlook.

                                                    Poster 54
                                    Constructing a Radon Air Filter Prototype
                                       XIAOYI YANG, ANDREW SCHMITZ
                                       Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dongming Mei

A recurring problem in low background physics is the presence of the decay products of 222Rn (radon). The
particularly treacherous aspect of radon is its gaseous nature and the long half-life of its daughters. Many
industrial devices for air radon removal are sold on the market, but none are available that achieve the removal
factor required by our experiments in DUSEL. Therefore, we have begun researching and engineering a working
device that uses very porous activated charcoal for radon adsorption.

                                                  Poster 55
    Metabolic Rates in Swallows: Do Energetically Expensive Lifestyles Affect Metabolic Capacities in Birds?
                                              YUFENG ZHANG
                                     Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: David Swanson

Energetically expensive lifestyles may affect metabolic rates in birds. However, the relationships among basal
(BMR), summit (Msum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR = maximum exercise
metabolic rate) in birds are not well defined, and differ among studies. BMR is driven mainly by metabolic rates of
central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is driven mainly by metabolism of active skeletal muscles. Thus,
it is not obvious why correlations should exist between BMR and maximal metabolic output, but because both
                                                          54
Msum and MMR are functions of skeletal muscle, it might be expected that correlations should exist between these
measures of maximal metabolic output. Moreover, because energetically expensive lifestyles are often correlated
with high metabolic capacities, cross-training effects of exercise on thermogenesis, and vice versa, may exist. We
tested this cross-training hypothesis with swallows, a family with an energetically expensive aerial insectivore
lifestyle. Specifically, we measured basal and summit metabolic rates in three species of temperate-zone breeding
swallows to address the question of whether a high-exercise lifestyle was reflected by elevated BMR and
thermogenic capacity. BMR for temperate-zone swallows was higher than for tropical swallows, similar to results
from other bird taxa. In addition, our preliminary data suggest that BMR in swallows shows a tendency to be
higher than BMR for other birds, but more data are needed to corroborate this tendency. In contrast, Msum values
in the three species of swallows that we measured were consistent with Msum values for other swallow species,
including tropical species, and the Msum-mass regression for swallows was almost coincident with the Msum-mass
regression for other birds. These data tentatively suggest that swallow Msum is similar to that for other birds so
cross-training effects are not apparent, but again, more data are necessary confirm this finding. Consequently, in
future studies we plan to include data from additional temperate-zone breeding species in our analyses.

                                                     Poster 56
                              Study of a specific protein in DNA repairing pathway.
                                                   JIANQIU ZOU
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dong Zhang

During the long journey of cell fate, thousands of genes of the cell will replicate for lots of times. Even though the
rate of mutation for a single gene is very low due to the exactly matched base pairs structure, the amount of
genes mutated in one replication is more than you can imagine. Under such circumstances, DNA repairing
becomes quite vital an event in cell cycle. Checkpoints are control mechanisms that ensure the fidelity of cell
division in eukaryotic cells, which can detect DNA damage and trigger stall of cell cycle as well as activation of DNA
repairing pathways. One of the major checkpoints pathways is the ATR pathway. As a protein kinase, when DNA
damage is detected, ATR could catalyze the phosphorylation of Chk1 under the assistance of series of proteins like
TopBP1, to regulate the downstream enzymes of the pathway such as CDC25 and finally stall the cell cycle before
repairing the damaged DNA. USP20 belongs to the ubiquitin specific protease family, whose function is to
deubiquitinate a broad range of proteins. Its function in DNA damage and repairing pathway, however, has never
been revealed before. Our work is to find out the role of USP20 plays in ATR pathway and how it regulate the
pathway when DNA damage happen in cells, therefore find the potential use of USP20 related agents in cancer
therapy. By perform methods such as siRNA knock down, SRB cell viability test, immuno-blotting assay and IHC
assay, we have found that USP20 could impact the expression of TopBP1 and the phosphorylation of Chk1. Later
we would like to test every potential proteins involved in the ATR pathway and finally figure out the model or at
least pattern of how it works.


        Session 4a: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 211/211A
                       Immigration Reform: Why it is needed and how it can be achieved
                                                 KAYLA FOX
                            Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

Cartel violence and illegal immigration are real issues facing the United States today. Much of the problem is
caused by failure to secure the border, lack of enforcement of immigration laws, and an inadequate visa system
which does not serve the needs of the economy, legal immigrants, or United States citizens. Americans are rightly
demanding a border and immigration policy that will keep the United States free, safe, and prosperous. However,
immigration policy over the last several decades has become skewed. It has become misrepresented as an

                                                         55
uncompromising decision between unbound immigration and none at all. There is a need for comprehensive
immigration reform; though this reform cannot be biased if it is to be effective. Immigration policy must be
centered on border security, interior enforcement, and legal immigration processes. In my presentation, I will
focus on why immigration reform is needed, how border security and interior enforcement can be increased in an
effective manner, and changes that need to be made to the legal immigration processes which include a flexible
temporary worker visa program.

                                        Success in the Model Minorities
                                               ALISSA LEE HORN
                              Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

The migration of immigrants is continuing to increase in the United States each year. This is a constant battle for
ethnic minorities to try to find jobs and provide a better life for their families. Although, Asian Americans and
Indian Americans have become the two immigrant groups that have risen above all of the other minority groups
and created a better life for themselves. These two groups of immigrants are considered to be the model minority
group for their many successes in the United States. Asians and Indians are constantly achieving a higher
economic status on average than many other immigrant groups in America because of their accomplishments in
education, occupational roles, steady income, low crime rate, and family stability. Statistics show that these
model minority groups have a high percentage of immigrants graduating high school, attending colleges,
graduating from prestigious colleges, and carrying professional specialty occupations. These minorities are holding
professions in the medical field, investment banking, management consulting, engineering, and law. Ethnic model
minorities have migrated to the United States to give diversity to the country, challenging themselves through
education, occupations, and improving their living statuses.

                                 America’s Immigration: The Reverse Brain Drain
                                            ERIN MARIE RASMUSSEN
                              Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

A brain drain is the migration of individuals with technical skills and knowledge from a less developed country to a
more developed country. Conversely, a reverse brain drain is the migration from a more developed country to a
less developed country. While the United States historically been the country to which technical skilled and
knowledgeable individuals had migrated to as part of the United States brain drain from less developed countries,
the United States is currently experiencing a reverse brain drain. The reverse brain drain experienced by the
United States can be seen as scientists, engineers, doctors, and other scholars migrate to the United States to
further their education, research, and work, and then, after completing their education, research, or work,
migrate back to the home country. The United States reverse brain drain can be seen as problematic because
these foreign-born individuals were given educational, research, and work opportunities over native-born
individuals, and then leave these spots vacant once they leave. Foreign-born individuals are leaving the United
States as they see that their home country is experiencing economic growth, improved standards of living, and
increasing the opportunities it provides its citizens. The United States had once relied on the intellectual skills of
these foreign-born individuals for economic growth and global competitiveness. Due to the loss of these foreign-
born individuals, the capital from these intellectual skills of the United States is declining. The United States must
acknowledge this reverse brain drain by creating policies that continue to attract and then retain these skilled
foreign-born individuals.




                                                         56
                               The Impact of Media-Portrayed Ethnic Stereotypes
                                               JESSICA TENNANT
                             Anthropology and Sociology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenqian Dai

Stereotypes have been a part of the nature of mankind since the very first judgment of another human being was
ever made. In today’s world, a stereotype is a widely accepted standardized image of a particular person or group
of people. Anyone can be stereotyped, yet it seems that in current culture ethnic stereotypes dominate over any
other form of stereotyping. Although not all stereotypes are negative, no single stereotype can be completely
encompassing of all the characteristics of a person or group of people. Thus, stereotypes can introduce obstacles
into the path of fully understanding or coming to know who an individual or group truly is. It comes as no surprise
that the media has always been a significant source for relaying and often furthering stereotypes. Media sources
of present-day remain highly influential in the development and conveying of ethnic stereotypes, and those ethnic
stereotypes impact many factors in the lives of immigrants, including immigrant assimilation trends, settlement
patterns, and likelihood of future successes. It is in the best interest of the United States to monitor the
immigrant stereotypes portrayed by the media because in doing so, many problems and much controversy
pertaining to immigration could be considerably alleviated.

                                  Contemporary Immigration & The Arizona Law
                                               BRENAN TJELMELAND
                                   Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Wenquian Dai

Contemporary attitudes toward immigration in the United States of America have become highly subjective
through the years. In reality, an attitude is always influenced by internal and external forces which give someone
a reason to think one way or another. Throughout history, the general attitude toward immigration has changed
drastically. In the late 19th century, there were many anti-immigration acts and movements against the
movement of immigration. In our current society, our nation has become more and more open to the idea of
ethnic peoples coming to America. There are six major reasons for the influx of immigrants into the United States
in our current society, which include labor market competition, cultural affinity, generalized cost-benefit
consideration, health of the economy, social and political alienation, and isolationism. In relation to these
theories on the influx of immigrants, it relates directly to the current Arizona law. The new Arizona law would
make the failure to carry immigration documents a crime and give the police more power to detain anyone who
they suspect to be in the United States illegally. This gives the police force too much power and this law should be
revoked immediately.

               Session 4b: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 216
                 Anti-metastatic effect of mifepristone upon known aggressive cancer cell lines
                                            BREEANN BRANDHAGEN
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Carlos Telleria

For most cancers, it is metastasis and burden of the secondary tumors that eventually lead to mortality,
accounting for nearly 90% of cancer-related deaths. The process of metastasis is a highly organized mechanism
involving interplay between cell detachment, migration, invasion, and adhesion at a secondary site. Metastasis is
heavily dependent upon changes in cell morphology by cytoskeletal rearrangements. Previous work in our
laboratory has demonstrated that mifepristone (MF) inhibits ovarian cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. More
recently we determined that MF also arrested cancer cells from different tissues of origin: prostate, breast, brain,
and bone. Not only was cell growth inhibited by MF treatment, but cells also displayed drastic changes in
morphology. Due to observed MF-induced changes in cell morphology, and the significance of cell structure in the

                                                         57
metastatic process, we proposed to study whether those structural changes could negatively impact metastasis.
Cancer cell lines of the ovary (SK-OV-3), breast (MDA-MB-231), prostate (LNCaP), and brain (U87MG) were
selected for this study. After cells were exposed to vehicle or MF for 72h we characterized the morphological
changes, as well as the distribution and level of expression of cytoskeleton proteins actin and tubulin. We also
tested the capacity of cells to adhere to several components of the extracellular matrix, and the ability of cells to
migrate and invade. Interestingly, MF induced a similar morphology change in all cell lines; however, upon
removal of MF, cell morphology and proliferation returned to normal in all cell lines expect LNCaP. MF caused a
decrease in cell adhesion to various extracellular matrix substrates and accelerated trypsin-induced detachment.
Also, MF significantly inhibited the ability of cells to migrate in both scratch and Boyden chamber assays. This
study suggests that MF could be used therapeutically to impair metastatic spread.

                               Endometriosis - Development of an In Vitro Model
                                                 ABHA J. CHALPE
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Kathleen Eyster

Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease in which the lining of the uterus, the endometrial tissue, escapes into
the peritoneal cavity, where it implants and grows. Work from our laboratory has shown that a significant number
of genes associated with the inflammatory response are up-regulated in the endometriosis tissue compared to
normal endometrium. This project has been designed to test the hypothesis that up-regulation of inflammatory
genes, interleukin 8 (IL8) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), stimulate the progression of an in vitro model
of endometriosis. Our previous work has shown that there is communication between endometrial stromal cells
(ESCs) and monocytes and ESCs and macrophages which supports our hypothesis that monocytes and
macrophages secrete factors that support the development of endometriosis. Hence endometrial stromal and
epithelial cells, as well as monocytes and macrophages, are included in the development of our in vitro model of
endometriosis. This in vitro model will use the highly vascularized chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a fertilized
chicken embryo. In the in vitro model, a 3 dimensional collagen matrix (scaffold) for cell culture will be seeded
with stromal, epithelial in the absence and presence of monocytic cells and will be placed on the CAM of the
chicken embryo. The invasion, migration and growth of cells on the CAM will be monitored. Further experiments
will involve pre-treatment of the cells seeded in the scaffold with inflammatory cytokines and/ or hormones to
decipher the specific mechanism of development of endometriosis-like lesion in this model. The results to date
show that the scaffold seeded with cells can be placed on the CAM, the cells from the scaffold invade the CAM,
and the scaffold can vascularize on the CAM forming an endometriosis-like lesion. Thus the preliminary data
support further development of this model for studying early stages of endometriosis.

               Effects of metabolic and mitochondrial-targeted compounds on ovarian cancer cells
                                                 DANIEL K. CHAN
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Keith Miskimins

Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all the gynecological cancers in the United States, and is highly
resistant to current forms of treatment. Metformin, a type II diabetes drug, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC),
a component of cruciferous vegetables, were examined for their effects on ovarian cancer cell growth. Although
the exact mechanism of both drugs is not known, both have been found to inhibit complexes within the electron
transport chain (ETC). We examined the effects of these compounds in vitro to evaluate the potential of electron
transport chain inhibitors as novel therapies for ovarian cancer.

To assess cell growth and death, hemacytometry with trypan blue exclusion was used in the ovarian cancer cell
lines: SKOV3, OVCAR3, CAOV3, and PA-1. Induction of apoptosis was measured by Western blotting for intact and
cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Western blotting was also used to determine endogenous levels of
enzymes responsible for clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Levels of mitochondrial ROS production were
measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy using the fluorescent probe MitoSOX.
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Metformin treatment was found to induce cell death in PA-1, arrest growth in OVCAR3 and CAOV3, and slow
growth in SKOV3. PEITC treatment induced cell death through apoptosis in all tested cell lines at low micromolar
concentrations. Low expression levels of anti-oxidant enzymes were found to correspond with higher sensitivity to
metformin and PEITC. Additionally, levels of mitochondrial ROS increased with treatment. Metformin’s inhibitory
effects were partially reversed when growth medium was supplemented with succinate to bypass complex I.
PEITC’s apoptotic effect was reversed by addition of N-acetyl-cysteine, an ROS scavenger.

Metformin and PEITC both show potential as ovarian cancer therapies. Additional work is warranted to
determine the precise role of mitochondrial ROS and ETC inhibition in the anti-cancer effects exhibited by the
drugs of interest.

                          Identification of Estrogen Responsive Genes in Atherosclerosis
                                               MICHELLE LYNN CLARK
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Kathleen Eyster

Observational studies have revealed a pleiotropic effect of estrogen on the vasculature especially when
atherosclerosis is present. Microarray analysis of plaques from atherosclerotic vessels treated with estrogen
showed several candidate genes that may respond to estrogen. Six genes were significantly upregulated in
samples from the atherosclerosis model mentioned above. A bioinformatics program called the DNA Pattern
Finder program, developed in the Computer Science department at the University of South Dakota, has shown
that these genes have estrogen response elements (ERE) and AP-1 sites within their promoter regions which can
bind activated estrogen receptors. This bioinformatics data was then used to design cell culture experiments
testing these six genes response to estrogen treatment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were
treated with varying concentrations of 17߭estradiol for 24 hours. mRNA from these experiments was extracted
and purified and gene expression changes were measured using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase
polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Secreted frizzled-related proteins 2 and 4 were not expressed in this cell line.
The four other genes measured showed no response to estrogen. HUVECs only express estrogen receptor beta,
therefore we can speculate that if these genes are estrogen sensitive it is through activation of estrogen receptor
alpha.

                        The Role of Cellular Iron Metabolism in Breast Cancer Treatment
                                               MICHELLE A. PHILLIPS
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Keith Miskimins

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. Although breast cancer incidence
rates continue rising, the mortality rates, especially in developed countries, are declining. This is due to earlier
detection and improved treatment therapies. We are currently studying cell lines derived from human breast
cancer patients. We have found that these lines respond differently, in terms of growth and survival, to current
and potential cancer therapy drugs, specifically metformin and Doxorubicin (DOX).

DOX is an extremely effective chemotherapeutic drug that has been used for many years in the treatment of
several types of cancer. Serious and often fatal cardiotoxic effects are associated with DOX treatment,
necessitating dosage limitations. DOX is thought to form harmful complexes with iron that are especially
damaging to cardiac cells. The only drug currently used to combat the cardiotoxicity of DOX is an iron chelator,
dexrazoxane.

Iron plays an essential role in several cellular processes and metabolic pathways and must be tightly regulated by
cells in order to maintain proper function. Nearly all types of cancer cells have been shown to have alterations in
iron regulatory mechanisms.
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Metformin is an anti-diabetic, biguanide class drug prescribed mainly for the treatment of Type II diabetes.
Metformin has been shown to have anti-cancer effects against certain, but not all, breast cancer cell lines. It has
also been suggested that metformin may have cardio-protective effects.

Preliminary data indicate that iron levels as well as levels of certain proteins involved in cellular iron metabolism
differ in these cell lines and that manipulating these levels can potentially alter responsiveness to both metformin
and DOX.

              Session 4c: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center 216A
                                 Luminescent Sensor for Detection of Mercury (II)
                                        VINOTHINI BALASUBRAMANIAN
                                      Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Andrew Sykes

Heavy metals are responsible for many health related problems, and are a serious threat to the environment and
aquatic life. One of the highly toxic heavy metal ions is mercury ion in the +2 oxidation state (Hg2+), and it is
accountable for numerous environmental and health related problems. Mercury pollution is considered a serious
global problem, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates annual global mercury emissions
from all sources, including natural and human-generated reaches nearly 7500 tons per year. Fluorescence
techniques have emerged as a powerful tool for sensing and imaging trace amounts of metal ions because of the
potential for high selectivity, sensitivity, and real-time monitoring capabilities. Mechanisms for detection of metal
ions based on fluorescence changes include both “turn-on” and “turn-off” modes. We are working to improve the
sensitivity and selectivity for mercury ion detection using “turn-on” sensors. Here we report the synthesis of a
novel sensor molecule made from 1,8-oxybis(2-bromoethyleneoxyethyleneoxy)-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-
aminomethylnapthalene in presence of NaI and Na2CO3, that shows a fluorescence response and greatest
selectivity for Hg(II) ion in organic solvents. Purification, characterization and selectivity studies are the key
content in this project.


                   Solar Light Energy Materials: Attempting to Solve the Worlds Energy Crisis
                                               LUTHER MAHONEY
                                      Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Ranjit Koodali

Currently, the world is consuming fossil fuels at an alarming rate. Increasingly, petroleum has become an
expensive commodity. Therefore, the world’s economy will greatly suffer from inability to obtain reliable energy
sources, and, more importantly, the environment might potentially be irreversibility damaged from excessive CO2
emissions, thereby causing climate change. Koodali’s group conducts alternative energy research in an attempt to
address the energy crisis. The water-splitting materials (catalysts) synthesized, involve sol-gel chemistry to
incorporate transition metal ions into framework positions of silica matrix. Sol-gel synthesis uses an aqueous
solution that involves the following reagents: surfactant, alcohol, base, and silica precursor. This synthesis
method causes the active transition metal ions to form in framework positions within the silica structure. The
resulting materials potentially could split water into hydrogen and oxygen under sun-light conditions. Structural
characterization of the metal-doped mesoporous silica material has been completed using powder X-ray
diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen (N2) surface area and pore volume analysis. These characterization methods reveal
if the desired silica structure formed and dispersivity of the active transition metal species. Solar light
measurements have been completed with UV-VIS lamp with glass filters and Gas-Chromatograph (GC) to analyze
the gaseous products in water-splitting experiments. Hydrogen evolution mechanism in these materials noted to


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be occurring by formation of electron-hole pairs, otherwise known as excitons. Finally, the present research work
hopes to develop catalysts that split water under visible-light.

                    Room Temperature Synthesis of Ti-MCM-48 and Ti-MCM-41 Mesoporous
                     Materials and Their Performance on Photocatalytic Splitting of Water
                                                   RUI PENG
                                    Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Ranjit Koodali

Global energy consumption is increasing dramatically. An International Energy Outlook report published in 2009
suggested that energy demand will grow by as much as 44 percent in the period 2006 to 2030. It is indispensable
for us to explore a clean and reproducible energy source to maintain sustainable development of humans.
Hydrogen is considered as a suitable alternative for the conventional energy sources since it is non-polluting and
has great potential to be used for transportation purposes in fuel cells. Fujishima and Honda reported that TiO2
photoelectrode can be used to split water under UV-light irradiation in 1972. Since this report, hydrogen
generation from photocatalytic decomposition of water has attracted significant interest. In our current project,
we have successfully synthesized Ti-MCM-48 and Ti-MCM-41 mesoporous materials and we have demonstrated
that these materials can be used as photocatalysts to generate hydrogen from photocatalytic splitting of water.

                  Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutant Using Titania-Silica Materials
                                         SHIVATHARSINY RASALINGAM
                                     Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Ranjit Koodali

Environmental pollution is of great concern since it impacts the quality of life and poses significant health risks. In
particular, organic pollutants that are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic chemicals are responsible for several
diseases. Many industries release their waste into the aqueous environment that may be transported to water
sources. In this research work, we are exploring the feasibility of degrading a model organic pollutant, phenol by
an advanced oxidation process called photocatalysis. In our approach, a composite photocatalyst, titania-silica is
used as the photocatalyst. The degradation of phenol is followed by monitoring the Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
content and also by Liquid Chromatograph (LC) studies and the kinetics of the disappearance of phenol and the
identification of photodegradation product(s) are monitored. Several different titania-silica catalysts have been
prepared and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction studies, nitrogen adsorption, and diffuse reflectance
spectroscopic studies. Our LC studies suggest that phenol forms hydroquinone, hydroxy hydroquinone,
benzoquinone, and/or hydroxy benzoquinone as intermediates depending on the photocatalyst employed. Almost
complete degradation of phenol is achieved in 3 h and the activity of these catalysts is similar to that of titania.

                    Synthesis and characterization of perfluoroalkylated 1,10-phenanthroline
                                 ligands and its zinc complexes for stable DSSCs
                                             USHA K. TOTTEMPUDI
                                      Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Haoran Sun

Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was introduced by Drs. Michael Graetzel and Brian O. Regan two decades ago.
These are gaining grounds in the research area as highly important renewable energy alternatives to conventional
energy resources. Remarkable improvements have occurred by overcoming many problems of DSSCs. Conversion
efficiency of DSSCs employing ruthenium dyes have strikingly reached 11%. One of the major problems yet to be
addressed is dye stability. This aids in preventing its degradation and leaching providing long term stability and
enhanced efficiency of the cell. The main purpose of my research focuses on synthesis of new dyes to improve the
long term stability of DSSCs. By making a dye superhydrophobic, one can prevent the de-absorption of dye by
moisture. Appending perfluoroalkyl chains to the dye is expected to give superhydrophobicity and oleophobicity.
The electronic properties of perfluoroalkyl group (Rf) is similar to CF3 group, a stronger electron withdrawing
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substituent than fluorine. The HOMO, LUMO energy of dye molecule can be tuned by varying the number and
position of perfluoroalkyl groups. By employing copper mediated perfluoroalkylation technique, three
perfluoroalkyl substituted phenanthrolines were synthesized and characterized in Dr.Suns lab namely a) 5-
perfluorooctyl-1,10-phenanthroline b) 3,8-diperfluorooctyl-1,10-phenanthroline and c) 3,5,8-triperfluorooctyl-
1,10-phenanthroline from their bromo analogues. The synthesis of respective perfluoroalkylated 1,10-
phenanthroline zinc complexes will also be discussed in my presentation.


          Session 4d: 9:00 am - 10:40 am - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
                      "bare" The process of creating a concert benefit performance event in
                             support of gay rights awareness and The Trevor Project
                                                JESSIE ATKINSON†
                                          Theatre, College of Fine Arts
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Priscilla Hagen

From discovering the show "bare" by Jon Hartmere and Damon Intrabartolo to putting on a one-night only
concert benefit performance in coordination with Student Theatre Co-op, 10% Society, and CoffeeLoft.Org. The
process in making this happen has been long, but so meaningful and full of worth to everyone involved. We will
talk about the process of putting up this kind of performance, as well as including a preview of a few musical
pieces from the production.

                      Building the Fight: The Role of Fight Director as a Storyteller
        MAGGIE CONLEY†, BRIAN MULDOON, MARCUS LANGSETH, LINDSAY QUALLS, PATRICK BEASLEY
                                      Theatre, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Eric Hagen

What is the role of a Fight Director? What goes into choreographing violence? How can violence tell a story? This
presentation will examine the Fight Director's role and how violence is choreographed. This will be done by
deconstructing the Hamlet/Laertes fight as it was performed in U. Theatre's production of "Rosencrantz and
Guildenstern are Dead."

                       Sacred in the Vernacular: A Devotional Song from Medieval England
                                                    CODY PERK
                                            Music, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Tracelyn Gesteland

This presentation will focus on an English song of the early thirteenth century, "Ar ne kuth ich sorghe non." In
addition to examination of its historical context, the song will be analyzed in terms of its music, text, and themes.
The presentation will reveal the song to display characteristics common to the music of its day, express sacred
and devotional themes in sophisticated language, and offer significant linguistic and historical interest, especially
as regards its anonymous author. The songs significance will be shown with reference to its indication of fervent
devotional trends in the literary and musical culture of medieval England that were not confined to the Latin
language and thereby cultivated the literary use and value of English.




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         Session 5a: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
                  From the Page to the Stage: “Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead”
 DAVID MANCINI, JAY SEEVERS, CODY JUTTELSTAD, DEVON MUKO, MAGGIE CONLEY†, ANTHONY PELLECCHIA
                                      Theatre, College of Fine Arts
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Eric Hagen

This panel will discuss the behind the scenes work that happens to take a play from text to performance. Each of
the presenters worked in one of the areas needed to bring the play to life. These areas include directing, designing
and fight choreographing. Each will talk about their process to approaching this dense and theatrically full text.
Examples of where the project began and how it evolved into finished performance will be shown. It is an
examination and celebration of the work done on a piece before the actors are hired and the audience enters the
theatre.


          Session 5b: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A

               Blind Agents and Bearers of Cultural Ideals: Women in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
                                                KATLYNN BECK
                                      English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Emily Haddad

The concept of the binary opposition of the sexes has been used exhaustively in analysis of Joseph Conrad’s 1902
novella Heart of Darkness. Alys Eve Weinbaum, in particular, has suggested that the male/female dichotomy is
representative of the antagonistic relationship between culture and nature in the text, and that the abstract
“heart of darkness” central to Conrad’s story should be considered both savage and female.

However, Conrad's female characters are far more representative of culture than nature since, within the text,
they are the bearers of cultural values and ideals within their respective societies. The women of Heart of
Darkness embody cultural values and ideals because these are projected upon them by their own societies. These
values become glaringly obvious in the literature of the era, and both Sarah Stickney Ellis's instructional text The
Women of England and Coventry Patmore’s “The Angel in the House” reaffirm the Victorian values projected
upon and enacted by the characters of Marlowe’s aunt and Mr. Kurtz’s intended. These include sweetness,
tenderness, unworldliness, innocence and of course submissiveness. The cultural values of Kurtz’s African consort
can only be drawn contextually.

These cultural values, once projected upon the women, must be protected—and this is accomplished in the text
in two ways: First, by confining the women within the domestic realm and second, by keeping the truth of the
outside world from them (blinding them to cultures and occurrences outside of their own domestic sphere). By
actively blinding upper-class Victorian women to knowledge of the outside world, the men of Heart of Darkness
are able to create a domestic realm in which they can perpetuate their own culturally constructed values while at
the same time demonizing those of the African cultures that they colonize.




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             Conjunction Junction, Linking Function: Tutor Collaboration within the Writing Center
                                     LARA C. CARLSON, AMANDA K. ZALUD
                                       English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Michelle Rogge Gannon

Writing Center literature frequently examines the collaborations between student and tutor; however, little to no
research exists on the benefits of collaboration between tutors during sessions. Initially, interactions between
tutors seem counterproductive or at the exclusion of the writer, but, on further examination, tutor-tutor
interaction provides more benefit to the writer than working with a single, isolated tutor. When a writer works
with one tutor, the writer only benefits from one tutor’s experience. However, when another tutor is asked to
provide feedback on a particularly difficult passage, the writer is exposed to another point of view. Tutors come
from different backgrounds with different styles of writing and tutoring-so each tutor focuses on different aspects
of writing, has an individual way of structuring a session, and brings unique solutions to the work table. Working
with more than one tutor enables a student to access the diversity that makes a Writing Center strong.
Furthermore, the tutors benefit from forging stronger relationships, getting help with difficult sessions, and being
exposed to their fellow tutors individual methods/experiences. Yet, this is not to say each session should have two
tutors present-rather, the opportunity to briefly consult another tutor should be considered if available. Having
two tutors lead a session would be to the detriment of the writer, and, as the Writing Center always serves
writers, two tutors would be unacceptable. One tutor needs to be able to run a session, with the secondary tutor
providing help as requested by the primary tutor. Largely ignored and often unconsidered, collaboration between
tutors could serve to strengthen future Writing Center sessions and experiences for everyone involved.

                               The Subaltern in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness
                                                  TYLER KLATT
                                       English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Emily Haddad

Joseph Conrad’s 1899 book Heart of Darkness portrays the Congo while it was being colonized by Europeans. The
group, headed by Charles Marlow, is heading to meet up with Mr. Kurtz, who is an ivory trader. Throughout the
journey, the darkness of the Congo begins to have drastic effects on the colonizers. The colonizers begin to fear
the darkness, which leads them to act violently toward the darkness and the natives. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
1988 article “Can the Subaltern Speak?” analyzes the concept of the subaltern, which helps to illustrate the way
the colonizers act while in the Congo. The subaltern, according to Spivak, is someone is not able to have their
voice heard and is unable to know their conditions. The subaltern is also “irretrievably heterogeneous” (Spivak
26).

These two works pair together when considering the interaction between the colonizers and the environment
which they are in. The colonizers are taking over the environment, making the environment their subject. The
colonizers equate the wilderness with the natives, meaning that the environment is hostile, wild, and untamable.
The colonists believe they are in control of the environment around them; however, it is actually the environment
that is controlling them. The colonists fear the darkness that surrounds them because of its silence and ever-
present threat of violence. The colonists become the subaltern when they lose the ability to know their conditions
in comparison to the darkness around them.

Gabrielle McIntire points out that “at no point in the text are the colonists themselves identified with the Belgian
Congo” (261). This lack of identification by the colonizers is what keeps the Belgians and the natives
heterogeneously distinct from each other, which is important in analyzing how the colonizers interact with the
environment.




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                   “For Bynderes Love Ich Neveremo”: Rereading the Romance of Torture Porn
                                            CHRISTOPHER LOZENSKY
                                       English, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: John Dudley

Composed between 1295 and 1310 CE, the Middle English romance Havelok the Dane tells the story of the
eponymous king of Denmark and England. In so doing, it records the only example in English of “bynderes,” a
term used to express contempt for thieves who bind their victims with physical restraints. Anxieties about the
vulnerability of bound bodies permeate the text, culminating in protracted depictions of physical torture. The
ways in which these torturous sequences are infused with images culled from popular entertainment invite a
reconsideration of the medieval romance within the context of contemporary “torture porn.” Torture-tainment is
the overarching theme of Eli Roth's films Hostel and Hostel: Part II, both of which construct the enjoyment of
performing and watching torture as a modern medievalism. By focusing on representations of race, gender,
sexuality, and violence, rereading the romance of torture porn through Havelok and Hostel enables a timely
critique of a story we seem bound to tell.

               Session 5c: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 216
                                   On the Dynamics of Quadratic and Cubic Maps
                                                 DOUGLAS DAILEY
                                  Mathematical Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Catalin Georgescu

The goal of one-dimensional dynamics is to understand the qualitative behavior of maps from a compact set of R
(denoted by I) to itself. Precisely, for an element x in I, we are interested in the trajectories, or iterations, of x. In
particular, an extreme importance is given to the existence of points x for which there is a minimal natural
number n such that f^(n) (x) = x, called periodic points of period n. Their existence is closely related to the so-
called chaotic behavior of the map. Here we use Devaney's definition according to which a map f is chaotic if the
union of periodic points of f is dense and f is transitive. Since the required abundance of periodic orbits is a
condition for chaotic behavior, maps having orbits of period three are definitely worth studying due to the
celebrated Sarkovskii's theorem which then guarantees orbits of any period.

The dynamics of quadratic maps depending on a parameter has been extensively studied in mathematical
literature, and it is well understood not only in terms of the values of the parameter when the system is chaotic,
but also in terms of its symbolic dynamics and conjugacy with tent type maps. The present research starts by
investigating a particular case of the less-understood bimodal case (two critical points), precisely the dynamics of
f(x)= -x^3+cx. In this project, we find values of c for which f has an invariant compact interval, analyze the nature
of equilibria, and prove the existence of period 2 orbits. Then, we prove that there is c_0 such that when c > c_0, f
has period 3 orbits, hence orbits of any order by Sarkovskii’s Theorem. Finally, we investigate kneading theory in
the quadratic case in order to understand how one may calculate the entropy of a cubic polynomial.

                      Controlling Plague Among Prairie Dogs: An Inter and Intracolony Model
                                                  STEPHANIE REED
                                 Mathematical Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dan Van Peursem

Prairie dogs, once abundant across the Great Plains, are now faced with Sylvatic Plague - known as Bubonic Plague
in humans. Though prairie dogs are sometimes seen as unnecessary nuisances, the once thought extinct Black
Footed Ferret has successfully been reintroduced into western South Dakota. The Black Footed Ferret feeds
almost exclusively on prairie dogs; however, if the prairie dogs are dying, the Black Footed Ferrets are losing prey
and risk the chance of contracting the disease as well. Studies show fleas are the main transmitter of the disease.

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By scaling logistic differential equations of prairie dogs and fleas, we were able to find four equilibria: (1) Trivial,
(2) Only healthy prairie dogs, (3) Only healthy prairie dogs and healthy fleas, and (4) Coexistence of healthy and
plagued prairie dogs and fleas. By controlling the death rate of the fleas by increasing it using pesticides, one is
able to see and obtain the equilibrium points. After studying the transfer of disease within each colony, the
transfer of disease between two separate colonies is modeled using the basic logistic growth models and adding a
transfer parameter based on distance. Two sets of equations are used to see how the two colonies interact. Using
the model, it is possible to see how fast plague can transfer from one colony to another and how far apart two
colonies need to be in order to be isolated from one another.

                                  Mathematical Ecology: How to Control a Pest
                                           MICHAEL ALVIN ROBERTS
                                 Mathematical Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jose Flores

We will present a mathematical model for the biological control of a pest. The idea is to introduce a parasite to
control the pest which is damaging the crop. The outcomes will then be analyzed using a mathematical model. I
will present the possible outcomes to this model using differential equations. Specifically, I will use the Nicholson-
Bailey model to look at the interactions between the host and parasite species populations over time. Using
simulations created by the computer programs Maple and MATLAB, I will run several scenarios, such as changing
the initial host and parasite populations, as well as the interaction coefficients. I will graph these outcomes and
show the relationship between time and population of host and parasite. With the data given by this research, the
user can decide the optimal amount of parasites to release to get the best reduction in the pest population, and
therefore save your crops.

                  The Recognition Problem in One-Dimensional and Planar Dynamical Systems
                                            MADELINE J. SCHRIER
                               Mathematical Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Catalin Georgescu

This work is devoted to the problem of finding polynomial vector fields with a prescribed, structurally stable
behavior. We will first show a solution in the one-dimensional case in which, given a configuration on the phase
line, we can realize this configuration with a one-variable differential equation having a polynomial vector field.
We also show that such polynomial vector fields will generate solutions with vertical asymptotes and we give an
example of a non-polynomial vector field having the same equilibria with the same nature, but a different
behavior at infinity. The higher dimensional problem is formidable, with the planar quadratic case solved
relatively recently. We first address the problem of writing polynomial vector fields in plane with a given number
of limit cycles. For this we use an argument due to Artés, Dumortier and Llibre and generate hyperbolic periodic
orbits in any position. The disadvantage of this method is that the degrees of the polynomials involved are quite
large, creating tremendous problems from a representation point of view. If one completely neglects limit cycles,
the work done to complete the classification of quadratic structurally stable vector fields spans several decades.
We will present some of the investigated cases as they appear in the compact setting of the Poincaré plane. As a
graphing tool, we use the software P4, which not only allows this compact representation, but also is capable of
describing the nature of equilibria, both in the real plane and on the boundary of the Poincaré disc, and
numerically searches for separatrices.




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             Session 5d: 11:00 am - 12:40 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
  The Effects on Motor Development in a Child Exposed in utero to Methamphetamine: A Case Study Report
                           MELISSA BECKSTROM, HEIDI STROBUSH, LORI AMICK
                               Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Lana Svien

Background and Purpose: Methamphetamine use in the United States is increasing, especially among pregnant
women. Understanding the mechanisms of methamphetamine and its effects on children born to women who
abuse the drug is essential. The purpose of this case study report is to describe the motor development of the first
four years of life of a child exposed in utero to methamphetamine. Case Description: The client is a 4 year- 4
month old female who was exposed in utero to methamphetamine, based on confirmation of methamphetamine
in the meconium. The client was placed into foster care and subsequently adopted as an infant by the foster
parents. She received developmental tests and measures since infancy in order to identify her level of
development and determine qualififcation for early intervention services. Outcomes: Birth records,
developmental pediatrician reports, early intervention records were reviewed. The client received early
intervention services since birth (PT, OT, SLP). On norm-referenced standardized performance of gross motor
skills, the standard deviation for motor skills on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale at 4 months was -1.93. On the
Battelle Developmental Inventory-2, the standard deviation declined from -.53 at 4 months to -1.53 at 3 years 6
months and motor control impairments were noted (i.e. hypotonia, incoordination). Standard deviations of fine
motor skills also declined during the first four years of life. This case study report suggests that methamphetamine
may have an impact on the motor development of a child exposed in utero. Discussion: The findings of this case
study report suggest a relationship between methamphetamine exposure in utero and subsequent delays in
motor development. Further investigation is warranted.

                    Comparative Analysis of Weighted Vests and Weighted Shorts on Power
                      Production in Strength Training Practices of NCAA College Athletes
                                             CARTER JACOBSON*
                             Kinesiology and Sport Science, School of Education
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Andrew Shim

Power is defined quantitatively as force multiplied by velocity. Power production is a major aspect of most sports,
whether it is horizontal, vertical, upper body, or lower body power. By the use of Strength Training, athletes can
convert strength to power, and they must be able to do it in the most efficient way possible. My problem
question focuses on the correlation of strength training with a weighted vest or weighted pants to the
improvement of lower body power production. The hypothesis of my research study is: "Weighted pants when
used in a Strength Training Program increase Lower Body Power Production more than Weighted Vests". To
disprove my null hypothesis, that weighted vests increase lower body power better than weighted pants, I will
conduct an experiment involving eighteen NCAA college athletes. Three individuals will wear weighted vests,
three will wear the weighted pants, and three will wear no device and be the control group. The groups will
consist of nine volleyball and nine football players. Each group will be administered similar workouts with the
same general format. Tier system training involves a total body workout that incorporates scientific background of
training that optimizes athletes' potential. Each group of athletes will be in the summer offseason training
regimen which consists of three days of strength training and two days of running, plyometric, and agility training.
This study will comprise of the athletes wearing these vest/pants for four weeks of summer offseason training. A
pre-post test analysis of the Margaria-Kalaman test will be used to measure the study. Limited research has been
done in regards to the use of weighted pants and vests, including in particular the use of weighted pants in
conjunction with strength training. The results of this study could enhance the training practices of coaches
worldwide.


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Assessing Various Body Composition Measurements as an Appropriate Tool for Estimating Body Fat in National
                     Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Collegiate Athletes
                      AMANDA TROST, ALICIA VERHULST, RENAE KEPPEN, ROB LYNDE
                                 Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Pat Cross

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine if various cost affordable body composition measurements
are adequate for measuring body composition in female college athletes when compared to the BOD POD.
Methods: Thirty-two Division I track and field and basketball female athletes participated in the study. Within one
hour, all subjects underwent body composition assessments via waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI),
BOD POD, skinfold measurements, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Results: No significant differences
were found between basketball and track athletes and data was normalized. Per Pearson correlations, moderate
correlations existed between body fat percentages obtained by BOD POD and BMI (r=.531) and between BOD
POD and skinfold (r=.689). Low correlations existed between WHR and percent body fat estimated by BOD POD
(r=.403), as well as between body fat percentages estimated by BOD POD and BIA (r=.447). Conclusions: Results
indicate that the skinfold technique had the highest correlation when compared to the BOD POD. Skinfold
measurements may be used as a quick, affordable, and reliable technique when performed by an expert assessor.

                                Conservative Treatment for Urinary Incontinence
                             ELIZABETH WOODRUFF, JILL RASMUSSEN, NICK LIMING
                                  Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Becca Jordre

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition making the identification of a successful
intervention critical. There has been extensive research into the Kegel (K) method for treating urinary
incontinence but there appears to be insufficient evidence in the literature to support resisted hip rotation (RHR)
exercises despite their widespread implementation by clinicians in the treatment of UI. PURPOSE: Our aim is to
compare the effects of RHR to the K approach for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We hypothesize
that RHR exercises are at least as effective as K exercises for the treatment of SUI. METHODS: Ten eligible subjects
with SUI were randomly assigned to either K or RHR. The intervention lasted six weeks with weekly rechecks.
Subjects performed either K exercises or RHR exercises for approximately 5 minutes, twice per day. Exercise logs
and voiding diaries were completed by subjects on a weekly basis. The Urogenital Distress Index (UDI) and
Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) were utilized to assess quality of life (QOL) at evaluation, week 3, and
week 6. RESULTS: Ten subjects were screened for participation. Nine subjects were eligible. Five subjects were
assigned to the K intervention group and 4 were assigned RHR. One subject in the RHR group withdrew after
week 2. All remaining subjects have reported improvement in their symptoms. Percent improvement in the K
group ranged from 4-90%. In the RHR group improvement ranged from 20-100%. QOL measurements show
improvement in both groups. It is still to be determined whether this improvement shows any statistically
significant different between groups. Subject recruitment is ongoing. More results with further statistical analysis
will be completed prior to IDEA fest. CONCLUSION: This ongoing randomized clinical trial suggests that
conservative exercises can be effective for treating SUI. Preliminary results suggest that RHR exercises are at least
as effective as traditional K exercises. Further statistical analysis with additional subjects will determine any
statistical significance of these results.




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        Session 6a: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 216
                Nationalities Affect on the Labor Market: Are Immigrants Really Taking Our Jobs?
                                            AMANDA NADINE BARTON
                                      Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

My IdeaFest project aims to answer the question "Are immigrants really taking our jobs?" I will answer this
question by looking at the economic and political information regarding immigration. Using economic regressions,
I will analyze how nationality effects wage and if increases in immigration yield subsequent increases in
unemployment, as expected by contemporary propoganda and stereotypes surrounding immigration. I will use
these findings to determine whether the contemporary beliefs of immigration, as presented by media and
politicians, is correct and, if it is incorrect, why false information continues to be spread.

                             An investment analysis of Werner Enterprises, Inc.
                TIM BINDER, BECKY DUNCAN, DAVID JANSSEN, TYLER STEWART, RYAN THIMJON
                                    Finance, Beacom School of Business
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Angeline Lavin

A presentation of equity research and company analysis of Werner Enterprises, Inc. Students from the Beacom
School of Business participated in the Chartered Financial Analyst Institutes (CFA) 2011 Global Investment
Research Challenge (Global IRC). Participating in the CFA Society of Nebraska’s regional Global IRC we were tasked
with making an investment recommendation on Werner Enterprises, a trucking and logistics company
headquartered in Omaha, NE. Our presentation includes a company description, industry overview, financial
analysis, regression of profitability, valuation, investment risks and an investment recommendation. Research and
analysis was conducted following the CFA Institute Code of Ethics and Standards of Professional Conduct.

                     Rural Public Golf Courses & Their Effect on Housing Prices: A Case Study
                              of The Bluffs Golf Course in Vermillion, South Dakota
                                                    TIM CARR
                                      Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                         Faculty/Staff Sponsor: David Carr

The presence of municipal golf courses in rural communities is implicit evidence that citizens and community
leaders alike believe that the benefits of maintaining a publicly subsidized golf course outweigh the costs.
However, anecdotal evidence would suggest that many municipalities either do not possess or chose not to
employ the resources necessary to adequately measure the total costs and benefits associated with their local
golf course or courses. Clearly, the value of golf in a community extends far beyond the revenue or profit
generated by the internal activities of the operation (i.e. green fees and merchandise). An obvious added benefit
associated with golf courses is the premium they generate on the sale price of a property, ceteris paribus. This
research seeks to measure the dollar value The Bluffs golf course in Vermillion, South Dakota generates in the
form of increased sale prices for homes located and sold on the golf course. This research is particularly relevant
and significant given recent reports that The Bluffs has generated a deficit in recent years. Though the golf course
is losing money from an accounting perspective, the course generates added value that while recognized, has
never been measured to date. The Bluffs produces a positive externality for Vermillion in the form of increased
revenue for other local businesses and other non-quantifiable externalities such as public enjoyment and
potentially less mischief and crime from young golfers. Equally significant but more pertinent to this study, the
golf course generates measurable added market values in the form of increased sale prices for homes adjacent to
the course. Consistent with previous research findings from other cities and counties in the United States, this
study hypothesizes that, golf course frontage in Vermillion, South Dakota, ceteris paribus, significantly increases
the sale price values of homes adjacent to the golf course.

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               Session 6b: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
                       The Rise of the Republican Party in the 1850’s and Bleeding Kansas
                                                  TRAVIS MOTHS
                                   Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Smith

This research paper attempts to establish whether the Buchanan administration’s unwillingness to stay the
original course they had promised to territorial Governor Walker had the effect of splitting the Democratic Party
and providing the Republicans the necessary boost to propel them into the great victory of 1860. The possibility
exists that this is not a single issue matter and this research is open to the possibility that more than one factor
may have contributed to the Republican’s rapid rise to power. It is believed that through thorough analysis of the
Kansas issue the truth will become clear. Through analysis of newspapers from across the country, journals, and
other primary sources it may be possible to gauge what kind of affect the sparsely populated territory of Kansas
had upon the fate of the Republican Party in its early years.

                           Strategies in National Security: Handling Sub-National Units
                                         CATHERINE VIVIANA QUINONES†
                                   Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Shane Nordyke

U.S. national security is shaped by the informal fractionalization of nations into many culturally and thematically
diverse sub-national units. A lack of communication between these units and the country in which they reside
may be one of the primary drivers for a growth in more extensive domestic and international security
policies. Globalization, migration, and new technology additionally combine to create the conditions necessary for
these sub-national units to play an important role in nation-state policy. Many different ideologies and private
agendas coupled with vast opportunities makes drafting a standard policy of security extremely difficult. Thus,
learning how to assess and address threats posed by non-state actors is a priority in domestic and international
security. Addressed in this thesis are some of the most pressing national security questions regarding how
agencies define sub-national units, identify the risks they pose, and develop strategies to diminish those risks. This
thesis will examine the security strategies employed by government, specifically in the state of South Dakota, as
well as how those strategies may affect the degree to which sub-national unit threats can be mitigated before
they rise to difficult or unmanageable levels.


           Session 6c: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center Ballroom A
                                          Moroccan Politics
           BEN HAUSMAN, AMANDA SCHACKOW, SARAH AKER, DANIELLE KNUTSON, MORGAN PECK
                            Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                              Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Smith

What is the state of Moroccan politics in a year of turmoil in the Middle East and North Africa? Students on this
panel spent twelve days in Morocco in January as demonstrators hit the streets in Tunisia and Egypt. On their
return, each explored a different facet of Moroccan politics to understand its relative stability as nearby nations
erupted in demonstrations, its political history, constitutional architecture, the relationship between Islam and
politics and its economy. What emerged is a series of fascinating papers that represent the status of Moroccan
politics today.




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        Session 6d: 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A
          Exposure to repeated amphetamine alters stress-related neurotransmission in the rat brain
                                              JEFFREY L. BARR
                           Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gina Forster

Corticosterone is an adrenal steroid hormone released in response to stress. The monoamine neurotransmitter
serotonin (5-HT) also has increased activity following stressful stimuli and is regulated by corticosterone.
Serotonergic neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus, a brain region involved in mood states, facilitates
adaptation to stress, and reduced hippocampal serotonergic transmission in response to emotional stress is
associated with heightened anxiety.

Amphetamine increases corticosterone levels, and chronic amphetamine use reduces 5-HT levels in the
hippocampus and increases anxiety states during drug withdrawal. Therefore, alterations in corticosterone-5-HT
interactions in the hippocampus following chronic amphetamine exposure may contribute to anxiety during
withdrawal.

Consequently, we determined the effects of chronic amphetamine on corticosterone receptor expression in the
hippocampus and corticosterone-induced serotonergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of rats. Adult male
Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, ip.) or saline. Following two weeks of
daily injections, corticosterone receptor (mineralocorticoid receptors or MR and glucocorticoid receptor or GR)
levels in the hippocampus were measured by western blot. In a separate group of rats, in vivo microdialysis was
used to infuse corticosterone into the hippocampus and the serotonergic response was measured.

Chronic amphetamine treatment reduced GR receptor expression in the hippocampus. In saline treated rats,
corticosterone infusion (200-2000 ng/ml) into the hippocampus increased 5-HT release in this area. This response
was mediated by GRs since the effect was abolished by the GR antagonist mifepristone (10 mg/ml). Also, chronic
amphetamine pre-treatment abolished 5-HT release in the hippocampus in response to stress levels of
corticosterone (200 ng/ml) and reduced the 5-HT response to extraphysiological levels of corticosterone (2000
ng/ml) compared to controls. These findings suggest that chronic amphetamine treatment decreases the
expression and function of GRs in the hippocampus, resulting in reduced stress-hormone generated 5-HT release,
which may contribute to the increased anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal.
Support: NIH P20 RR15567 (COBRE) & R01 DA019921

                Adult medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens amphetamine-induced
                            dopamine release following adolescent social defeat
              ANDREW R. BURKE, ANDREW M. NOVICK, CHRISTINA L. ROBERTS, MICHAEL J. WATT
                           Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gina Forster

Final maturation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems occurs during adolescence, and exposure to social stress
during this period results in behavioral dysfunction and is correlated with substance abuse disorders. Using a rat
model, we have shown that males exposed to repeated social defeat in adolescence exhibit increased conditioned
place preference for amphetamine in adulthood. Given the essential role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine
in amphetamine responses, we investigated the effects of social defeat in adolescence on adult amphetamine-
elicited NAc dopamine release. We also examined medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine responses to
amphetamine, as we had previously found that adolescent social defeat decreased mPFC dopamine content in
adulthood, and mPFC dopamine activity is known to mediate behavioral and NAc dopamine responses to
amphetamine. Rats were exposed to social defeat once per day for 5 days (P35 to P39), with controls placed in
empty novel cages at matched times. In early adulthood (P60), amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg, ip.) or saline injections

                                                       71
were administered with locomotor activity observed for 90 min. Two days later, rats were anesthetized,
microdialysis probes were implanted into the mPFC and NAc core, and amphetamine-induced dopamine release
was measured using HPLC. For rats that were exposed to adolescent social defeat, there was a greater degree of
adult amphetamine-induced locomotion, and attenuated amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the mPFC
compared to amphetamine-receiving controls. Overall, these data suggest that adolescent social defeat may
cause blunted mPFC dopamine responses to amphetamine in adulthood, which may be related to enhanced
amphetamine-induced locomotion. Support: NIH P20 RR15567 & NIDA RO1 DA019921.

                     A combination of transcription factors regulate the spatially restricted
                          expression of cadherin-7 in developing neural epithelium
                                              MANEESHI PRASAD
                                      Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Alicia Paulson

Cell adhesion molecules such as cadherin-7 play an important role during embryonic development. The expression
of cadherin-7 is spatially restricted to the lateral neural epithelium (progenitor domains p0, p1 and p2) during
early neural development and in migrating neural crest cells. This spatially restricted expression of cadherin-7 is
potentially regulated by multiple signaling inputs. To understand the role of these signaling inputs, we initially
screened for regulatory regions in the cadherin-7 gene locus to identify the putative promoter region. The
cadherin-7 promoter was identified to be active in the whole neural epithelium requiring additional regulatory
modules to regulate the promoter activity to the lateral neural epithelium. To identify additional regulatory
modules, we analyzed evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in the cadherin-7 locus. The regulatory
module was identified in an evolutionarily conserved region of 606 bp (ECR-1) that together with cadherin-7
promoter recapitulates the endogenous cadherin-7 expression. Deletion analysis of ECR-1 revealed a 19 bp
sequence that is essential for the enhancer activity, while two separate sequences of 10 bp and 12 bp are found
to be essential for the silencer activity in the dorsal and ventral neural epithelium. There are several conserved
transcription factor binding sites in the enhancer and silencer sequences that might be regulated by an intricate
network of transcription factors involved in neural tube morphogenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation
and gel shift assays, we have identified four transcription factors, RXR, Nkx6.1, HNF3 FoxD3, that are bound to the
ECR-1 regulatory region. These transcription factors are transcriptional activators and repressors that might
regulate endogenous cadherin-7 expression. Based on these data we propose a cadherin-7 gene regulatory
network for different progenitor domains in the developing neural epithelium.

                Session 7a: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 216
                                            Heterotopias and the City
                                                 JAYMEE HARVEY
                                          Painting, College of Fine Arts
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Julie Schlarman

Michel Foucault first introduced the term ‘heterotopia’ in 1967. He identified the term with places and institutions
that interrupted everyday life in it normalcy and continuity. Foucault called theses spaces ‘heterotopias’ meaning,
‘other spaces,’ and named examples such as schools, military service, brothels, prisons, museums and fairs.
Heterotopia’s have since become a source of inspiration and theory in urban design. The heterotopia is at the
crossroads of conceptual maps that shape public space today. Nowhere is this more evident than in the city. The
concept is based in human geography that function in non-hegemonic conditions. Therefore heterotopia’s create
‘other spaces.’ These ‘other spaces’ are seen in the example of a doorway, or a created all encompassing airport.
The systems included in the cityscape as a heterotopia are spatial devices that are used across the globe in urban
planning. The easiest way to understand and apply the heterotopia is to systemize the concept by relating it to
the categories of space within the city. A heterotopia therefore becomes a category of space; it has its own


                                                        72
openings, closings, its own prohibitions and facilitations. This then brings up criticism of space, especially within
the architecture of the city.

                                 An Exploration in Understanding the Human Form
                                                   MARCI SMITH
                                          Scuplture, College of Fine Arts
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Julie Schlarman

Throughout history, a most prominent subject in art has been, and continues to be, the depiction of the human
form. Approaches have varied from true representation to extreme abstraction. While some artists choose to
idealize the figure, others stylize it in order to achieve the perfection of beauty. When the human form serves as a
control, the variations in which artists approach intent, concept, and style can be more easily identified. An
understanding of the objective human form is important because it allows an artist freedom to employ a more
informed, intentional subjective concept.

In a meticulous manner, Leonardo Da Vinci related the proportions of the figure to geometrical forms, and
executed proportional relationships in a mathematical fashion. Another approach, as illustrated by Kiki Smith, is a
less precise process of deconstructing the body to acknowledge the significance of the functional individual
pieces. Smith repeatedly broke down the structure and through a process of trial and error had gained what she
refers to as an “authority” of the form. After finding formal solutions through deconstruction, she then
reconstructs the form with a deeper understanding of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Thorough
knowledge and understanding of the subject is important in order to dive deeper into conceptual development
and exploration of materials. A strong understanding and personal perspective of one’s subject matter is
important because it empowers the artist to freely create; problems concerning formal issues have been
previously solved, creating the opportunity for new issues to be addressed.

                                Regression: The Work and Research of Cody Spiegel
                                                   CODY SPIEGEL
                                              Art, College of Fine Arts
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Chris Meyer

This presentation is based on my ongoing research and current body of work in the field of sculpture. The
presentation will contain photographs of my work, other artists' work that I have found while researching my
thesis, and research into the natural world and primitive technologies that have greatly influenced the
construction of my thesis. My current body of work came from a need to experience a more simple life. The work
addresses my anxieties and frustrations with my modern existence and my desire to live a more primal lifestyle.
This need to be self-reliant in the natural world and the forms that I have found in nature have influenced the
production of these pieces. My work has always had one common element, the relationship between man with
nature. I now see that my work was not only about man's relation with nature, but also my own relationship
within the natural world. I feel a need to connect with nature, to live a more essential lifestyle. Using a
combination of natural materials and found objects, my aesthetic is equally industrial and agrarian. The two
different materials work together in the piece to create a cohesive whole, working together to complete the idea
and form. The work that I have produced is in many ways a manifestation of myself. The use of primitive
materials and forms symbolize the life that I want, while the found, industrial materials are reminiscent of the
modern western society that I am apart.




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                                       Art Collectors and Artists: The Business
                                                KELSEY VAN GERPEN
                                         Anthropology, College of Fine Arts
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Julie Schlarman

Art collectors, dealers and museums no longer view works of art as beautiful, fascinating creations but as a
financial investment. Their focus is on the monetary value of each artistic work. No longer do they see a work of
art, instead they see dollar signs. This is creating a shift in the world of art. Collectors have the financial power to
outbid museums stripping the public of the ability to appreciate art that have created headline for their monetary
value to get people through their door. Art dealers now have the main influence in changing an artist's career.
This shift has had the most prevalent impact in the artist. Artists resent the market economy and the degree to
which art works are acquired not just in merit but on merit of status. Unfortunately, for the artist if they want to
survive in the world of art they need to create works that will sell instead of having the ability to create anything
that desire. The economic power of the art world is forcing people to lose sight of the true meaning of art.

               Session 7b: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 216A
                Rgg mediated regulation of virulence associated genes in Streptococcus pyogenes
                                        SRIVISHNUPRIYA ANBALAGAN
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Michael Chaussee

Streptococcus pyogenes is a human specific pathogen that causes diseases ranging from self-limiting pharyngitis
to more severe necrotizing fasciitis. Rgg of Streptococcus pyogenes is a transcriptional regulatory protein that
affects the expression of genes associated with virulence, metabolism, stress responses, and prophage excision.
Inactivation of rgg caused changes in the expression of 706 genes, including the virulence-associated genes
encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), pullulanase (PulA), streptodornase (Spd-3), and mitogen
factor-1 (Mf-1). Rgg binds to DNA proximal to the speB promoter to activate transcription; however, it is not
known if Rgg binds the promoters of other genes to influence their expression, or if changes in expression
associated with the mutant are due to the perturbation of other global regulons. To address this issue, chromatin
immunoprecipitation followed by microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) was used to identify the DNA binding sites of
Rgg. The results indicate that Rgg binds to sixty-five sites on the chromosome. Thirty-five of the sites were within
non-coding DNA and 43% of these were adjacent to genes previously identified as being regulated by Rgg. The
binding sites included DNA upstream of the virulence associated genes encoding SpeB, PulA, two secreted
nucleases (Mf-1, Spd-3), a transcription regulator (SPY49_1113), and two prophage genes encoding an integrase
(SPY49_0746) and a surface antigen (SPY49_0396). Rgg binding in vitro was assessed by electrophoretic mobility
shift assays for 6 selected targets (speB, pulA, spd3, Spy49_0746, Spy49_0396, and Spy49_1113). Rgg bound to all
the targets indicating that the results from in vivo studies could be reproduced in vitro using purified
macromolecules. Moreover, analysis with a transcriptional reporter fusion system confirmed that Rgg regulated
the expression of all six promoters. Overall, the results indicate that Rgg directly controls the expression of
several genes associated with virulence and genes encoded by temperate bacteriophage.

  Identification of chromosomal mutations linked to resistance to the PSK toxin Fst in Enterococcus faecalis .
                                           CASSANDRA BRINKMAN
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Keith Weaver

The first and only antisense RNA-regulated post-segregational killing (PSK) system described in gram positive
organisms is found on the pAD1 plasmid of Enterococcus faecalis. Designated par, it encodes RNA I and RNA II,
which act as the toxin (Fst) mRNA and the antitoxin regulatory RNA of the system, respectively. Fst translation
from RNA I is inhibited in pAD1-containing cells by interaction with RNA II. However, in plasmid-free segregants

                                                           74
the less stable RNA II is degraded and Fst is translated, killing the cell. The target of Fst or the manner in which it
acts has not yet been determined. Previous work in our lab has shown that expression of Fst due to plasmid loss
leads to death of the E. faecalis host cell. In an effort to identify the source of Fst toxicity, sequencing of OGIX and
Fst resistant OGIX M7 mutant was conducted. The results of the sequencing showed two genes which were
mutated in either OGIX or M7 cells. The two genes mutated encode a response regulator named EtaR and the β’
subunit of RNA polymerase, RpoC. The genotypes of all three cell lines were: OGIX, etaR mutant; M1, WT etaR;
and M7, WT etaR and rpoC mutation. In order to identify the effects of these mutations and possibly identify
targets of the Fst toxin, mutagenesis and cell morphology studies were performed. Knockouts of EtaR were
constructed in M1(2005K) and M7(2005K) using an allelic exchange method. M1(2005K)ΔetaR showed sensitivity
to Fst at levels similar to that of OGIX which is in accordance to our hypothesis. M7(2005K)ΔetaR showed a very
slight decrease in resistance to Fst, indicating that the RpoC mutation is critical in maintaining resistance to Fst in
M7. Cell morphology studies indicate that EtaR plays a role in abnormal cell morphologies seen in M1 and M7
cells.

             Lung histopathology of H3N2:GAS super-infection limited by vaccine-induced immunity
                                             FRANK P. DEPAULA‡
                            Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Evelyn Schlenker

Influenza virus infections can predispose humans to secondary bacterial pneumonia, contributing to "excess
mortality" during influenza epidemics and pandemics. The H3N2 strain of influenza virus has frequently been
associated with excess morbidity and mortality. S. pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is a key gram-positive
pathogen that significantly contributes to influenza secondary complications. Since previous research suggests
vaccination against influenza virus can limit secondary infections; the broader research project hypothesizes that
H3N2 vaccine-induced immunities can limit the development of H3N2:GAS super-infections. Using
histopathological scoring criteria, this study characterized lung tissue from influenza (H3N2) infected mice with
subsequent bacterial (GAS) infection. Mice were treated with PBS and allantoic fluid (Vehicle) or vaccinated with
either inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). Viral infection without vaccination
caused mice to experience significant weight loss. Mice treated with IIV or LAIV survived H3N2:GAS super-
infection at a significantly greater percentage compared to unvaccinated control mice, inoculated with PBS and
allantoic fluid (Vehicle). Unvaccinated mice recovered body weight after viral and bacterial (GAS) challenges at a
slower rate than vaccinated counterparts. Decreased body weight indicative of increased illness corresponded to
higher lung pathology scores. On day 0, there were no significant differences in body weights between vehicle
control (n=4) and vaccinated groups (n=6). However by day 7, a significant difference in body weights between
groups (lower in the unvaccinated versus vaccinated groups) illustrated the protective effect of H3N2 vaccine-
induced immunity on limiting the complications of H3N2:GAS super-infection. Histopathological scores correlated
significantly (P =0.007) with loss of body weight after bacterial challenge (GAS). Thus, this double-blind histological
scoring method may be useful in ascertaining the magnitude of lung inflammation in mice.

        Creation of a Chimeric Hemagglutinin H1N1 Glycoprotein for Vaccination Against Influenza Virus
                                           KARA LEAH MCCORMICK
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Victor Huber

Influenza is a negative sense RNA virus of the Orthomyxovridae family, and it is responsible for 200,000
hospitalizations annually and 36,000 deaths (Thompson, et al). Currently vaccination is the best method of
control for this virus, however its continual antigenic variation, creates a challenge for vaccine development. The
hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein expressed at the viral surface plays a dominant role in virus attachment and
entry, and is the most frequent target of vaccine efforts. Previous studies demonstrated that a vaccine that elicits
broad immunity within an influenza A virus subtype (H3N2) can be generated using multiple antigenically distinct
HA antigens within that subtype(Huber, Thomas, & McCullers, 2009). Based on these findings, we have developed
the hypothesis that a single HA expressing antigenically distinct epitopes from a number of influenza A viruses
                                                           75
within a subtype (H1N1) could elicit broad reactivity toward both human and swine isolates of this subtype.
Specifically, we will incorporate DNA shuffling techniques in which DNA fragments of parental genes will be
molecularly bred for genetic evolution. To test our hypothesis, five distinct HA glycoproteins have been selected
for inclusion in our HA chimeras based on their H1N1 clade representation, including both human and zoonotic
strains. Chimeric HAs will be tested in mice for breadth of immunity induced using viruses created through
reverse genetics technology that express individual HAs from representative virus isolates. Upon selection of a
chimeric HA construct, a recombinant protein will be generated for vaccination of pigs. Cross reactivity between
different strains of both human and swine origin viruses, examined by HA inhibition assays, allows us to recognize
which strains are most related and which strains show the greatest antigenic differences. This project was
designed to prove the concept that a novel, broadly protective HA antigen that induces immunity toward both
swine and human influenza A H1N1 viruses can be created.

        Session 7c: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge
                                        Policy Analysis in Our Community
  KELLI BULLERT, JOSHUA BALDWIN, LINDSEY DORNEMAN, STEPHANIE GRUBA, MELISSA JOHNSON,
  LEAH KOBES, DAMON LEADER CHARGE, MALENE LITTLE, CATHERINE QUINONES, JANE REASONER
                                    Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Shane Nordyke

This semester long project requires students to identify a community/university problem that needs to be
addressed. They then work with the affected public to determine and define the goals and desired outcomes of a
policy solution. Using the tools they have learned in this class they develop a research plan for evaluating three
articulated policy alternatives according to specified objectives, collecting the evidence necessary, and
communicating the solution to vested interests and policymakers.

            Session 7d: 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm - Muenster University Center 211/211A

                      A Rawlsian Revitalization of Gewirth’s Normative Structure of Action
                                           BRENDAN (BO) FOX PONS†
                         Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Vaughn Huckfeldt

One important aspect of ethics is the attempt to defend morality from relativity, skepticism, and nihilism with the
use of absolute moral principles. Alan Gewirth’s text, Reason and Morality, attempts to provide a normative
argument justifying certain fundamental moral principles. If Gewirth’s argument is valid, morality can be
developed out of the basic structure of action, an approach which would be able to overcome opposing
metaethical stances. However, contemporary philosophical literature exposes a critical flaw in the second stage of
Gewirth’s argument for moral normativity. The literature contends that Gewirth’s work fails to create agent-
neutral moral claims in order to justify acting morally. In order to provide a transfer of interests between agents,
the solution to Gewirth’s problem, I argue that the Rawlsian concepts of the original position and the veil of
ignorance are not only consistent with, but also buttress Gewirth’s argument to such a degree that agent-neutral
claims can be made. I argue that if one is able to engage in Gewirth’s dialectically necessary method surrounded
by the veil of ignorance, Gewirth’s argument succeeds. I also show how Gewirth’s critical comments of Rawls
ought not prohibit my unification of Rawlsian concepts with Gewirth’s supreme principle of morality.




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                                Identification Guide for East Asian Bamboo Flutes
                                              KENDRA VAN NYHUIS‡†
                                             Music, College of Fine Arts
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dr. Deborah Check Reeves

The National Music Museum at the University of South Dakota is home to more than eighty bamboo
flutes from Eastern Asia. Since most of these flutes had only been given cursory labels like "bamboo
flute", the opportunity presented itself to develop a method that could be used to produce accurate and
detailed labels quickly and efficiently for any flute from Eastern Asia whose instrument name was
unknown. A review of literature helped me gather information on what characteristics defined the
instrument types and helped determine what labels the instruments should be given. As the flutes were
cataloged, my labels were further refined based on features I observed on the actual objects. My labels
continued to be tested as more flutes were studied affirming most of the names and types. Through this
process I was able to develop a system whereby a person untrained in Eastern Asian flutes could, with
certainty, tell instrument types apart. At the end of my research I created a simple to follow flow chart
identification guide based on the defining characteristics of these bamboo flutes. Included were
methods of playing, length, number of finger holes, number of nodes, type of bamboo, and other
construction details. The chart contains nineteen common flutes originating in the countries of Japan,
China, and Korea. An included supplement to the identification chart is a packet containing descriptions
of each instrument along with its uses and cultural ties in its country of origin. My research and the
resulting flow chart can be used to help simplify the cataloguing process of Eastern Asian bamboo flutes
at other museums and private collections.

                                      The American School Band Movement
                                             JENNIFER NEWBERRY*
                                            Music, College of Fine Arts
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: David Moskowitz

The history of the American School Band Movement is the result of many factors. How did it begin? How did the
movement spread within the United States? What were the most substantial contributing factors to the
movement? In order to address these pressing questions, research was conducted utilizing dissertations, major
music education journals, and Leblanc archival materials located at the National Music Museum in Vermillion,
South Dakota. This research demonstrated that the industrialization of American society, the first National Band
Contest, the involvement of music instrument manufacturing companies, and the influence of MENC: The
National Association for Music Education all had a significant impact on the propagation and development of the
band movement in the United States. The research is reflective of the importance of music in American culture,
education, and identity.

                         Germany’s RAF: From Political Curiosity to Failure by Terrorism
                                                   JOSH LACEY
                         Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Istvan Gombocz

It is important to study a political group’s beginning and end, but it is as important or even more important to
study all of the events in between, as such an inquiry provides a bridge from the original objective to the desired
outcome. Often, the end of a group’s life proves most interesting as it may be found that its initial goal was not
accomplished and its failure may have been a direct result of flawed methods. The Red Army Faction, or RAF, was
an organization stemming from the German student movement of the late 1960s, which lost its ability to enact
political change through its move to violent terrorist action. Its use of violence turned the government and
                                                        77
people of Germany against them, resulting in the arrest of its three main members and some of its followers, and
stalling all progress it had made. Since the RAF has since been dissolved, I will be asserting that it had a flawed
methodology when it foolishly resorted to violent action.

                                                  Leading Online
                                         JOYA WEIR, MATTHEW BALLARD
                                   Political Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Matthew Fairholm

Burns and Bass define leadership as relational activity which is either transactional or transformational.
Transactional leadership is characterized by a mutual exchange of valued goods or services rather than the people
themselves. Transformational leadership involves a people-oriented process in which both leader and follower are
elevated to greater levels of morality and achievement. As a product of rapidly developing technology, two
distinct relationship types have emerged; relationships can be considered as either offline or online. The at home
workplace as opposed to office setting is an organizational trend infiltrating workplaces in various industries. As
younger adults who have been immersed in a technologically progressive environment enter the work force,
more individuals may desire to work online. This paper analyzes the potential correlations between preferred
relationship and leadership types which could aid organizations in structuring successful present and future work
environments.


        Poster Session 2: 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm - Muenster University Center Main Floor
                                                  Poster 1
       Evaluation Of Multimedia Training Modules For Employees Working With Adults With Disabilities
                                            CARRIE ANDERSON
                      Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of multimedia training modules designed to train
support staff who work with adults with developmental disabilities. By examining an employee’s perceived ease
of use and perceived usefulness, we were able to identify if the online training module was beneficial to
employees who assist adults with disabilities. This study was measured through a survey developed specifically
for each multimedia training module. Outcome measures of perceived ease of use and perceived ease of
usefulness showed that respondents felt training modules were useful and easy to use. Other possible factors
were evaluated as well.

                                                      Poster 2
                  Inhibition of influenza virus of the H3N2 subtype by innate serum inhibitors
                                                   KEVIN CWACH
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Victor Huber

Each year influenza viruses are associated with approximately 3-5 million illnesses and 250-500 thousand deaths
worldwide. Vaccination is our most reliable method of prevention against influenza virus infection, but despite
decades of vaccine research, correlates of protective immunity have not been universally defined. Additionally,
the microneutralization and the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays can be complicated by the presence of
innate serum inhibitors of influenza virus. To determine the presence of specific antibodies, sera samples are
routinely treated with purified neuraminidase from Vibrio cholerae, which acts as a receptor-destroying enzyme
(RDE), followed by heat-inactivation (HI), prior to analysis in immune assays. My investigation seeks to understand


                                                        78
the role of these innate factors in influenza virus interactions, with specific interest in alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2-
M), a heat-stable, heavily sialylated protein that is naturally present in serum at a concentration of 2-4 mg/mL.
                                                        Poster 3
                                  My Own Nature: A Study of Creation in Sculpture
                                                     TOM DAHLSEID
                                            Sculpture, College of Fine Arts
                                          Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Chris Meyer

This presentation is based on ongoing creative research done in regards to a particular body of work in sculpture
dealing with creation and control; specifically, the role of the artist as a creator of objects and a perceived attempt
to improve upon nature. The ideas are not presented in a negative way, but as a playful exploration of how
natural forms, materials, and textures may be embellished, modified, or improved. Creation or modification is an
important part of the world we live in. Increasingly, more power has been given to the individual through
technology and with that comes a personalized sense of control. Through my research resulting in this current
body of work, I am attempting to relate these ideas from my personal experience to the viewer.

                                                    Poster 4
             Preparation and Optical Properties of Silver Nanowires and Silver-Nanowire Thin Films
                                              JOSHUA M. DOORN
                                     Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: P. Stanley May

Silver nanowires have attracted a great amount of attention because they have extensive applications in surface-
enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhance florescence (SEF). Silver nanowires were synthesized by a
facile solvothermal approach. Different concentrations of PVP were used to investigate the effect of PVP on the
growth of the silver nanowires as well as optical properties by AFM, TEM, HRTEM and absorbance spectrum
analysis. Thin films of silver nanowires [(PAH-PSS)3PAH-Ag]n were fabricated by Spin-Assisted Layer-by-Layer (SA-
LbL) method. Absorbance spectra were measured to study the changes of optical properties of thin films in UV-
Vis-NIR range as a function of layer numbers n.

                                                  Poster 5
                                            Texting While Driving
                          SAMUEL GASTER, MELISSA JOHNSON, GABBY MAY-SHINAGLE
                                   Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                              Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Cindy Struckman-Johnson

The present study seeks to both build upon and further clarify the status of texting while driving as it exists within
our society. Specifically, the relationship between a set of variables identified by the researchers and the driving
behaviors of participants is examined, with the intention to survey the factors that promote and sustain texting
while driving despite pervasive awareness of its associated impairments and dangers. Likely, clearer
conceptualizations of the text-messaging driver and more appropriately informed efforts to reduce this dangerous
driving will be implicated by the present research. This investigation then, can be imagined as seeking to fulfill two
separate, but largely parallel, goals in the effort to appropriately address the issue of texting while driving within
our contemporary society. Accompanying a contextual survey of the text-messaging driver, the specific correlates
assessed within the questionnaire include confidence in ones driving skills, cell phone attachment, friendship
potential, need for affiliation, impulsivity, and proclivity for risk taking. It is expected for results to be in
accordance with the general findings of previous research, whereby a number of elements contribute to ones
motivation and decision to engage in texting while driving. More precisely, though, it is hypothesized that a strong
positive correlation will exist between participants scores on the included measures and their texting while driving
behavior. Given the recent availability of this study to participants, a thorough data analysis has yet to be
completed. However, preliminary findings will accompany the presentation of this study at the 2011 IdeaFest
Celebration.
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                                                     Poster 6
                                  Analysis of Dust Sources in Western Nebraska
                                                ZACHARY IRVINE
                                    Earth Science, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mark Sweeney

Recent provenance studies of the Pleistocene Peoria Loess implicates the White River Group as a primary dust
source, while the Holocene Bignell Loess may have a large component of silt reworked from nearby dunes and
sand sheets. We used the Portable in situ Wind Erosion Lab (PI-SWERL) to test the emission potential of dust
sources from dry washes, braided streams, dunes, and exposures of White River Group and Pierre Shale in
Nebraska. Dry washes, braided streams, and dunes had the potential to produce large volumes of dust. Silt-rich
White River Group bedrock produced limited dust unless reworked into fluvial systems. In this case, the
availability of saltating sand (including White River Group aggregates) resulted in large dust emissions. The Pierre
Shale produced surprisingly high amounts of dust on weathered exposures. Small aggregates of the Pierre Shale
were easily entrained at lower wind speeds and continuously broken down allowing for high dust production.
Sand dunes, despite containing <5% silt and clay, are relatively large emitters of dust because of saltation that
liberates dust particles; however, dunes are not as large emitters compared to fluvial sources. Our work
complements conclusions of previous research regarding sources of loess. Mechanistically, during more arid
climates with lower vegetation density, all landforms tested have the potential to generate dust. Weathered
bedrock, especially the White River Group (incorporated into fluvial sediment) and Pierre Shale which cover large
areas upwind of the loess, are potentially large dust sources.

                                                     Poster 7
                                         Safety In the Science Classroom
                                                 KAYLA KONKOL‡
                                         Education, School of Education
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Cathy Ezrailson

Safety in the science classroom is essential to providing a positive learning environment and is unfortunately a
major obstacle most teachers face. Safety education is the responsibility of all members in the learning
community, particularly students and teachers since they encounter safety issues on a daily basis. This research
project is oriented to help teachers overcome safety obstacles in the classroom by looking at various research
articles and textbooks regarding best practices. Articles were examined to determine best practices regarding
safety instruction, facilities management, and chemical storage. The result of this project will be a safety
handbook that will serve as a reference guide for teachers who may not feel adequately prepared to provide a
safe learning environment for all students.

                                                    Poster 8
   Factors Related to Employee Retention in Mental Health Treatment Provided in a Juvenile Justice Setting
                                  REBECCA L. MATLOCK*, TERRANCE COOMBS
                       Clinical Psychology Training Program, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

The purpose of the current study is to provide an organizational and management overview of factors related to
employee attrition and retention in the field of mental health treatment, with specific focus on the area of mental
health treatment provided in juvenile justice settings. Qualitative analysis of this question will be conducted via a
phenomenological approach that includes in-depth interviews with several long-term employees in a mental
health and juvenile detention setting. The interviews were designed to elicit each employees perceptions of the
benefits and drawbacks of working in his/her specific position in a mental health setting, as well as factors that
have influenced him/her to remain in his/her current position. Based on similar research in detention and

                                                         80
residential mental health facilities, it is predicted/surmised that employees will report staying in their current
positions because of several factors, including finding their jobs personally rewarding, feeling connected to their
coworkers, and lacking employment alternatives.

                                                     Poster 9
                                        Los Cabos Childrens Foundation
                               COLLIN MICHELS, SADIE HANSEN, EMILY STRUCK
                         Languages, Linguistics, & Philosophy, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Kristine Djerf

USD students had the unique opportunity to partner with the Los Cabos Children’s Foundation (LCCF) who is
headquartered in Sioux Falls, SD, and Los Cabos, Mexico. The mission of LCCF is, “to provide medical, educational
and humanitarian assistance to the children, their families and supportive organizations of the Los Cabos area.” In
order to accomplish their mission LCCF sponsors the Amy & Vince’s Fred Duckett Challenge in Los Cabos, Mexico.
This is their main fundraiser which in the first year raised $1.5 million dollars, and allows them to accomplish their
mission. USD students have been asked to work for the Amy & Vince’s Fred Duckett Challenge, and in return they
will receive an emersion experience with the local Mexican community via the affiliate organizations of Los Cabos
Children’s Foundation. Students were involved in hands-on activities with various organizations in order to
understand the needs of the people who live in the Los Cabos area. This trip allowed students to experience
firsthand how the money raised from the fundraiser is used to help those in need. This opportunity showed
students how international organizations can make an impact on poverty and living conditions of those less
fortunate. Students also had a firsthand account of the extreme lifestyles that exist in Mexico, both extreme
wealth and extreme poverty. Students practiced their Spanish speaking abilities while interacting with local
Mexicans.

                                                    Poster 10
                                    AWOL 2011: Arches National Park, Utah
        ALI ORTIZ, ERIK JUNSO, MOLLY LONG, MEAGHAN LOOS, ALLISSA VANMEETEREN, JESSICA WARD
                     Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Karl Reasoner

Arches National Park preserves over 2,000 natural sandstone arches and canyons, like the world-famous Delicate
Arch, as well as many other unusual rock formations. While the creation of the park may have been a success of
the early conservation movement, this natural wonder faces continued threats, including mining, pollution, water
conservation, forest restoration, vegetation, and invasive plants. Participants had the opportunity to work with
the Bureau of Land Management and an organization called Trail Mix to to help blaze new a new trail for tourists,
as well as help with maintenance on other trails in the park to prepare this national wonder for the thousands of
tourists who will visit this summer.

                                                     Poster 11
                                      Enclaves: An Econometric Examination
                                                LORENA REICHERT
                                      Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

Labor economics and international trade have a special focus for immigration. The effectiveness of ethnic
enclaves in that role toward economic efficiency requires more examination. The prevalence of ethnic enclaves
throughout the United States brings concern among citizens who view America as a melting pot. Assimilation
rates for new immigrants may not be as high for those whose cultures have a strong ethnic network. Also,
immigration rates, legal and illegal, will be considered as a consequence of strong ethnic networks. The economic
implications of enclaves will be examined using econometric methods with a focus on elements such as race,

                                                         81
geographic region, and socio-economic comparisons. Data will be gathered from the federal government and
examined using the program, Stata.

                                                     Poster 12
                                          Weight Lifting and Steroid Use.
                                          DAN REXWINKEL, CODY ULVEN
                                      Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

Steroid use is prevalent in today’s society. With a growing population becoming more and more concerned with
their image, steroids provide a quick and easy way to acheive the “perfect figure.”Using the Econometric method
called Regression Analysis, our study strives to show the correlation between the amount a person goes to the
gym and steroid use. By subjecting people to anonymous survey, with numerous other variables relating to
physical fitness, we hope to show the relationship between the amount someone goes to the gym and the
likelyhood of that person actually using steroids. Our study is not meant to hinder the use of steroids, however it
attempts to put into perspective the contributing variables that may lead a person to use steroids.

                                                  Poster 13
                     Comparison of quantitative PCR techniques to detect chytridiomycosis
                                              ALICIA SCHIEFFER
                                     Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jake Kerby

A decline in amphibian populations can be seen across the world. The deadly amphibian disease,
chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for these drastic
declines worldwide. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to amplify DNA, in a variety of
applications, including detection of disease, such as chytridiomycosis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most reliable
tool for detecting chytridiomycosis. Unlike traditional PCR, which uses agarose gels for detection at the final phase
of the reaction and gives imprecise qualitative results, q-PCR allows for quantitative estimates of infection level on
a single individual, while also allowing a much more sensitive test. Recently, new technology and chemistry has
been developed to run the qPCR reaction at a faster pace and at a lower cost but potentially is a significantly less
sensitive test. The effectiveness of this new chemistry has yet to be examined using the chytridiomycosis
detection. This study analyzes and compares three different methodologies of qPCR to compare sensitivity and
reliability: a standard qPCR, a reduced volume standard qPCR, and a fast qPCR. Estimated pathogen values from
fifty six verified samples will be compared among methodologies. Sixty one negative samples will also be
examined for consistency of pathogen absence between methodologies. Since chytridiomycosis is a worldwide
cause for massive amphibian declines, and given the potential for a large (50-65%) reduction in chemistry costs, as
well as a 50% reduction in run time, findings from this study will have important implications in methodologies
used across the globe.

                                                  Poster 14
                   Communication Sciences and Disorders - High Viscosity Earmold Impression
                         Material Versus Low Viscosity Earmold Impression Material
                                              KRISTEN STOTT
                      Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The problem is that there are no standards for making earmold impressions across the profession of audiology.
The purpose of this critically appraised topic paper is to determine if there is evidence to support the use of high
viscosity earmold impression material for a 65 year-old male client with a moderate to severe sensorineural
hearing loss compared to a low viscosity earmold impression material in terms of patient satisfaction with the fit.
For this paper I searched for articles that directly related to my research question to use as evidence. I appraised
                                                            82
the evidence I found through my search by using the hierarchy created by the DCOM 787 Research Methods class,
as well as incorporating my own additions to the appraisal that directly related to my patient. I rated each article
using a points system that I used to determine whether an article had poor, medium or strong quality. Results
showed that there is evidence to support the use of high viscosity earmold impression material for my 65 year-old
client with a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss compared to a low viscosity earmold impression
material in terms of patient satisfaction with the fit. There is evidence to support the use of high viscosity earmold
impression material, however there is limited evidence, all provided by the same author.

                                                  Poster 15
          Radon Monitoring and the role of iron oxide at the Homestake Mine for DUSEL Experiments
                                              KEENAN THOMAS
                                     Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dongming Mei

Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the
former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Radon is a potential source of background for sensitive physics experiments
that plan on using the underground facility, therefore a thorough understanding of the radon underground is
desired. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the
continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon
concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft
level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m^3, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon
concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m^3 based on
approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with
average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m^3. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level
underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation,
and are relevant since the mine was allowed to partially fill with water after decomissioning in 2003. Further
emanation tests have been conducted at the University of South Dakota to examine the role of the iron oxide in
the radon levels underground. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning
of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in
relevant areas underground.

                                                   Poster 16
 The Role of Farm Stress, Self-Control, and Motives in Alcohol Use and Problems among Farmers and Ranchers
                                    MICHAEL R. THOMAS*, TYLER B. WRAY*
                                     Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Randy Quevillon

Substance use poses a growing threat to individuals in rural environments and alcohol use disorders are especially
elevated in many rural areas (Lambert, Gale, & Hartley, 2008). Farmers and ranchers may be one subset of rural
residents that is especially prone to problematic alcohol use, due to high rates of occupational and environmental
stress (Rossmann, 2008; Welke, 2002). Several studies have suggested that negative life events may be related to
alcohol use and problems (Wills, Sandy, Yaeger, Cleary, & Shinar, 2001), but that this relationship is moderated by
individual differences in self-control (Wills, Ainette, Stoolmiller, Gibbons, & Shinar, 2008). Work by Wills and
colleagues (2008) has differentiated various facets of self-control, suggesting a two-factor structure for self-
control: Good and poor self-control (Wills, Sandy, & Yaeger, 2002). These factors may be further differentiated,
however, by emotional and behavioral control. For example, poor emotional control has exhibited direct paths to
both negative life events and alcohol problems (Wills, Walker, Mendoza, & Ainette, 2006). Alcohol use motives
may also help explain the relationship between life stress and alcohol use and problems. For instance, negative
life events have been associated with coping motives, which have, in turn, been directly related to alcohol-related
problems. Additionally, poor emotional control has been associated with coping motives in samples of
adolescents and young adults (Wills, et al., 2008). As such, the present research aims to test a model of farm
stress, self-control, motivation for alcohol use and problems in a sample of farmers and ranchers.
                                                            83
                                              Poster 17
                                       AWOL 2011: Chicago
NYAH VANTERPOOL, ERIN HOLTQUIST, JACOB LYNGAAS, DEREK SEELEY, MCKENZIE SHROYER, ANNE TORCZON,
                  CATHERINE VIETOR, ELIZABETH WETERING, MICHELLE WILLIAMS
               Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                              Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Lindy Laubenthal

Experiencing the struggle of being a youth living in urban poverty, having limited positive alternatives, continually
exposed to gang violence and lifestyles, and eating at poverty level are just some of the experiences students had
on their winter AWOL trip to Chicago. While in Chicago, USD students had the opportunity to see the the social
struggles of disadvantaged communities in the third largest city in the US from a different perspective. Working
with BUILD Chicago, REST, ALSO, BUFI-MASH, and the Chicago Police Department students were exposed to
people living on the streets, sheltered homeless, kids living in poverty, and the gang culture. Hear what it was like
to live at poverty level for a week or what it was like to come back home and know the hardships they had left
behind.

                                                     Poster 18
                                     High Purity Germanium Characterization
                                                 NICK WEINANDT
                                        Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Tina Keller

Characterization of high purity germanium crystals is an important part of the crystal growth process. Information
obtained from characterization such as carrier concentration, hole and electron mobility, and the typing of the
samples (p or n type) can be fed back into the crystal growth process to refine growth techniques and better
understand the crystal. Characterization techniques such as resistivity, Hall-effect, Photothermal Ionization
Spectroscopy (PTIS), and Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) have been used or will be used in the near
future. In order to use these characterization techniques, good electrical contact must be used. Contacts can be
established using a Gallium-Indium eutectic or soldering an Indium-Tin mix. Contact techniques and resistivity
measurements will be discussed.

                                                 Poster 19
                                        AWOL 2011: New Orleans
   ALEX WETERING, CASSANDRA CEREMUGA, JACK CLAUSSEN, LUKE FUHRMAN, ALI GRESS, ANGELA LUEDKE,
                        CHELSEA MCKINNEY, MORGAN NELSON, CRISTIN TURNER
                  Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Carly Heard

Over six years after the devastating hit by Hurricanes Katrina & Rita to the US Gulf South, the community of New
Orleans is still struggling to rebuild not only their homes, but their families and communities. A team of USD
students traveled to New Orleans to work with Relief Spark to help rebuild and beautify a playground so children
in the area had a safe place to play. While there, they learned from volunteers who have been on site for longer,
and heard the stories of those still struggling to pick up the pieces and put them back together again. Hear about
the experiences the group had, and their plans to continue to be active citizens.




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                                                    Poster 20
                                 The Prediction of the Outcome of Horse Racing
                                              RICHARD D. ALTENA
                                     Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

I use multivariate regression to analyze data from US horse races. Using variables such as horse number, breed of
horse, color, and track conditions, I estimate the percentage chance that a certain horse and jockey have of
winning an upcoming race. Analysis of these variables through standard econometric techniques provides insight
into whether it is possible to have an edge when placing your bets at the race track..

                                                     Poster 21
                     The Elusive Search for the Mechanism(s) Responsible for the Enhanced
                               Visual Conspicuity of Fluorescent Colored Materials
                                HEATHER BORAH, ERIKA HOLZER, JENNA URBAN†
                                      Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Frank Schieber

Results from previous studies found there was no significant improvement in visual search time when the
background of the target stimulus was unexpectedly changed from a non-fluorescent to a fluorescent color. This
failure to observe an automatic improvement in performance suggests that the enhanced conspicuity of
fluorescent-colored stimuli typically observed in visual search experiments is mediated by goal-oriented (top-
down) mechanisms rather that stimulus-driven (bottom-up) mechanisms of attention. However, another
interpretation is that the subjects quickly learned to “actively suppress”the processing of color information during
the initial phase of the experiments (since color was irrelevant); and, similarly suppressed potential bottom-up
recruitment of attention when the target background was unpredictably switched to a fluorescent color on a later
trial. In an attempt to ascertain the plausibility of this alternative explanation, the original experiment was
replicated under conditions designed to prevent the development of active suppression of background color
information. Rather than randomly vary the background colors of the four search stimuli as done previously, all
stimulus backgrounds were set to “white”during the first 32 trials of the search protocol. On the 33rd trial, the
background colors of the three distractor stimuli were randomly set to red, green or orange while the background
of the searched-for-target (an “up”arrow) was switched to fluorescent yellow-green. If fluorescent-colored
stimuli automatically attract the focus of attention then one would expect a discrete improvement in search time
on trial 33 (relative to the prior stimulus trials). Results obtained from this experiment were both surprising and
informative. Instead of the expected improvement on the critical 33rd trial, a highly significant slowing in search
time was observed (mean slowing = 181 msec). This slowing appears to reflect a “cognitive startle response.” The
implications of this finding for past and future research are discussed.

                                                 Poster 22
              UBXN2A Regulates p53 Localization and Stability through interaction with Mortalin2
                                         DOMINIQUE BOUDREAU†
                          Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Khosrow Rezvani

Cells are regulated by several protein dependent signals. Several processes including a proteasome degradation
machinery and stabilization by heat shock proteins (HSPs), regulates proteins involved in signaling pathways. The
proteasome complex uses a small protein, called ubiquitin to target selective proteins. An ubiquitin is a proteins
ticket to the proteasome complex for degradation. HSPs regulate stability of proteins in response to stress. A
normal cell initiates intracellular death signaling, such as p53 that signals tumor suppressor genes. The regulation
of p53 is crucial in cancerous tissue. Our objective was to unveil the proteins involved in regulating the levels of
p53 in a normal and a cancerous cell. In healthy cell, p53 is regulated with several pathways including proteasome
complex and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) such as Mortalin2 (Mot2). Under stressed conditions, selective proteins
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stabilize p53 in a temporal and spatial manner and enable p53 proteins to stimulate death signals. We found
UBXN2A upregulates in colon and breast cancers. We wanted to determine whether UBXN2A plays a role in
regulating p53 in cancer cells. UBXN2A levels spike because they inhibit Mot2 from binding to p53. As a result, a
free and stabilized p53 protein is able to signal the stressed cell to die.

                                                  Poster 23
                   An Investigation of the Relationship between Gender, Religiosity, and
                                Perceptions of Female Sexual Responsibility
   CLARE J. BUCKLIN, ANDREA D. STRIPLING, NICOLAS R. ALBERS, NATHAN R. LEMASTER, ANDREW W. REED
                                   Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: S. Jean Caraway

In Western culture, holding strong religious beliefs may make one more likely to expect females to have higher
standards of accountability in sexual encounters. The literature suggests that gender may be a salient variable
that affects this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of participants’
identification with religious beliefs and gender on expectations for female sexual behavior as depicted in series of
narratives. Participants for this study filled out demographic surveys that included a question about how
important religion is to them. They also filled out questions based on narratives they read that varied according
to males and females initiating different kinds of sexual behavior. These investigators predict that higher ratings
of importance of religion will be positively correlated with female responsibility ratings, particularly for women.
Results and implications for this study will be discussed.

                                                       Poster 24
                     The Process of Help-Seeking in Mothers of Children with Developmental
                                    Disabilities: A Phenomenological Exploration
                                     LAURA M. BUNNER*, TERRANCE COOMBS
                         Clinical Psychology Training Program, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

Becoming a parent can be stressful, particularly when parenting a child with a developmental disability. Some
parents ease through this transition with little difficulty; other, however experience significant challenges and, at
times, overwhelming levels of stress. A phenomenological approach was used in this study to explore the
experiential understanding and overall process of help-seeking in mothers of children with developmental
disabilities. This researcher conducted in-depth interviews with seven mothers of children (7 years of age or
older) with developmental disabilities regarding their overall experiences with parenting, stress, coping, and
patterns of help-seeking. Two central themes emerged with regard to the overall experience of parenting: the
child becomes ones central life focus, and social disconnectedness occurs. Themes particular to parental stress
and coping included the magnification of parental experiences, lifelong learning, continuous transitions, and
transitions across the lifespan. Emergent themes specific to the process of help-seeking in parents of children
with developmental disabilities included non-help-seeking, a preference for informal help-seeking, and social
connectedness with professionals. These themes were used to develop an invariant structure, or comprehensive
framework for understanding the process of help-seeking in parents of children with developmental disabilities.
The process of help-seeking appears to be heavily influenced and contextually defined by the meanings parents
ascribed to the overall parenting experience, as well as an individuals perceived stress and/or ability to cope at
any given point across the lifespan. By qualitatively exploring the processes parents undergo to recognize the
need for help and to seek that help, perhaps more useful information and services will be offered to these
parents. The findings of this study help to illlustrate the importance of this topic, possibly resulting in additional
research or the improvement/development of resources and service provision for parents of children with special
needs.



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                                                   Poster 25
                  Restorative Care: Current Trends and the Involvement of Physical Therapists
                               JOSEPH BURES, JACKIE IVERSON, PAULA WILLIAMS
                                  Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Becca Jordre

Purpose/Hypothesis: Restorative Care (RC) is emerging as a beneficial program for residents in most nursing
homes (NH), supporting the maintenance and improvement of physical function in elderly residents. Physical
therapists (PTs) are frequently involved in this process. However, a review of current literature fails to show this
involvement. Rather, RC was defined as a program trained, implemented and supervised by nursing professionals.
Our purpose was to determine the actual trends in restorative therapist (RT) training and RC program
development and supervision. We hypothesized that PTs and other rehabilitative professionals contribute more
than the literature suggests. Number of Subjects: Sample size (n=109) was based on the number of nursing homes
surveyed and our return was 56.9%. Materials/Methods: An online survey was created by the investigators with
questions related to RT training, experience, activities, preparedness, as well as the creation, implementation and
supervision of RC activities. The survey cover letter and Web link were mailed and emailed to 109 NH in SD.
Percentages and Chi-Square tests of association were conducted to detect relationships between each variable.
Results: With regard to training, 74% of respondents were trained by a PT, 25% by nursing staff. In contrast, 73%
of RTs reported supervision by a nurse or themselves with only 31.4% supervised by a rehabilitative professional.
The clients RC program was created by a rehabilitative professional 68.8% of the time and by nursing 25% of the
time. The most unexpected trends were found in those with less experience in the field. These individuals were
more likely to report supervision by a nurse (P=.014), were less likely to be trained by a PT (P=.031), were less
satisfied with their instructional material (P=.065), and felt less prepared to provide RC. This same group of less
experienced providers also reported a greater ability to modify the RC program for a client (100%), even without
consultation (62.5%) (P=.004). When consulting was indicated, they were more likely to confer with nursing than
any other professional. In contrast, RTs with more than 6 years of experience reported they were less able to
make modifications at all and would make modifications after consulting with a PT or multi-disciplinary team
rather than nursing (P=.004). Conclusions: While RC is currently described in the literature as a nursing program,
rehabilitative professionals such as PTs are quite involved. There is significant inconsistency in the training,
development and supervision of these programs. Clinical Relevance: Due to the beneficial nature of RC programs
and the vulnerability of the geriatric population affected, more attention should be paid to developing standards
for training, development and supervision of RC. Physical therapists should strive to work more closely with
nursing professionals in order to provide the best care possible to those who might benefit from RC.

                                                    Poster 26
                              Thermal Diffusion of Argon for Dark Matter Detectors
                                                 DANA BYRAM
                                       Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dongming Mei

Argon depleted of Ar utilizing thermal diffusion methods is being implemented in 20 columns at USD. Thermal
diffusion is a well-known technique in isotope separation. The columns are 3 meters long and 0.5 inch in
diameter. This test system will allow us to deplete Ar by a factor of 10 for 1 kg of natural argon over two months.
This would lead to the full-scale production of depleted argon by using more columns that are longer in length.
This depleted argon can then be used as a target material for next generation dark matter detectors. Using an
advanced automation system, we can run our test system continuously to extract the enriched Ar for eventual
measuring at ANL. The interim results of the test system will be reported utilizing the more abundant isotope Ar.
In addition, the current effort for obtaining Ar results will be presented.




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                                                    Poster 27
                             An Econometric Analysis on the Sioux Falls Hotel Market
                                              DREW A. COSAND†
                                     Economics, Beacom School of Business
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Mike Allgrunn

My project will focus on finding what variables affect the hotel market in Sioux Falls, SD to help predict what
future growth may be and to find out what effects this last recession had on Sioux Falls hotel market. The first
hypothesis that I will be testing is to see if the recession had an effect on the hotel market as measured by
profitability and the second one will be if there are long term trends that can help predict the future growth rate,
profitability, occupancy rate or other relative variables. I am approaching this topic by looking at data from the
last ten years to help predict the future and use this data to show what effects the recession had on the market
based on that data. The project will try to find out what effects the last national recession had on our local
economy and, more specifically, the hotels in Sioux Falls.

                                                     Poster 28
                                         CdWO4 and CsI Crystal Detectors
                                                    ALYSSA DAY
                                        Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Dongming Mei

CdWO4 scintillators were proposed for detecting geo-neutrino, neutrinoless double-beta decay, and dark matter.
Here I report on the energy resolution of three different sized CdWO4 crystals for detecting g-rays. The three
crystals all have a diameter of 19mm but have thicknesses of 5mm, 9mm, and 19mm, respectively. When using
the 19mm CdWO4 crystal, the energy resolution of a 137Cs source resulted in 11.4% at 662 keV. A 60Co source used
with the same crystal resulted in 6.5% at 1173.2 keV and 8.6% at 1332.5 keV. As the sizes of the crystal decreased,
a slight deterioration in energy resolution occurred with more Compton scattering in the energy spectrum. A
CsI(Tl) crystal was also used for comparison; this crystal was also 19mm in thicknesses and length. Comparatively,
the CsI(Tl) crystal presented an energy resolution for 137Cs of 12.3% at 662 keV. For the 60Co source, the CsI(Tl)
crystal had an energy resolution of 5.3% at 1173.2 keV and 6.6% at 1332.5 keV. Overall, the CsI(Tl) crystal was
good when measuring low energies in which x-ray peaks were visible with some sources. However, the CdWO4
crystal was more beneficial when measuring gamma-ray energy close to 511 keV that is primary signature from
geo-neutrino detection with 106Cd. Additionally, Compton scattering occurred at a greater frequency when using
the CsI crystal to detect higher energy sources. By initially using a number of smaller crystals, small scale
experiments can be run to develop and understand the calibration of these crystals. This development will help
with future experiments in which larger crystals will be calibrated and possibly used in geo-neutrino, neutrinoless
double-beta decay, and dark matter research.

                                                  Poster 29
    Communication Sciences and Disorders Critically Appraised Topic: Partner Augmented Input to Increase
              Expressive Language in a 14 Year Old Female with a Moderate Cognitive Delay
                                           BRIDGET DE YAGER
                    Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

This poster session will be an overview of the critical appraisal process used in the Communication Sciences and
Disorders and the outcomes associated with that process. The critical appraisal process is a means of assessing a
body of research and its relevance to a particular treatment question or situation. The author will be presenting a
critical appraisal of the body of research in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field that is applicable to
using partner augmented input to increase the expressive language of a 14 year old female with a moderate
cognitive delay. The poster session will explain the appraisal process in depth. Attention will be given to
explaining the criteria used for the appraisal, how the quality of the research was assessed by the author, and
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how the author came to a determination of the relevance of the research to both the treatment and participant
factors.

                                                     Poster 30
                   Identification and functional characterization of three novel alleles for the
                                serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region
                                                   ERIK A. EHLI
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gareth Davies

A promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been reported to confer relative risk
for phenotypes (depression/anxiety) and endophenotypes (amygdala reactivity). In this report, we identify and
characterize three rare 5-HTTLPR alleles not previously described in the human literature. The three novel alleles
were identified while genotyping 5-HTTLPR in a family-based ADHD clinical population. Two of the novel alleles
are longer than the common 16-repeat long (L) allele (17 and 18 repeats) and the third is significantly smaller than
the 14-repeat short (S) allele (11 repeats). The sequence and genetic architecture of each novel allele is described
in detail. We report a significant decrease in the expression between the XL17 (17r) allele and the LA (16r) allele.
The XS11 (11r) allele showed similar expression with the S (14r) allele. A 1.8 fold increase in expression was
observed with the LA(16r) allele compared to the LG (16r) allele which replicates results from earlier 5-HTTLPR
expression experiments. In addition, transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analysis was performed using
MatInspector which showed the presence or absence of different putative TFBSs between the novel alleles and
the common L (16r) and S (14r) alleles. The identification of rare variants and elucidation of their functional
impact could potentially lead to understanding the contribution the rare variant may have on the
inheritance/susceptiblity of multifactorial common diseases.

                                                    Poster 31
                      Visualization Application in College Athletics: Open vs. Closed Sports
                              EMMA ERICKSON, ANNE ROCHE, AIMEE DELIRAMICH
                                     Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Jean Caraway

Various visualization techniques are commonly used among athletes as part of their training and competition.
Researchers define visualization (also referred to as mental training or imagery) as the process of cognitively
reproducing an object, scene, or sensation as though it were occurring in overt, physical reality. The use of
visualization in athletics has been supported in various studies to benefit athletic performance; suggesting most
profound benefits in closed-end sports (routine/consistent circumstances) as opposed to open-end sports
(inconsistent-circumstances). This study will use the Sports Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) to examine to what
extent visualization is used among a sample of various male and female collegiate athletes: basketball, football,
golf, swimming and diving, track and field, and soccer. After gaining permission from Human Subjects and the
Athletic Director, packets of survey questions will be distributed among participating student athletes. It is
hypothesized that those athletes in closed-end sports will engage more frequently, and show greater benefit in
such mental training techniques than athletes in open-end sports. Since many sports have elements of both open-
end and closed-end, such student athletes are predicted to fall in the middle of the two. It is also hypothesized
that those athletes more actively involved in competition will use mental training techniques the most.




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                                                  Poster 32
                                             AphasiaScriptsTM
                                                LOIS ERSTAD
                       Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

Aphasia is a communication disorder that can occur following to damage of the parts of the brain that control
language. Impairments can involve receptive or expressive language, or difficulties in reading or writing. Because
of the length of time that it takes for recovery from these types of injuries, therapy can often be extended and
cost prohibitive. Dr. Leora Cherney, Director of the Center for Aphasia Research and Treatment at the
Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, along with several other neurogenic board certified speech and language
pathologists, computer language specialists, and with a grant from the National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research, U.S. Department of Education, have designed a therapy tool in the form of a computer
software program called AphasiaScriptsTM. The use of this tool would allow the speech therapist to provide
outpatient-based therapy assistance in the form of a virtual or “avatar”speech therapist. The purpose of this
project was to determine if there is evidence to support the use of AphasiaScriptsTM language intervention for a
62-year-old female client with expressive aphasia. Relevant research studies were found by searching research
databases using the search terms “aphasia + treatment + script”and “AphasiaScripts.” Studies were then
evaluated for relevancy by using an appraisal system based largely on reliability and validity of these studies.
Analysis of three articles ultimately selected for inclusion indicated that there is some evidence that supports the
use of AphasiaScriptsTM, but that more research for the use of this type of language intervention is needed.

                                                  Poster 33
            Communication Sciences and Disorders: Success of Stapedectomy in Treating Unilateral
               Otosclerosis and Resultant Conductive Hearing Loss: A Critically Appraised Topic
                                           STEPHANIE HAVELAAR
                     Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

For a graduate level research class, a Critically Appraised Topic, or CAT project, was completed. The purpose of my
CAT project was to find evidence to support a stapedectomy for my 20 year old female patient with unilateral
otosclerosis and resultant conductive hearing loss, compared to no treatment, in terms of improved audiometric
thresholds. My CAT paper outlines the ways in which I found materials (CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, and
ASHA databases) and the steps I took to critically appraise the materials (in-class appraisal system based on those
used by other researchers and organizations and my own appraisal system based on questions important to my
topic). Five peer-reviewed research articles were used. In reviewing the five articles, I found that yes, there were
often threshold improvements in patients following stapedectomy. However, my client did not always match the
participant group in each article and every article’s research was either specific to one particular location or to
one particular surgeon or group of surgeons. In addition, three of the five articles involved surgeries that occurred
over 15 years ago. In some articles, stapedectomy success rates were low, with many patients either requiring
amplification post-stapedectomy, perceiving no change in hearing acuity, and in some cases, experiencing an
increase in audiometric thresholds. For these reasons, I would recommend the use of amplification for my client,
prior to consideration of stapedectomy. I feel that there needs to be more current research on the success of
stapedectomy, which should include participants of a wide age range and from all across the United States, before
I recommend that my client undergo such an invasive procedure.




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                                                 Poster 34
                                   AWOL 2011: Appalachia,Tennessee
 ERIC SCHLIMGEN, TANNER HENTO, MEGAN FARRIS, CASEY KELLY, STACIE KJELDEN, HANNA MCELROY, BRETT
                             MONAHAN, TIM NELSON, JENNIFER SCHOFIELD
                  Service-Learning - Center for Academic Engagement, Academic Affairs
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Whitney Siegfried

USD students spent their break deep in the Appalachian Mountains for Tennessee addressing the social issue of
rural poverty. The high poverty rate in this area has been an item of national attention since 1963 when Lyndon
B. Johnson declared a “War on Poverty” in Appalachia. Deep in the abandoned mining town, participants worked
with the Clearfork Community Institute, helping to remedy this poverty stricken region through community
building activities. Students had the opportunity to experience Appalachian culture first hand, including Folk
music, homegrown foods, Smoky Mountains, and religion.

                                                   Poster 35
                          Fast-Neutron Activation of Long-Lived Nuclides in Natural Pb
                                                  DON HIXON
                                      Physics, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Vincente Guiseppe

We observe the production of the long-lived nuclide Bi207 and supported nuclides Tl202 and Au194 in a sample of
Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The
activated sample was counted by a Ge detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These
nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large
amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earths surface.
We present the measured production and a predicted cosmogenic production rate based on a measured cosmic-
ray neutron flux.

                                                   Poster 36
                       Protein Kinase D1 expression attenuates colon cancer progression
                                               JOSHUA HUGHES
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Meena Jaggi

Objective: Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) is an important modulator of several signal-transduction pathways in benign
and malignant human diseases. Currently the role of PKD1 in colon cancer, which is the second-leading cause of
cancer-related deaths, is not well established. We have found previously that advance stage prostate cancer has
suppressed expression. This led us to analyze PKD1 expression patterns in various other cancer tissue samples
including colon cancer.

Matierals and Methods: Tissue microarrays containing colon cancer samples with corresponding normal tissues
were used to investigate the expression profile of PKD1 using immunohistochemistry. To determine PKD1
mediated effects on oncogenic β-catenin signaling in colon cancer, human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line
SW480. Stable transformants of SW480 were created with GFP and SW480-PKD1-GFP. β-catenin/T cell factor
(TCF) transcription activity was measured by luciferase reporter assays. To determine the effect of PKD1
overexpression on other cancer associated genes, RT-PCR array (that had 84 cancer related genes) analysis was
performed in SW480-GFP and SW480-PKD1-GFP cells.

Results: Our expression analysis determined a significant decrease in PKD1 expression in advanced Dukes stage (II,
III and IV) colon cancer samples as compared to non-neoplastic colon samples. We have also noticed
downregulation and aberrant localization of β-catenin in colon cancer samples compared to non-neoplastic colon
samples. Our confocal microscopy analyses demonstrates that PKD1 up-regulation caused translocation of β-
                                                        91
catenin from the nucleus to the plasma membrane.PKD1 overexpression also reduced β-catenin/TCF interaction
in the nucleus as well as transcriptional activity and suppressed the expression of its downstream signaling
proteins. Phenotypic changes in the stable transformants were measured via proliferation assays, anchorage
independent growth, anchorage dependent growth, cellular motility and invasion. The overexpression of PKD1
markedly suppressed cell proliferation in SW480 cells. The SW480-PKD1-GFP cells formed fewer colonies
compared with SW480-GFP cells. The SW480-PKD-GFP cells showed very minimal or no motility and invasion
compared to SW480-GFP cells. Our RT-PCR array data shows that PKD1 overexpression also modulates expression
of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3(TIMP3), interferon α, interferon β and tumor necrosis factor receptor
(TNFR).

Conclusion: In conclusion, PKD1 is down regulated in colon cancer and its downregulation is correlated with
aberrant β-catenin subcellular localization. Our data suggest that the altered PKD1 expression may induce β-
catenin dependent and independent signaling in colon cancer and suppression of PKD1 may play a critical role in
colon carcinogenesis and colon cancer progression.

                                                      Poster 37
                 The effects of fire on species composition in a native tall grass prairie remnant
                                                  MARIE KOSTER‡
                                         Biology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Molly Nepokroeff

Fire is an increasingly important management tool in maintaining species richness and diversity on tall grass
prairies. Periodic fires remove dead biomass, release nutrients into the soil, allow sunlight to reach the soil and
help to suppress woody growth. In conjunction with the South Dakota Nature Conservancy, approximately 1/2 of
the Vermillion Prairie was burned (April 2010) for the purpose of maintaining the integrity of this tall grass prairie
remnant. In order to assess the effects of fire on this management area, a Floristic Quality Assessment was
conducted. Additionally, specimens were collected to serve as a reference collection for the Vermillion Prairie,
which will be housed in the USD Herbarium. A species list for Vermillion Prairie was compiled and each taxon
assigned a coefficient of conservatism, C (values range from 0-10). The C value is represented by two underlying
principles 1) plants have varying responses to disturbance and type of disturbance 2) plant species present reflect
the integrity of the habitat. A Floristic Quality Index (FQI) is another value calculated and can be used to rank
different sites according to their floristic quality. The mean C and FQI values allow us to quantitatively measure
natural quality and monitor temporal changes. Preliminary results indicate that the number of native species
(species diversity) is slightly higher on the burned side (mean C for burned=5.0; mean C for control=2.5). Based on
the coefficient of conservatism, the burned areas are somewhat more representative of pre-settlement
conditions.

                                                   Poster 38
      The Effects of Competition and Fatigue on Balance in Female Collegiate Athletes: Preliminary Results
                            LINDSEY KOZEL, JILL WENANDE, JENNA KRAAYENBRINK
                                  Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Joy Karges, Patti Berg

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine pre-match to post-match changes in balance. Participants: Six
female collegiate volleyball players (age, 19.2 ± 2.8 years; height, 1.805 ± .105 meters) completed this study.
Design: Repeated Measures Design. Methods: Prior to baseline testing the subjects completed a demographic
survey. For 4 regular season home matches, weight measurements, hydration status, and postural control data
were collected prior to match warm-ups (3 matches). Upon completion of the match, postural control data and
weight measurement were collected once again (4 matches). Postural control testing consisted of 3 balance trials
lasting 10 seconds each trial utilizing the Bertec BalanceCheckTM System with subjects performing under 3
conditions: “normal surface/eyes open,” “perturbed surface/eyes open,” and “normal surface with Stroop test.”
An independent t-test compared pre-match and post-match measures of postural control for the 3 conditional
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postural stability tests. Data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Results: A statistically significant difference was
found between pre-test and post-test postural control measures for “perturbed surface/eyes open” in the
anterior-posterior center of pressure (CoP) excursion (P=.010), maximum CoP excursion (P =.002), maximum
standard stability used (P=.004) and stability score (P=.004). No significant differences were found for the
remaining “perturbed surface/eyes open” conditions or for any measures in “normal surface/eyes open” or
“normal surface with Stroop test” conditions (P>.05). Conclusion: Pre- and post-match measures of postural
control were collected to examine the effects of fatiguing activity in a group of female collegiate athletes.
Significant differences between pre- and post-match postural control were found for a single match under
perturbed conditions only. These results suggest: 1) athletes are able to compensate for fatigue-related postural
deficits through incorporation of alternative control strategies; or 2) a single match does not challenge the
postural control system sufficiently to demonstrate deficits for this population of collegiate athletes.

                                               Poster 39
             Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Struggle for Children, Parents, and Care Providers
                                        JORDANA RENAE LAMB
                                 Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gemma Skillman

In the recent Harvard Review of Psychiatry (2008), Shaw and colleagues draw attention to the identification and
treatment of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, MSbP. MSbP is a condition in which a parent, who over ninety
percent of the time is the mother, either deliberately inflicts illnesses, exaggerates present symptoms, or
formulates a fictitious list of symptoms which their child is experiencing. Parents may inflict illnesses via means of
poisoning, mutilation or other destructive means of maltreatment, and the corresponding symptoms will then be
observed when the child is presented to a physician for appropriate medical care. When parents fabricate a list of
symptoms to make a appointment with a physician, the child may not actively express those described symptoms
at the time of examination. Certainly, this can be an extraordinarily difficult situation for care providers, including
but not limited to physicians, pediatric nurses, school nurses, daycare providers and others, to identify when
Munchausen syndrome by proxy is truly present. A recent search of KidsHealth shows that proper identification
of MSbP is difficult to distinguish because we value those parents who are responsive to the health needs of their
child, and therefore abuse may not be suspected. Parents whose mental health is affected by Munchausen
syndrome exhibit destructive behaviors for a multitude of reasons. This poster presentation has two primary
goals: 1) to educate and inform about reported MSbP cases nationally and in South Dakota; 2) possible training
techniques to detect warning signs and symptoms of MSbP for care providers to be aware of which may suggest
abuse and maltreatment.

                                                     Poster 40
                           The Influence of Aesthetics and Affect on Perceived Usability
                                        BRIANA NELSON KRAAYENBRINK*
                                      Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Doug Peterson

Two of the most important factors when using a product are how easily one can complete tasks and how pleasing
the device appears while using it. These two aspects are known as usability and aesthetics, respectively. Research
on the connection between aesthetics and usability focuses on how aesthetics influence perceptions of usability.
Several studies show that a products aesthetics can influence pre-use perceptions of usability and how these
perceptions of usability can change during or after using a product. If the effect of aesthetics is due to perception
and not based on actually use, why does that effect occur? Donald Norman, a pioneer in usability research,
suggests that attractive products make individuals feel good. When the process of using a product is pleasing,
individuals think more creatively, which in turn makes it easier for individuals to find resolutions to the problems
they encounter. Individuals who have a positive affect are able to produce a wide variety of creative solutions.
These creative solutions and the positive affect make the individuals more likely to tolerate minor difficulties. The
effect of positive affect is quite robust. In fact, research has found that when participants are given a small gift,
                                                             93
they were better at brainstorming alternative outcomes. The concern over the interaction between aesthetics
and positive affect is that they could influence the results of usability studies. If an individual has a positive affect,
he or she may perceive a product easier to use since he or she can more effectively reach a desired outcome.
Participants in usability studies with a positive affect would be more likely to rate products easier to use than
participants with a negative affect. The proposed study will examine the relationship among usability, aesthetics
and affect.

                                                     Poster 41
               Potentially Harmful Effects of Text Messaging upon Simulated Driving Performance
                                       MAEGAN NIMICK, KAITLIN GEBHART
                                      Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Frank Schieber

The growing epidemic of distracted driving is pushing lawmakers to enact legal prohibitions against the use of text
messaging services while operating a motor vehicle. However, in states where such prohibitions have been
enacted the crash rate has actually increased. One possible explanation of this paradox is that prohibition laws
may cause many drivers to conceal their text messaging behavior rather than eliminate it. Holding a cell phone
out-of-sight to conceal texting behavior may be accompanied by prolonged loss of visual contact with the road
resulting in a concomitant reduction in driving performance. An exploratory study was conducted to assess the
effects of text messaging upon simulated driving performance. Sixteen participants performed the Lane Change
Task (LCT) in a driving simulator under three experimental conditions: (1) baseline driving without texting, (2)
texting while holding the cell phone at steering wheel level (head-up condition) and (3) texting while holding the
cell phone out-of-view from other drivers (head-down condition). Text messages sent by the participants were
replies to text queries initiated by the experimenters. These queries varied in their level of cognitive complexity
and length of required response. The efficiency of the required lane change maneuvers was significantly
degraded while participants were engaged in text messaging behavior relative to the baseline driving condition.
However, no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that attempts to conceal text messaging behavior
(head-down condition) resulted in greater decrements to driving performance than texting without attempts at
concealment (head-up condition). An important limitation of this study was that driving behavior was assessed
only in terms of the efficiency of steering maneuvers. More sophisticated simulation protocols that assess hazard
detection and avoidance behaviors may be more sensitive to the loss of situation awareness hypothesized to
accompany attempts to conceal text messaging behavior while driving.

                                                   Poster 42
                        Communication Sciences & Disorders Childhood Apraxia of Speech
                             Interventions: PROMPT vs. Moving Across Syllables
                                             JULIANA PAQUETTE
                        Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                   Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

Childhood Apraxia of Speech is a neurological disorder in which the planning and programming of movement
sequences are impaired. This impairment results in speech sound production errors. The question: “Is there
evidence to support the use of Moving Across Syllables with a seven year old girl who exhibits Childhood Apraxia
of Speech as compared to the Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT) intervention
method as measured by the Speech Intelligibility Test?” Both interventions use integral stimulation in their
treatments. Integral stimulation, in regards to treatment of CAS, focuses on four principles of motor learning,
precursors to motor learning, conditions of practice, feedback, and effects of rate. Through many different
database searches, very few research articles were found that provided evidence specific to the two different
interventions. Using two different appraisal systems, the articles were evaluated. It was found that there was a
lack of evidence for either the PROMPT or the Moving Across Syllables intervention when used to treat a seven
year old girl with Childhood Apraxia of Speech. There is however evidence for the general principles that both
interventions incorporate.
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                                                   Poster 43
      Effects of CRF2 receptor antagonism in the brain on anxiety states during amphetamine withdrawal
                                             EMILY D. REINBOLD†
                             Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                      Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Gina Forster

Humans and rats experiencing drug withdrawal from psychostimulants such as amphetamine, show increased
anxiety-like behaviors. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neurotransmitter, is thought to be responsible for
the initiation of stress responses and anxiety behaviors (Koob, 2003; European Neuropsychopharmacology, 13(6),
442-452). Past studies suggest that the anxiety-like behavior experienced during drug withdrawal may result from
an increase of CRF2 receptor activity and density in the dorsal raphe nucleus (dRN) (Pringle et al., 2008;
Neuroscience Research, 62, 62-65). Antisauvaguine-30 (ASV) is a CRF2 receptor antagonist and has been shown to
reverse anxiety like states of rats during amphetamine withdrawal when infused directly into the dRN (Vuong, S.
M. et al., 2010; Behavioural Brain Research, 208(1), 278-281). However, it is not known whether these effects are
specific to CRF2 receptor antagonism in the dRN. Therefore, the global effects of ASV in the brain during
amphetamine withdrawal were tested. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with amphetamine
(2.5mg/kg ip) or saline for 2 weeks, and then went through a two-week withdrawal period. During the withdrawal
period, an intracranial guide cannula was implanted and directed at the lateral ventricle. Rats were then
acclimated to the handling process of infusions. On the fourteenth day of the withdrawal period, rats were
infused with 2µg ASV or vehicle into the ventricle before being tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM).
Amphetamine pre-treated rats infused with vehicle showed an increase of anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM
compared to saline rats that received vehicle. Amphetamine treated rats who received ASV exhibited a decrease
in anxiety-like behaviors when compared to amphetamine pre-treated rats who received vehicle. The results
show that central administration of ASV decreases anxiety-like behaviors of rats during pyschostimulant drug
withdrawal, suggesting that global antagonism of CRF2 receptors in the brain may be an effective treatment for
withdrawal-induced anxiety. Supported by: NIH grant NIDA R01 DA019921. Emily Reinbold was a University of
South Dakota BRIN Research Fellow. NIH Grant Number 2 P20 RR016479

                                                Poster 44
                              Selecting a Coping Measure for Farm Families
            CHRISTIN KAREN ROBERTS, MEGAN RAE JUNG, JESSA KIM PATTERSON, JENNIFER F. HSIA
                                  Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                 Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Randal Quevillon

Farm families experience a unique stressor where individuals must work and live together on the farm. As a result,
the individuals within farm families need to develop coping strategies to help resolve this work and family conflict
(Weigel & Weigel, 1987). This study examines the coping strategies within farm families. In this pilot study,
participants (N = 17) completed 3 scales on coping, BriefCOPE, Coping Strategy Indicator, Ways of Coping-Revised.
Among these three scales, we selected the best scale. Eight of the 14 subscales on the BriefCOPE reached
acceptable levels of internal consistency (α ≥ 0.70), with values ranging from 0.69 to 0.97. All three subscales on
the Coping Strategy Indicator reached acceptable levels of internal consistency (α ≥ 0.70), with values ranging
from 0.80 to 0.87. Three out of the eight subscales on the Ways of Coping-Revised reached acceptable levels of
internal consistency (α ≥ 0.70), with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.72. Based on our findings, the BriefCOPE scale
was chosen because its subscales correlated highly with the subscales on the other two scales and demonstrated
adequate internal consistency. The BriefCOPE also contained the fewest number of items. Thus, the BriefCOPE
should be used when studying coping strategies within farm families in order to gain an overall perspective.




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                                                  Poster 45
                      Communication Sciences & Disorders - Dynamic temporal and tactile
                           cueing (DTTC) and severe childhood apraxia of speech
                                             MEGAN SENGOS
                       Communication Sciences and Disorders, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

The problem was there is currently not a large amount of research done on dynamic temporal and tactile cueing
(DTTC) treatment and research done by an author other than the developer is non-existent. The purpose of this
research was to explore the question if there is enough evidence to support the use of DTTC for a 5 year-old male
client who has severe childhood apraxia of speech compared to baseline in terms of producing functional
intelligible utterances. Dynamic temporal and tactile cueing is a technique that consists of a hierarchy of cueing,
starting with simultaneous production, direct imitation, and finally a delay in response while utterances are
practiced slowly to facilitate movement. Research articles covering this topic were appraised through two
systems, the first was built through collaboration between my classmates and me. The second was created by
myself, which compared the aspects of the article to my particular client and how reliable I found the results to
apply to my client. There were four relevant research articles that were critically appraised to support the results
found. The results revealed there is evidence to support the use of DTTC to increase utterances in children with
childhood apraxia of speech; however, there were some factors to consider. Throughout these research articles,
the participants vary from the current client in age and additional disorders, as well as the developer of this
treatment is an author in all articles appraised. These issues are addressed throughout the proposed
presentation.

                                                       Poster 46
   The Effects of Difficulties Identifying and Describing Feelings on Impulsivity and Alcohol-Related Problems
                                                 HANAKO SHISHIDO*
                                   Clinical Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                         Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Raluca Gaher

Alexithymia is a cognitive-affective construct characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings,
limited ability to think abstractly, and externally-oriented thinking. Previous research suggests that alexithymic
individuals have limited access to higher processing cognition that may be necessary in order to identify and
verbally express their feelings. Alexithymia is known to be a predictor of alcohol use and alcohol-related
problems. Similarly, urgency is known as a risk factor for alcohol use and related problems. Urgency is a type of
impulsivity that is sensitive to emotional cues. Thus, individuals with higher urgency are likely to react to their
emotions, before thinking the potential consequences of their actions. There are two types of urgency: negative
and positive urgency. Negative urgency is an urgency associated with negative affect, while positive urgency is
associated with positive affect. Both alexithymia and impulse-control research address the importance of the role
that the cognitive processing system plays in order to prevent individuals from engaging in alcohol misuse and
problematic behaviors. However, how alexithymia and urgency relate to each other in the pathways to alcohol
misuse and development of alcohol-related problems is unknown. This study tested mediation and moderation
models for impulsivity in the relationships of alexithymia and alcohol use and related problems. Data from 429
college students who reported drinking at least once in the last 3 months was used for analyses. Negative urgency
mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems. Positive urgency moderated the
relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems. At high levels of positive urgency (i.e., responding
rashly to positive affect), the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems was stronger than at
low or mean levels of positive urgency. Neither negative nor positive urgency had an effect on the relationship
between alexithymia and the amount of alcohol consumption. Implications of the results will be discussed.




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                                                 Poster 47
                   Diameter-Dependent Coloration of Green Synthesized Silver Nanowires
               MINDY S. STEWART†, CHAO QIU, RAMESH KATTUMENU, SRIKANTH SINGAMANENI
                                   Chemistry, College of Arts & Sciences
                                  Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Chaoyang Jiang

Visualization of nanoscale functional materials with optical microscopy is an interesting while challenging task.
Currently, there are few articles reported on direct observation of nanoscale carbon materials. Our work focuses
on studying correlations between color and diameter of silver nanowires. Silver nanowires were synthesized via a
hydrothermal method, using glucose to reduce silver nitrate, without any surfactants or polymers. The wires
were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and transmission electron
microscopy (TEM). Various colored silver nanowires were observed via optical microscopy, with RGB values
determined by Image J software. Correlations between the diameter and color of silver nanowires were found
based on these studies. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition,
experiments of micro-reflectance spectra on individual wires were conducted, and the results can be explained
with the optical interference theory.

                                                      Poster 48
                                     Effects of Early Life Stress in Adolescence
                                     KRISTI E. TSCHETTER, LEAH B. CALLAHAN
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                         Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Pat Ronan

It is well known that stress is a primary factor driving both acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors.
Early life stress is a risk factor for increased susceptibility to drug addiction during the particularly vulnerable
period of adolescence. Addictive behaviors that develop during adolescence often persist into adulthood.
Maternal separation (MS) is a widely used animal model of early life stress. Very few studies have evaluated the
effects of maternal separation on brain reward and stress systems during adolescence. Even fewer studies have
evaluated the effects of maternal separation on females during adolescence. Rat pups were removed from the
dam once a day for postnatal days (PND) 2-14, with the separation lasting either 15 minutes (MS15) or 180
minutes (MS180). We utilized an animal facility reared (AFR) which received brief handling with no separation.
Our control group consisted of a non-handled (NH) control group which received one cage change during the
separation period with no other separation. Beginning on PND15 all groups received twice weekly cage changes.
Rats were allowed to mature to periadolescence (PND40) before testing for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated
plus maze (EPM), novelty-seeking on the playground maze (PGM), or novelty-induced locomotion (NIL) in an open
field. On the EPM, females exposed to maternal separation exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. Males
showed an increase in anxiety-like behavior. In testing on the PGM, MS females showed increased latency to
approach and increased number of approaches to the novel object. Males exposed to MS showed decreased
latency to approach and increased number of approaches to the novel object. Separated females showed
significantly increased locomotion in response to novelty. Separated males exposed to a novel environment
showed a trend toward increased locomotion. These results demonstrate that early life stress effects anxiety-like,
novelty-seeking, and locomotion in response to novelty during adolescence.

                                                    Poster 49
                                            Improving Winter Vitality
                                     JENNA LYNN URBAN, TIFFANY PAULSON
                                      Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                     Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Michael Granaas

Research has shown that exposure to natural enviornments consisting of trees and plants improve conditions
such as vitality and focus. There has been some research that indicaties an internal natural synthetic environment
could have some of the same benefits. We are looking to see if we can create an effective synthetic enviornmnt
                                                       97
that can work as a substitute for natural evneironemtns during harsh weater conditionsh, such as winters, or in
industrial settings, such as cubical offices. Our project will be the first to be conducted during the winter months,
when the population is already deprived of greenery and sunlight. If we are successful in creating this
environment, it may be possible to reduce stress and exhaustion in artificial enviroments. Mental health of
individuals is of the utmost importance within the field of psychology, therfore any proven benefits we are able to
find will provide tools for mental health professionals. This increased knowledge will also impact other fields
beyond psychology providing a better enviroment for all individuals that choose to implement the research. For
exmaple, if a business was to implement our suggestions, and encourage plants or scenic pictures in their offices,
it could improve their employee’s performances and overall health.

                                                    Poster 50
Social Stories for Adults with Autism and Concomitant Intellectual Disability: Reducing Self-Injurious Behavior.
                                             ERIC M. VANDER MAY
                               Communication Studies, College of Arts & Sciences
                                    Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Elizabeth Hanson

Social Stories are a widely used intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The purpose of this
critically appraised topic was to determine if there was an extant body of research literature supporting the use of
Social Stories for an adult with autism and concomitant intellectual disability who engaged in (SIB), as it relates to
a reduction in SIB. The electronic databases CINAHL, ERIC, PsychArticles, and PsychINFO were searched from
1995-2010. The search produced no research articles directly addressing the use of Social Stories with adults;
therefore, the evidence base for this intervention with this population is poor. Functional communication
training, which has similarities to Social Story intervention, has demonstrated some successes within this
population, and, therefore, underscores the importance of continued research in Social Stories.

                                                     Poster 51
                            Properties of a Nociceptive Synapse in the Medicinal Leech
                                               ALLY VANDERWEIDE
                              Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine
                                        Faculty/Staff Sponsor: Brian Burrell

Chronic pain is a major health concern in the United States that affects as many as thirty-percent of Americans
(Johannes et al. 2010). Despite the major burden of chronic pain, few novel therapies have been developed
because the cellular mechanisms of nociception—the perception of pain—are not well understood. In the central
nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech it is possible to carry out electrophysiological recordings from
specific, identifiable synapses including those that involve either nociceptive or non-nociceptive sensory neurons.
The leech has three mechanosensory neurons—those that respond to light touch (T-cells), to sustained pressure
(P-cells), and nociceptive neurons (N-cells) that respond to tissue damage, heat, and low pH (Nicholls and Baylor
1968), similar to our own somatosensory neurons. I have been working on characterizing the N-to-AP synapse, a
nociceptive pathway, in order to use this synapse in future experiments concerning the modulation of nociceptive
pathways. Experiments in which the leech CNS was treated with high              saline, which blocks neurotransmitter
release by the presynaptic cell, indicated that N-to-AP signaling involves chemical synaptic transmission.
Subsequent experiments with CNQX, a glutamate receptor antagonist, indicate that the chemical
neurotransmitter being secreted is glutamate. Additionally, these experiments have revealed a sizeable
underlying electrical synapse that can be measured when the chemical synapse has been disrupted by either high
       saline or CNQX. Experiments using high divalent saline (        /     ) have revealed an intermittent
polysynaptic connection between the N and AP cells as well. Future experiments will examine how the
chemical/glutamatergic and electric components of this nociceptive synapse are modulated with the goal of
developing therapeutic treatments for chronic pain.




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                                                  Poster 52
            How do we choose consumer electronics? Exploring the fit between proposed decision
                 strategies/heuristics and empirical choices in multi-attribute choice tasks
                                        GESINE ELISABETH ZIEBARTH*
                                   Psychology, College of Arts & Sciences
                                       Faculty/Staff Sponsor: XT Wang

We examined how some well-known and newly developed choice strategies/heuristics match with the actual
choices of participants in evaluating and selecting consumer products. We derived our hypotheses from a risk
sensitive, Tri-Reference Point model of choice (TRP; Wang, 2008) involving multiple decision cues/attributes. This
project intends to enrich the current understanding of decision strategy use, and to contribute to the
development of behavioral decision aids that are choice task-sensitive and reference point-dependent.

Participants reported the attributes/features of certain electronic products they would consider in making a
choice, their respective weights, and respective reference points Minimum Requirement (MR), Goal, and Status
Quo. Based on the above information, individual choice outcomes were prescribed by twelve decision strategies
including normative strategies Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and Additive-Difference (AD), and simple
heuristics, such as the ‘MR-based heuristic’, ‘Goal-based heuristic’, ‘Take-The-Best’, and ‘Take-The-Best’ on your
MR. Lastly, participants rated how likely they would select and how satisfied they would be with the products.
The fits between strategy-prescribed outcomes and empirical preferences were analyzed.

The findings showed that the preference fits of strategies based on the reference-points MR and Goal were as
good as or better than the fits of the reference-point independent strategies MAUT, AD, and TTB. In particular,
the reference-point based ‘Take-The-Best’ on your MR and ‘Take-The-Best’ on your Goal showed better fits than
the reference-point independent ‘Take-The-Best’. Strategies based on the reference point Status Quo did not fit
well with empirical choices, as was expected. In addition, significant gender differences existed in the outcome
fits, where males actual choices on average fit better than females choices with the choice strategies tested in the
study. Theoretical significance and practical implications of the aforementioned findings are discussed.




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                                           Index of Student Presenters
                                                         Graduate Students

Last Name, First name        Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                               Page #    Page #
Amick, Lori                  Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       67
Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya    Session 7b - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     15       74
Arens, Ashley                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   22      8        40
Askew, Ainsley               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      8        41
Balasubramanian, Vinothini   Session 4c - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    11       60
Baldus, Jeff                 Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   24      8        41
Ballard, Matthew             Session 5b - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               16       78
Baride, Aravind              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   25      8        41
Barr, Jeffrey                Session 6d - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 15       71
Basa, Prem                   Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 2                7        31
Beckstrom, Melissa           Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       67
Beig, Kelsea                 Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   21      8        40
Bellis, Jennie               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   26      8        42
Bhowmik, Arundhati           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 2                7        31
Binder, Tim                  Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Blom, Heather                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 3                7        32
Bobby, Jacob                 Session 2c - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             6        25
Brandhagen, BreeAnn          Session 4b - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     11       57
Brinkman, Cassandra          Session 7b - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     16       74
Bullert, Kelli               Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Bunner, Laura                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   24      13       86
Burcham, Jared               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 3                7        32
Bures, Joseph                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   25      13       87
Burke, Andrew                Session 6d - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 15       71
Burum, Brandon               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   25      8        41
Byram, Dana                  Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   26      13       87
Callahan, Leah               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   48      14       97
Chalpe, Abha                 Session 4b - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     11       58
Chan, Daniel                 Session 4b - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     11       58
Chauhan, Neeraj              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   27      8        42
Clark, Michelle              Session 4b - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     11       59
Clay, Jared                  Session 2c - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             6        25
Coombs, Terrance             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 8                12       80
Coombs, Terrance             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   24      13       86
Dahlseid, Tom                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 3                12       79
De Yager, Bridget            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   29      13       88
Dorneman, Lindsey            Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Dulyanova, Ilmira            Session 1a - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                5        17
Ehli, Erik                   Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   30      13       89
Engeman, Jeffrey             Session 3a - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      10       26
Erstad, Lois                 Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   32      13       90
Fingland, Devon              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 8                7        34
Fligge, Wade                 Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   21      8        40
Foulks, Rachel               Session 3c - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 10       30
Freeling, Jessica            Session 1b - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     5        19
Fulker, Leah                 Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   42      9        49
Garcia Sevilla, Dennise      Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   29      8        43
Garry, Julie                 Session 1b - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     5        19
Geary, Nicole                Session 1d - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    5        21
Gomez, Gabriel               Session 3c - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 10       30
Gupta, Brij                  Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   30      8        43
Halseth, Ashley              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   42      9        49
Havelaar, Stephanie          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   33      14       90
Hersrud, Samantha            Session 3b - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     10       28
Higgins, Steven              Session 3a - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      10       27
Hixon, Don                   Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   35      14       91
Hsia, Jennfer                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   44      14       95
Hughes, Joshua               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   36      14       91
Hunziker, Elizabeth          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   32      8        45
Iverson, Jackie              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   26      12       87
Jacobson, Carter             Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       67
Johnson, Melissa             Session 1a - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                5        17
                                                                       100
Last Name, First name         Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                                Page #    Page #
Johnson, Melissa              Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Johnson, Melissa              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 5                12       79
Karlson, Kristi               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 11               7        35
Karr, Megan                   Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      8        45
Kattumenu, Ramesh             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   48      14       97
Keppen, Renae                 Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Kittelson, Rachel             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   36      8        47
Koepsell, Laura               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   37      8        47
Kozel, Lindsey                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   39      14       92
Kraayenbrink, Jenna           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   38      14       92
Leader Charge, Damon          Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       --
Li, Shuai                     Session 1b - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     5        20
Liming, Nick                  Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Little, Malene                Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       --
Lockie, Jill                  Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   39      9        48
Lozensky, Christopher         Session 5b - 11:00 am - 12:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               12       65
Lucas, Andrea                 Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   40      9        48
Lynde, Rob                    Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Mahoney, Luther               Session 4c - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    11       60
Mancini, David                Session 5a - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             11       63
Matlock, Rebecca              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 8                12       80
McCormick, Kara               Session 7b - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     16       75
Mize, Erica                   Session 3a - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      10       27
Nebelsick, Ben                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   42      9        49
Nelson Kraayenbrink, Briana   Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   40      14       93
Netzer, Nathan                Session 2b - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               6        23
Newberry, Jennifer            Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 16       77
Newcomb, Lori                 Session 1a - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                5        18
Niemann, Zachary              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   43      9        50
Novick, Andrew                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   44      9        50
Novick, Andrew                Session 6d - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 15       71
Padmanabhuni, Revathi         Session 2b - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               6        24
Paquette, Juliana             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   42      14       94
Parrish, Megan                Session 3c - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 10       30
Paulsen, Brianna              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   46      9        51
Peng, Rui                     Session 4c - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    11       61
Permann, Sarah                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   47      9        52
Phillips, Michelle            Session 4b - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     11       59
Prasad, Maneeshi              Session 6d - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 15       72
Qiu, Chao                     Session 2b - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               6        24
Qiu, Chao                     Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   47      14       97
Ractliffe, Kendra             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   48      9        52
Ranek, Mark                   Session 1b - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216                                     5        20
Rasalingam, Shivatharsiny     Session 4c - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    11       61
Rasmussen, Jill               Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Ridder, Mary                  Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   49      9        52
Riley, Lynn                   Session 3a - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      10       27
Roble, Kirstin                Session 3d - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               10       30
Sane, Sanam                   Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   50      9        53
Schmitz, Andrew               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   54      9        54
Seevers, Jay                  Session 5a - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             11       63
Sengos, Megan                 Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      14       96
Shishido, Hanako              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   46      14       96
Siebert, Heather              Session 1a - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                5        18
Singamaneni, Srikanth         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   47      14       97
Smith, Justin                 Session 3b - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     10       28
Spiegel, Cody                 Session 7a - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       73
Stott, Kristen                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 14               13       82
Stripling, Andrea             Session 3b - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     10       29
Stripling, Andrea             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      13       86
Strobush, Heidi               Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       67
Thies, Jenna                  Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 18               8        38
Thomas, Keenan                Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 15               13       83
Thomas, Michael               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 16               13       83
Tottempudi, Usha              Session 4c - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    11       61
Trask, Tiffany                Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   52      9        53
Trost, Amanda                 Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Tschetter, Kristi             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   48      14       97
Vander May, Eric              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   50      14       98

                                                                        101
Last Name, First name     Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                            Page #    Page #
Verhulst, Alicia          Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Weir, Joya                Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 16       78
Weltman, Nathan           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 20               8        39
Wenande, Jill             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   38      14       92
Williams, Paula           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   25      13       87
Woodruff, Elizabeth       Session 5d - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                   12       68
Wray, Tyler               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 16               13       83
Yang, Xiaoyi              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   54      9        54
Yuan, Sharleen            Session 3b - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     10       29
Zhang, Yufeng             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   55      9        54
Ziebarth, Gesine          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   52      15       99
Zou, Jianqiu              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   56      9        55


                                               Undergraduate Students
Last Name, First name     Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                            Page #    Page #
Adamczyk, Marta           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Addengast, Leslie         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 1                7        31
Ahrenholtz, Cami          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 5                7        33
Aker, Sarah               Session 2a - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216                                    6        22
Aker, Sarah               Session 6c - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               15       70
Akland, Leah              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Albers, Nicolas           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 12               7        36
Albers, Nicolas           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      13       86
Altena, Richard           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   20      13       85
Anderson, Carrie          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 1                12       78
Appley, Joey              Session 2d - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                   6        25
Atkinson, Jessie          Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Baldwin, Joshua           Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Barron, Shane             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Barton, Amanda            Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Beasley, Patrick          Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Beck, Katlynn             Session 5b - 11:00 am - 12:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               11       63
Beckman, Katie            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Besson, Jim               Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              --       21
Blumer, Caitlin           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Boelhower, Chad           Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              --       21
Boor, Mallory             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 4                7        32
Borah, Heather            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   21      13       85
Boudreau, Dominique       Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   22      13       85
Boyum, Sarah              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Brummer, Alex             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Bryan, Shane              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Bucklin, Clare            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      13       86
Bullene, Amanda           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 5                7        33
Carlson, Lara             Session 5b - 11:00 am - 12:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               11       64
Carr, Tim                 Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Ceremuga, Cassandra       Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Christianson, Katherine   Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Clausen, Jack             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Colburn, Jessica          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Conley, Maggie            Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Conley, Maggie            Session 5a - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             11       63
Cosand, Drew              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   27      13       88
Cwach, Kevin              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Cwach, Kevin              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 2                12       78
Dailey, Douglas           Session 5c - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                    12       65
Davenport, Emillee        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Davies, Dan               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Davies, Dan               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 7                7        33
Davis, Patrick            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   28      8        42
Day, Alyssa               Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Day, Alyssa               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   28      13       88
Dell, Dillon              Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
DePaula, Frank            Session 7b - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     16       75
Doorn, Joshua             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 4                12       79
                                                                    102
Last Name, First name   Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                          Page #    Page #
Duncan, Becky           Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Erickson, Emma          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      13       89
Farrell, Hilaree        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Farris, Megan           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Fick, Andy              Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              --       21
Fodness, Brooke         Session 2c - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             6        25
Fox, Kayla              Session 4a - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                10       55
Friedmann, Mollie       Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
Furhman, Luke           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Gallion, Erin           Session 3c - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 10       30
Garner, Cassie          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Gaster, Samuel          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Gaster, Samuel          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 5                12       79
Gebhart, Kaitlin        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   41      14       94
Gillogly, Abby          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Goetzinger, Nolan       Session 2e - 1:00 pm - 1:30 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           7        26
Goetzinger, Nolan       Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 9                7        34
Gombocz, Katarina       Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Gomez, Aleisia          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Grandi, Max             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               7        35
Gress, Ali              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Gruba, Stephanie        Session 2d - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                   6        25
Gruba, Stephanie        Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Hansen, Sadie           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 9                12       81
Harvey, Jaymee          Session 7a - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       72
Hausman, Ben            Session 6c - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               15       70
Hento, Tanner           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Hento, Tanner           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Hoffman, Brigid         Session 2c - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             6        25
Holtquist, Erin         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Holzer, Erika           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Holzer, Erika           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   21      13       85
Horn, Alissa            Session 4a - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                10       56
Irvine, Zachary         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                12       80
Janssen, David          Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Johnson, Justin         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   33      8        45
Johnson, Erica          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Jones, Aubrey           Session 2b - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                               6        23
Jung, Megan             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   44      14       95
Junso, Erik             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Juttelstad, Cody        Session 5a - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             11       63
Kelly, Casey            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Kennedy, Chelsie        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   35      8        46
Kiplaget, Moses         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Kjelden, Stacie         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Klatt, Tyler            Session 5b -11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                11       64
Kneifl, Rhonda          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
Knotek, Anna            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Knutson, Danielle       Session 6c - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               15       70
Kobes, Leah             Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Kobes, Leah             Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Konkol, Kayla           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 7                12       80
Koster, Marie           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   37      14       92
Krause, Erin            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Kreber, Haleigh         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Lacey, Josh             Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 16       77
Lamb, Jordana           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   39      14       93
Langseth, Marcus        Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Leischner, Darcy        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
LeMaster, Nathan        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 12               7        36
LeMaster, Nathan        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      13       86
Limke, Alyssa           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Lindokken, Mara         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   38      9        47
Linneweber, Becca       Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Long, Molly             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Loos, Meaghan           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Lopour, Seth            Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              --       21
Luedke, Angela          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Lyngaas, Jacob          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84

                                                                  103
Last Name, First name    Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                           Page #    Page #
Marshall, Iseley         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 13               7        36
Matthews, Rachel         Session 3c - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 10       30
Mayrose, Ronda           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 14               7        37
May-Shinagle, Gabby      Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 5                12       79
Mazur, Ashley            Session 3d - 3:00 pm - 4:20 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               10       30
McElroy, Hanna           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
McEntee, Allison         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
McKinney, Chelsea        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
McNamara, Jessica        Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Michels, Collin          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 9                13       81
Miiller, Tyler           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   41      9        49
Miiller, Tyler           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Miiller, Tyler           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
Monahan, Brett           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Moths, Travis            Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Moths, Travis            Session 6b - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     15       70
Muko, Devon              Session 5a - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             11       63
Muldoon, Brian           Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Muller, Bill             Session 2c - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                             6        25
Mulligan, Addie          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Nelson, Morgan           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Nelson, Tim              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Nielsen, Katie           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Nimick, Maegan           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   41      14       94
O'Hara, Mitchell         Session 2d - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                   6        26
O'Kane, Angela           Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Ortiz, Ali               Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Parsons, Seth            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Patterson, Jessica       Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   44      14       95
Paulson, Tiffany         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   49      14       97
Peck, Morgan             Session 6c - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               15       70
Perk, Cody               Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Pietsch, Tina            Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 5        18
Pons, Brendan (Bo) Fox   Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 16       76
Qualls, Lindsay          Session 4d - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              11       62
Quinones, Catherine      Session 6b - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216A                                     15       70
Quinones, Catherine      Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Rasmussen, Erin          Session 4a - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                10       56
Ray, Christina           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Reasoner, Jane           Session 7c - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center MUC Pit Lounge                           16       76
Reed, Stephanie          Session 5c - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                    12       65
Reed, Andrew             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   23      13       86
Reichert, Lorena         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 15               7        37
Reichert, Lorena         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 11               13       81
Reinbold, Emily          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   43      14       95
Reiter, Becca            Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Rexwinkel, Dan           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 12               13       82
Robbins, Amber           Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Roberts, Christin        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   44      14       95
Roberts, Christina       Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 16               7        37
Roberts, Christina       Session 6d - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 15       71
Roberts, Michael         Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               7        38
Roberts, Michael         Session 5c - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                    12       66
Roche, Anne              Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      13       89
Schackow, Amanda         Session 6c - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                               15       70
Scherr, Sarah            Session 2a - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216                                    6        22
Schieffer, Alicia        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 13               13       82
Schlimgen, Eric          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Schnathorst, Garrett     Session 1d - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 216A                                    5        21
Schrier, Madeline        Session 5c - 11:00 am - 12:40 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                    12       66
Schulz, Mariah           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 2                7        31
Schuneman, Margaret      Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   51      9        53
Schofield, Jennifer      Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   34      14       91
Seeley, Derek            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Seeley, Derek            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Shroyer, McKenzie        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Simon, Brett             Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              5        21
Smith, Marci             Session 7a - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       73
Snyders, Travis          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39

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Last Name, First name   Session - Time - Location                                                                        Program   Abstract
                                                                                                                          Page #    Page #
Stevens, Drew           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Stewart, Tyler          Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Stewart, Mindy          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   47      14       97
Struck, Emily           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 9                12       81
Taylor, Teresa          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   31      8        44
Tennant, Jessica        Session 4a - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                10       57
Thimjon, Ryan           Session 6a - 2:30 pm - 3:30 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       69
Tjelmeland, Brenan      Session 4a - 9:00 am - 10:40 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                10       57
Torczon, Anne           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Tracy, Emily            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Turner, Cristin         Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Ulven, Cody             Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 12               13       82
Urban, Jenna            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   21      13       85
Urban, Jenna            Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   49      14       97
Van Gerpen, Kelsey      Session 7a - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 216                                      15       74
Van Nyhuis, Kendra      Session 7d - 3:30 pm - 5:00 pm: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                 16       77
VanBeek, Lindsey        Session 1c - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center Ballroom A                              --       21
VanderWeide, Ally       Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   51      14       98
VanMeeteren, Alissa     Session 2a - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216                                    6        22
VanMeeteren, Alissa     Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Vanterpool, Nyah        Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Vietor, Catherine       Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Walker, Alexa           Session 2a - 10:30 am - 11:50 am: Muenster University Center 216                                    6        23
Walker, Alexa           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               8        39
Ward, Jessica           Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 10               12       81
Weber, Rachel           Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
Weinandt, Nick          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Weinandt, Nick          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 18               13       84
Wetering, Elizabeth     Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Wetering, Alex          Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 19               13       84
Wiedenmann, Eric        Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   53      9        54
Williams, Michelle      Poster Session 2 - 1:00 pm - 2:30 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 17               13       84
Wilson, Krista          Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Wolf, Abby              Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center 2nd Floor Balcony Poster   45      9        51
Zahn, Reanne            Poster Session 1 - 1:30 pm - 3:00 pm: Muenster University Center Main Floor Poster 6                7        33
Zalud, Amanda           Session 1a - 9:00 am - 10:30 am: Muenster University Center 211/211A                                11       64




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