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Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear fission and nuclear

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Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear fission and nuclear Powered By Docstoc
					 Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
      What is nuclear fusion?
• Hydrogen atoms combine to form Helium
  at very high temperatures (10-15 million
• Process that powers the sun and the stars.
• When this conversion occurs, it releases
  enough heat energy to keep the sun
     Nuclear Fusion on Earth
• Scientists are researching a way to
  harness fusion energy on earth to produce
• When successfully harnessed, this energy
  will be a safe energy supply for society
  without harmful environmental effects.
Animation of nuclear fusion
      What is nuclear fission?
• Process of splitting atoms into smaller
• A stray neutron will collide into an atom.
  When that collision occurs, the atom
  becomes unstable. This causes the atom
  to split into two, creating atoms that are
  stable by releasing neutrons.
Nuclear fission animation
            Chain Reaction
• When nuclear fission occurs and neutrons
  are released, a chain reaction or “domino”
  effect begins and all atoms near the fission
  sight also begin splitting.
Domino animation
So what…how does nuclear fission
          affect us?
• About half of all nuclear fission power
  plants are located in the US. Nuclear
  power plants harness the energy inside
  atoms and convert this into electricity.
• A nuclear power plant uses a controlled
  fission reaction in which radioactive fuel
  rods are connected to machines that can
  start and stop the domino reaction.
Why use nuclear fission power?
• It is much more environmentally friendly if
  all the radiation is contained correctly in
  the plant.
• It would take 17,000 kilograms of coal to
  produce the same amount of electricity as
  1 kilogram of nuclear uranium fuel!
Nuclear Weapons
           A little history…
In 1945, the Manhattan project team
  exploded the first nuclear bomb.

Currently the US has about 7,000 nuclear
 warheads and the nations of the former
 soviet union have about 6,000 warheads.
 Other countries also have “weapons of
 mass destruction.”
  There are enough nuclear
weapons in the world to destroy
   all civilization on earth.
          The fission bomb
Uses an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain
 reaction to release an enormous amount
 of energy in a small amount of time.

The radioactive material is normally
 surrounded by an explosive. When the
 bomb is detonated, the explosive is ignited
 and results in a chain reaction of the
 radioactive material.
The bomb becomes hotter and more
 pressurized…and eventually it explodes
 into the environment releasing radioactive
 fall out into the environment. Additionally
 the shock wave from the bomb can level
 immense areas.
  Thermonuclear fusion bombs
These are generally a lot more powerful
 than a fission bomb. It also has a
 radioactive fall out and shock wave.
   What would happen if a nuclear
      warhead hit America?
The actual target of the warhead would be
  completely destroyed. Those areas that were
  not completely destroyed by the blast would
  receive the radioactive fallout cloud.
The world would go into a “nuclear winter” where
  global temperatures drop (kind of like an ice age
  that destroyed the dinosaurs). Not only would
  the temperature be lethal, the radiation left over
  from the warhead would leave little chance for
“My God, what have we
- Robert Lewis, the co-pilot of the
Enola Gay, the B-29 that dropped
      the first atomic bomb
      The Manhattan Project
• Scientists who fled Europe during WWII
  sought safety in America. These scientists
  told the president about research to
  develop an atomic bomb.
• They tested the bomb in New Mexico in
  July 1945. The mushroom cloud of
  radioactive vapor started at 30,000 feet
• The atomic bomb has only been used
  twice in warfare.
• The first was at Hiroshima (August 6,1945)
   At 8:16 am, 140,000 people were killed
     instantly and 69,000 + were injured.
   An area of one mile in diameter was
The US census department in 2000 recorded Hoover at a population of 67,242 people
• The second bomb was dropped at
  Nagasaki (August 9, 1945)
   40,000 were killed, and 25,000 injured

*Japan surrendered on August 10
Scientific studies in recent years
estimates that only 1/10th of 1%
of each atomic bomb’s explosive
      capabilities was used
 What if you survived the blast?
• Rain that occurs after the blast is filled with
  radiation and many people were poisoned
• Immediate effects included burns, loss of
  eyesight, loss of hearing, cancer
• Children of survivors have a very very high
  rate of leukemia
• Genetic disorders were more common in
  children of survivors

Test of the atomic bomb in New Mexico

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