NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and

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					           DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
          FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION




              PRODUCT DESCRIPTION (PD)


                       NEXCOM II



VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) RECEIVERS AND TRANSMITTERS
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF) RECEIVERS AND TRANSMITTERS




                       DRAFT v0.4
                       FAA-E-3014


                       May 20, 2010


                Technical Operations, ATO
              ATC Communications Directorate
 NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
                                 DRAFT FAA-E-3014 v0.4



                                 RECORD OF CHANGES


Revision      Date                                           Action
  v0.2      5/7/2010   AJP-7B2 Revisions to 4/9/10 draft
  v0.3       5/10/10   AJP-7B2 Revisions to V0.2
  v0.4       5/20/10   Incorporate Subject Matter Expert, Program Office, and AJP-7B2 editorial review




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                                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

1     SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................ 2
    1.1   Identification.............................................................................................................................. 2
    1.2   System Overview....................................................................................................................... 2
2     APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS .................................................................................................... 3
  2.1     Government Documents ............................................................................................................ 3
   2.1.1      Specifications ...................................................................................................................... 3
   2.1.2      Standards ............................................................................................................................. 3
   2.1.3      Other Government Documents ............................................................................................ 3
  2.2     Non-Government Documents .................................................................................................... 4
  2.3     Documentation Sources ............................................................................................................. 4
   2.3.1      FAA Documents .................................................................................................................. 4
   2.3.2      Military and Federal Documents ......................................................................................... 5
   2.3.3      FCC Documents .................................................................................................................. 5
   2.3.4      EIA Documents ................................................................................................................... 5
   2.3.5      NTIA Documents ................................................................................................................ 5
   2.3.6      ETSI Documents ................................................................................................................. 5
   2.3.7      EUROCAE Documents ....................................................................................................... 6
   2.3.8      ISO/IEC Documents ............................................................................................................ 6
   2.3.9      IETF Documents ................................................................................................................. 6
   2.3.10     IEEE/ANSI Documents ....................................................................................................... 6
   2.3.11     OSHA Documents ............................................................................................................... 6
   2.3.12     NFPA Documents................................................................................................................ 6
3     REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................................ 7
  3.1     Definitions ................................................................................................................................. 7
   3.1.1      “Shall” ................................................................................................................................. 7
   3.1.2      “Should” .............................................................................................................................. 7
   3.1.3      “Will” .................................................................................................................................. 7
  3.2     Radio Requirements .................................................................................................................. 7
   3.2.1      Radio Functions and Software Requirements .................................................................... 8
   3.2.2      Performance Requirements ............................................................................................... 10
   3.2.3      Radio Control, Monitoring, and Reporting ....................................................................... 23
  3.3     Interfaces ................................................................................................................................. 31
   3.3.1      Radio Interfaces ................................................................................................................. 31
   3.3.2      Additional Connectors ....................................................................................................... 32
  3.4     Construction Requirements ..................................................................................................... 33
   3.4.1      Physical Requirements ...................................................................................................... 33
   3.4.2      Electrical Requirements..................................................................................................... 39
   3.4.3      Environmental Conditions ................................................................................................. 41
   3.4.4      Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements................................................................... 41
   3.4.5      FCC Equipment Certification ............................................................................................ 42
  3.5     Quality Factors ........................................................................................................................ 42
   3.5.1      Reliability .......................................................................................................................... 42
   3.5.2      Maintainability .................................................................................................................. 42


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   3.5.3     Service Life ....................................................................................................................... 42
4     QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS ................................................................................. 43
  4.1     Testing Conditions .................................................................................................................. 43
   4.1.1     Receiver Test Signals and Conditions ............................................................................... 43
   4.1.2     Transmitter Test Signals and Conditions .......................................................................... 44
   4.1.3     Test Frequencies ................................................................................................................ 44
  4.2     Tests......................................................................................................................................... 45
   4.2.1     Electromagnetic Compatibility Tests ................................................................................ 45
  4.3     Verification Methods and Verification Requirements Traceability Matrix (VRTM) ............. 45
  4.4     Reliability Modeling and Prediction Data ............................................................................... 45
5     PREPARATION FOR DELIVERY .......................................................................................... 46
6     NOTES ......................................................................................................................................... 47
  6.1     Notes on Information Items ..................................................................................................... 47
  6.2     Applicable Definitions ............................................................................................................ 47
   6.2.1     Very High Frequency (VHF) ............................................................................................. 47
   6.2.2     Ultra High Frequency (UHF)............................................................................................. 47
   6.2.3     Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) ............................................................................. 47
   6.2.4     Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) ......................................................................................... 47
   6.2.5     Reserved ............................................................................................................................ 47
   6.2.6     Duty Cycle ......................................................................................................................... 47
   6.2.7     Modular Construction........................................................................................................ 47
   6.2.8     Line Replaceable Unit (LRU)............................................................................................ 47
   6.2.9     Adjacent Channel Emissions ............................................................................................. 48
   6.2.10    Transmitter Spectral Mask ................................................................................................ 48
   6.2.11    Antenna Transfer Relay (ATR) Function .......................................................................... 48
   6.2.12    Initialization....................................................................................................................... 49
   6.2.13    Factory Reset ..................................................................................................................... 50
   6.2.14    Warm Reset ....................................................................................................................... 50
   6.2.15    Service Restoral ................................................................................................................. 50
   6.2.16    Non-Volatile Memory ....................................................................................................... 50
   6.2.17    Equipment Failure ............................................................................................................. 50
   6.2.18    Configuration of Chaining Multiple Radios to a Common Antenna Using the ATR ....... 50
   6.2.19    Equipment Size.................................................................................................................. 52
   6.2.20    Local(ly) ............................................................................................................................ 53
   6.2.21    Remote(ly) ......................................................................................................................... 53
   6.2.22    Push-to-talk (PTT) ............................................................................................................. 53
   6.2.23    Maintenance Data Terminal (MDT) .................................................................................. 54
   6.2.24    MDT Interface Software .................................................................................................... 54
   6.2.25    Interface ............................................................................................................................. 54




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                                                            LIST OF TABLES

Table 3-1 Transmitter Maximum Radio Frequency Output Power Configurations .................................... 8
Table 3-2 Tuning Ranges ............................................................................................................................ 8
Table 3-3 Receiver Selectivity Profile....................................................................................................... 11
Table 3-4 Receiver Image Rejection Undesired Signal .............................................................................. 11
Table 3-5 Receiver Intermodulation Undesired Signals............................................................................ 12
Table 3-6 Receiver Audio Frequency Response Audio Bands .................................................................. 15
Table 3-7 Receiver Collocation Cases ...................................................................................................... 16
Table 3-8 Receiver Rejection of Signals Outside the Band Undesired Signal Cases ............................... 17
Table 3-9 Receiver Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Stabilization Undesired Signal............................... 17
Table 3-10 Transmitter Distortion Audio Input Signal Ranges ................................................................ 18
Table 3-11 Transmitter RF Output Power Ranges .................................................................................... 19
Table 3-12 Transmitter Back Intermodulation Cases ................................................................................ 20
Table 3-13 Transmitter Adjacent Channel Power Mask ........................................................................... 21
Table 3-14 Typical MDT Hardware/Software .......................................................................................... 24
Table 3-15 Minimum Required Control Parameter Set ............................................................................ 26
Table 3-16 Minimum Desired Control Parameter Set ............................................................................... 27
Table 3-17 Minimum Required Query Parameter Set ............................................................................... 28
Table 3-18 Receiver Remote Interface Connector .................................................................................... 32
Table 3-19 Transmitter Remote Interface Connector ................................................................................ 32
Table 3-20 Radio Functions and Labeling ................................................................................................ 38
Table 3-21 Maximum Current Limits ....................................................................................................... 39
Table 3-22 Operating Conditions .............................................................................................................. 41
Table 3-23 Non-Operating Conditions ...................................................................................................... 41
Table 4-1 Rated Audio Bands ................................................................................................................... 44
Table 4-2 Test Frequencies ....................................................................................................................... 44

                                                            LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1      Illustration of Normal, Alert, and Alarm Range for a Parameter ............................................. 30
Figure 6.1      Transmitter Spectral Mask ....................................................................................................... 48
Figure 6.2      Conceptual Illustration of Internal Filter/Antenna Transfer Relay Configuration ................... 49
Figure 6.3      Conceptual Illustration of Transceiver Configuration ............................................................. 51
Figure 6.4      Conceptual Illustration of Transmitter Main/Standby Configuration ...................................... 52
Figure 6.5      Rack Unit Definitions .............................................................................................................. 53

                                                        LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................... A-1




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1                   SCOPE

1.1                 Identification
This document contains the Product Description (PD) for the NEXt generation air/ground (A/G)
COMmunications (NEXCOM) System Very High Frequency (VHF) and Ultra High Frequency
(UHF) radios, to be used for A/G voice communications. This PD describes the features and
performance requirements necessary for the radio equipment to satisfy Segment 2 of the
NEXCOM Program. All requirements in this PD are common to both the VHF and UHF radios,
unless the requirement specifically addresses a particular radio.
1.2                 System Overview
NEXCOM Segment 2 will replace current ground-based analog radios at Terminal and Flight
Service Station (FSS) facility locations with new VHF and UHF radios. The radio equipment
described in this PD will replace aging, unsupportable VHF and UHF radios currently operating
in the National Airspace System (NAS), and will provide radios for future expansion projects and
new facility starts. While the new radios will utilize recent technology components and include
some additional features, they will also support existing legacy interfaces and be physically
compatible with existing equipment. Both the VHF and UHF radios will operate using the
current analog 25 kHz double sideband-amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) waveform with the
capability of operating in the 8.33 kHz International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) defined
Mode for the VHF radio. This PD covers only the ground-based radio equipment to be procured
by the FAA.




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2                       APPLICABLE DOCUMENTS

2.1                     Government Documents
The following documents form a part of this PD and are applicable to the extent specified here. In
case of conflict between the documents referenced here and the contents of this PD, the contents of
this PD take precedence.
2.1.1                   Specifications
             FAA:                                   Federal Aviation Administration
        FAA-G-2100H           Electronic Equipment, General Requirements. May, 2005.
        HF-STD-001            Human Factors Design Standard (HFDS). June 2003.

2.1.2                   Standards
             FAA:                                    Federal Aviation Administration
        FAA-STD-019E          Lightning and Surge Protection, Grounding, Bonding and Shielding
                              Requirements for Facilities and Electronic Equipment. December, 2005.
        FAA-STD-025E          Preparation of Interface Documentation. August, 2002.

            Military:
        MIL-STD-461F          Requirements For The Control Of Electromagnetic Interference Characteristics
                              of Subsystems and Equipment. December, 2007.
        MIL-STD-810G          Department of Defense Test Method Standard. October, 2008.
        MIL-STD-889B          Dissimilar Metals. May, 1993.
        Change Notice 3
        MIL-HDBK-454B         General Guidelines for Electronic Equipment. April, 2007.
        MIL-HDBK-217F         Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment. December, 1991.

             OSHA:                          Occupational Safety and Health Administration
        29 CFR Part 1910      Occupational Safety and Health Standards: Subpart S, Electrical. October, 2008.


2.1.3                   Other Government Documents
              FAA:                               Federal Aviation Administration
        FAA Order             Remote Communications Facilities Installation Standards Handbook. December,
        JO 6580.3B            2007.

              FCC:                                Federal Communications Commission
        47 CFR Part 2         Frequency Allocations and Radio Treaty Matters; General Rules and
                              Regulations. October, 1998.
        47 CFR Part 15        Radio Frequency Devices. October, 1998.
        47 CFR Part 87        Aviation Services. October, 1998.

             NTIA:                 National Telecommunications and Information Administration
        Redbook               Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency
                              Management. January 2008 Edition with Revisions for September 2009.




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2.2                     Non-Government Documents
                                            Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/
           IEEE/ANSI:
                                                 American National Standards Institute
        802.3-2008           IEEE Standard for Information Technology – Telecommunications and
                             Information Exchange between Systems – Local and Metropolitan area
                             Networks – Specific Requirements, Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
                             Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer
                             Specifications. December 2008.
        C62.36-2000          IEEE Standard Test Methods for Surge Protectors Used in Low-Voltage Data,
                             Communications, and Signaling Circuits. 2000.
        C62.41.1-2002        IEEE Guide on the Surge Environment in Low Voltage (1000 V and Less) AC
                             Power Circuits. 2002.
        C62.45-2002          IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Testing for Equipment Connected to
                             Low-Voltage (1000 V and Less) AC Power Circuits. 2002.

              EIA:                                   Electronic Industries Alliance
        EIA/ECA-310-E        Cabinets, Racks, Panels, and Associated Equipment. December 2005.

               ETSI:                     European Telecommunications Standards Institute
        EN-300-676-1         Ground-based VHF Hand-Held, Mobile and Fixed Radio Transmitters,
        (V1.5.1)             Receivers and Transceivers for the VHF Aeronautical Mobile Service Using
                             Amplitude Modulation; Part 1: Technical Characteristics and Methods of
                             Measurement. 2010.

           EUROCAE:                     European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
                             Interoperability Standards for VoIP ATM Components, Part 1: Radio. February
        ED-137 Part 1
                             2009.

               IEC:                          International Electrotechnical Commission
        AS/NZS 60320.1       Appliance Couplers For Household And Similar General Purposes. 2004.
        IEC 60320-1 Ed.2.1   Appliance Couplers for Household and Similar General Purposes – Part 1:
                             General Requirements. 2007.

             IETF:                                  Internet Engineering Task Force
        RFC-791              Internet Protocol. September 1981.
        RFC-2131             Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. March 1997.
        RFC-2132             DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions. March 1997.
        RFC-2460             Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. December 1998.
        RFC-3315             Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6). July 2003.

             NFPA:                               National Fire Protection Association
        NFPA 70              National Electric Code. 2008.

2.3                     Documentation Sources

2.3.1                   FAA Documents
Copies of FAA specifications, standards, and publications may be obtained from the NEXCOM
Contracting Officer, FAA, 800 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20591. Requests
must clearly identify the desired material by number and state the intended use of the material.
The following documents are available for download from FAA Web pages.


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       FAA-G-2100H
        http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/techops/atc_f
        acilities/cm/cm_documentation/guidance/files/FAA-G-2100H.pdf.
       FAA-STD-019E
        http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/nas/system_standards/standards/media/pdf/FAA-STD-
        019E.pdf.
       FAA-STD-025E
        http://www.faa.gov/air%5Ftraffic/nas/system%5Fstandards/standards/media/pdf/FAA-
        STD-025E.pdf.
       Order JO 6580.3B
        http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Order/JO_6580_3B.pdf.
       HF-STD-001
        http://hf.tc.faa.gov/hfds/.
2.3.2             Military and Federal Documents
Single copies of unclassified military and federal specifications, standards, and publications may be
obtained by writing the Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia,
PA 19120, or by calling (215) 697-3321 Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern
Standard Time (EST). The following Department of Defense Web site offers military publications
for download: https://assist.daps.dla.mil/quicksearch/. The following Web page offers guidance in
identifying, locating, or acquiring U.S. military publications and documents:
http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/someplaces.html.
2.3.3             FCC Documents
Copies of 47 CFR, Part 2, Part 15 and Part 87 may be obtained from the Federal Communica-
tions Commission (FCC), 445 12th Street SW, Washington, DC 20554, or downloaded from the
Web at http://www.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/cfrassemble.cgi?title=199847.
2.3.4             EIA Documents
Copies of Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) standards may be obtained from the Electronic
Industries Alliance, 2500 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201-3834, or by calling
(703) 907-7500, or via the Web at http://global.ihs.com/help.cfm?rid=ECA.
2.3.5             NTIA Documents
Copies of National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) materials may
be obtained from NTIA, Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20230, or by calling (202) 377-1832, or through the NTIA Web site at
http://www.ntia.doc.gov. The Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio
Frequency Management, January 2008 Edition (revised September 2009) is available for
download at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/redbook/redbook.html.
2.3.6             ETSI Documents
Copies of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) documents may be obtained
from the ETSI Secretariat at F-06921 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX, France, or from the ETSI Web
site at http://www.etsi.org/WebSite/Standards/Standard.aspx.



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2.3.7            EUROCAE Documents
EUROCAE documents can be purchased via the Web at http://boutique.eurocae.net/catalog/
index.php.   Special requests for printed copies should be made via e-mail to
marie.potez@eurocae.net, or via telephone at +33 1 40 92 79 30.
2.3.8            IEC Documents
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) publications are available for purchase via the
Web at http://www.iec.ch. A standards search engine Web site is located at http://www.nssn.org.
2.3.9            IETF Documents
IETF documents are available for download from http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc.html.
2.3.10           IEEE/ANSI Documents
Copies of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) documents may be requested
as follows: by mail at IEEE Customer Service, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854-4141; by
phone (800) 701-4333 (in the United States and Canada) or (732) 981-0060 (outside the United
States and Canada); or via the following Web site: http://www.ieee.org/web/standards/
home/index.html. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Web site is located at
http://www.ansi.org.
2.3.11           OSHA Documents
Copies of Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) documents may be obtained
from the U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration, 200
Constitution Avenue, Washington, DC 20210. A copy of 29 CFR 1910 may be obtained from the
following Web site at http://www.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/cfrassemble.cgi?title=199829.
2.3.12           NFPA Documents
Copies of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) documents may be obtained from NFPA,
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471. A copy of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code,
may be purchased from the NFPA Web site at http://www.nfpa.org/aboutthecodes/
AboutTheCodes.asp?DocNum=70&cookie%5Ftest=1.




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3                   REQUIREMENTS

3.1                 Definitions

3.1.1               “Shall”
When used in this PD, the word “shall” refers to an explicit requirement of a system component
or the complete system.
3.1.2               “Should”
When used in this PD, the word “should” refers to a desired characteristic of a system
component or the complete system.
3.1.3               “Will”
When used in this PD, the word “will” provides information for a characteristic of a system
component or a complete related system.
3.2                 Radio Requirements
The technical characteristics described in this PD are for ground based VHF and UHF radio
equipment and, unless otherwise specified, apply to both the receiver and transmitter equipment.
A receiver or a transmitter is considered to be a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU).

a) The radio equipment shall1 be implemented as individual UHF and VHF radios, i.e., no
   multiband implementations will be considered.
b) The radio equipment shall2 be implemented as individual receivers and transmitters, i.e., no
   transceivers will be considered.
c) The transmitter(s) shall3 be implemented as either individual low power and high power
   configurations, or as a single extended power range configuration (herein identified as a
   single enclosure) defined in Table 3-1 below.
d) The high power transmitter(s) should1 be implemented as defined by the desired operational
   features defined in Table 3-1 below.
e) A single enclosure transmitter shall4 be user configurable to be a low power or high power
   transmitter with all relevant range settings and parameters adjusted accordingly.
      Note: All requirements within this PD apply to the respective transmit power configuration
      of the single enclosure transmitter unless otherwise stated, i.e., when the transmitter is
      configured as a low power transmitter it is expected to perform the same as if it were an
      individual low power transmitter.
f) The radio equipment shall5 be implemented such that there is no less than one power supply
   per radio, i.e., a single power supply will not supply power for more than one radio.
g) All radio requirements shall6 be met under all operational modes, conditions, and over the
   frequency range(s) specified in this PD.




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        Table 3-1 Transmitter Maximum Radio Frequency Output Power Configurations
                                         Low Power         High Power
                          Case
                                      Transmitter (W)    Transmitter (W)
                          VHF                 10            35 or 50*
                          UHF                 10               50*
                        * Desired operational feature

   Note: The transmitter radio frequency (RF) output power level in Table 3-1 above defines the
   measured power value at the Antenna Transfer Relay (ATR) output port and accounts for
   losses incurred through the ATR and in-line cavity filter. These values apply to individual
   low and high power transmitters or the single enclosure transmitter configured for the
   relevant power mode.
3.2.1             Radio Functions and Software Requirements

3.2.1.1           Modes of Operation
a) The radio equipment shall7 operate in DSB-AM (see section 3.2.1.3) using 25 kHz channel
   spacing.
b) The VHF radio equipment shall8 operate in DSB-AM using 8.33 kHz channel spacing.
c) The VHF radio equipment shall9 be user configurable to allow the equipment to operate in
   either 25 kHz DSB-AM or 8.33 kHz DSB-AM channel spacing configuration.
d) The VHF radio equipment, when configured for 8.33 kHz channel spacing, shall10 operate in
   compliance with ETSI specification EN-300-676 (excluding sections 4.3 and 5).
   Note: If a requirement in this PD (FAA-E-3014) conflicts with a requirement in ETSI
   specification EN-300-676, the requirement of this PD applies.
3.2.1.2           Tuning Ranges
a) The radio equipment shall11 be capable of tuning and operating at all frequencies within the
   relevant band as defined in Case A of Table 3-2 below.
b) The VHF radio equipment shall12 have a user selectable lowest tunable frequency between
   112.000 MHz and 118.000 MHz that is selectable in 25 kHz steps.
c) The VHF radio equipment shall13 have a user selectable lowest tunable frequency between
   112.000 MHz and 118.000 MHz that is selectable in 8.33 kHz channel steps.
d) The VHF radio equipment should2 be capable of tuning and operating at all frequencies
   within the relevant band as defined in Case B of Table 3-2 below.
e) The VHF radio equipment should3 have a user selectable highest tunable frequency between
   137.000 MHz and 150.000 MHz that is selectable in 25 kHz steps.
f) The VHF radio equipment should4 have a user selectable highest tunable frequency between
   137.000 MHz and 150.000 MHz that is selectable in 8.33 kHz steps.

                                    Table 3-2 Tuning Ranges
                                      VHF (MHz)                           UHF (MHz)
           Case
                  25 kHz Channel Spacing 8.33 kHz Channel Spacing   25 kHz Channel Spacing
            A        112.000 to 136.975      112.000 to 136.975        225.000 to 399.975
            B        112.000 to 150.000      112.000 to 150.000               N/A




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3.2.1.3           DSB-AM Modulation Method
a) The radio modulation method shall14 be A3E DSB-AM in accordance with FCC regulations
   in 47 CFR, Part 2, Frequency Allocations and Radio Treaty Matters; General Rules and
   Regulations, October, 1998; and Part 87, Aviation Services, October, 1998; and the NTIA
   Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management (chapter
   6, paragraph 6.3).
3.2.1.4           Firmware and Processor Requirements
a) The radio equipment, as separate entities, shall15 use no more than 50 percent of their non-
   volatile memory (as defined in section 6.2.16, Non-Volatile Memory) for storage under
   worst-case conditions (e.g., when the radio has both the software-in-use and a second
   software version loaded).
b) The radio equipment, as separate entities, shall16 use no more than 50 percent of their
   random-access memory (RAM), under worst-case conditions (e.g., when the radio has both
   the software-in-use and a second software version loaded).
c) Processor utilization of the receiver and transmitter, as separate entities, shall17 peak at 50
   percent or less.
d) The radio equipment shall18 have an internal clock for event logging.
e) The radio equipment shall19 be software/firmware upgradeable.
f) The radio equipment shall20 allow local and remote software upload.
g) The radio equipment shall21 revert to the previous version of software and perform a restart
   and return to the last operational state if a software upload is not completed successfully.
h) The radio equipment shall22 send a control reply message indicating the reason for rejection
   if a software upload is rejected.
i) The vendor shall23 specify the type(s) of non-volatile storage memory used (e.g., flash,
   EEPROM, battery backup), the minimum memory retention time for each component, and
   the procedures to follow to extend this time (e.g., rewriting contents, battery change).
j) All control parameters shall24, upon initialization (as defined in section 6.2.12), assume their
   default values (as defined in section 3.2.3.3 Radio Control Parameters).
3.2.1.5           Radio Service Recovery

3.2.1.5.1         Automatic Radio Service Recovery
a) The radio equipment shall25 automatically recover from AC and DC power interruptions.
b) The radio equipment shall26 resume normal operational service after recovery from AC and
   DC power interruptions.
c) The radio equipment shall27, upon recovery from a facility power interruption, automatically
   restore to operational service using the control parameter set that was in effect for the radio’s
   operational state before the electrical power service disruption.
3.2.1.5.2         User Invoked Radio Service Recovery
a) The radio equipment should5 support provisions that allow for user invoked radio restarts.




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3.2.1.5.3         Radio Service Recovery Restoral Time
a) The receiver shall28 detect the presence of any RF signal at the antenna port, break squelch,
   demodulate, and process and present audio to the respective audio interface ports within 6
   seconds of power reactivation from a facility service restoral.
b) The receiver should6 detect the presence of any RF signal at the antenna port, break squelch,
   demodulate, and process and present audio to the respective audio interface ports within 1
   second of power reactivation from a facility service restoral.
c) The transmitter shall29 re-accept any push-to-talk (PTT) key from a respective PTT key
   interface, process any available audio stream, and modulate into an RF signal for
   transmission at the antenna port within 6 seconds of power reactivation from a facility service
   restoral.
d) The transmitter should7 re-accept any push-to-talk key from a respective PTT key interface,
   process any available audio stream, and modulate into an RF signal for transmission at the
   antenna port within 1 second of power reactivation from a facility service restoral.
3.2.2             Performance Requirements

3.2.2.1           Receiver Requirements
All receiver performance requirements will be validated using standard test signals as described
in sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.3 of this PD unless otherwise stated.
3.2.2.1.1         Receiver Audio Interfaces
a) The receiver shall30 provide a remote analog audio output at the receiver remote interface
   connector (see section 3.3.1.8).
b) The receiver remote analog audio level shall31 be controllable via the Maintenance Data
   Terminal (MDT).
c) The receiver remote analog audio level should8 be controllable via the front panel interface
   (see section 3.3.1.8).
d) The receiver shall32 provide a local analog audio output to be used with a headset/headphone
   (see section 3.3.1.11).
e) The local analog audio output level shall33 be independently controllable from the front panel
   interface.
f) The receiver shall34 have a speaker on the front panel utilizing the local analog audio circuit.
g) The receiver speaker shall35 be disabled when the headset/headphone plug is inserted into the
   local audio output.
h) The remote and local analog audio outputs shall36 have a balanced 600 ohm (±10 percent)
   output impedance.
i) The receiver shall37 be capable of sending Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) audio data via
   the remote Internet Protocol (IP) interface (see section 3.2.3.2.1).
   Note: the terms local(ly) and remote(ly) are defined in sections 6.2.20 and 6.2.21,
   respectively.
3.2.2.1.2         Receiver Sensitivity
a) The receiver RF input shall38 have 50 ohm characteristic impedance.



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b) The receiver shall39 produce a SINAD of 10 dB or greater at the remote audio output when a
   standard desired signal of no more than −102 dBm is present at the receiver RF input.
   Note: A standard desired signal of −102 dBm is herein defined as the rated desired signal
   (see section 4.1.1.2). SINAD is defined as the ratio of (Signal plus Noise Distortion) to
   (Noise plus Distortion).
3.2.2.1.3           Receiver Rejection of Signals Inside the Operating Bands
See section 3.2.2.1.17.
3.2.2.1.4           Receiver Selectivity
a) The selectivity of the receiver shall40 conform to Table 3-3 below with respect to the tuned
   channel center frequency across the entire frequency band.
   Note: VHF receivers are required to meet all the conditions in Cases A, B, and C.
   UHF receivers are required to meet the conditions in Cases A and B for 25 kHz channel
   spacing.
                                Table 3-3 Receiver Selectivity Profile
                                        DSB-AM Bandwidth            DSB-AM Bandwidth
              Case         Level
                                     (25 kHz Channel Spacing)   (8.33 kHz Channel Spacing)
                A         −6.0 dB          9 kHz Minimum             3.5 kHz Minimum
                B         −60.0 dB        25 kHz Maximum            8.33 kHz Maximum
                C         −80.0 dB        50 kHz Maximum             25 kHz Maximum

3.2.2.1.5           Receiver Image Rejection
a) The VHF receiver shall41 not have image frequencies within the 112.000 MHz to 136.975
   MHz band.
b) The VHF receiver should9 not have image frequencies within the 136.975 MHz to 150.000
   MHz frequency band.
c) The UHF receiver should10 not have image frequencies within the 225.000 MHz to
   399.975 MHz frequency band.
d) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 shall42 not be degraded by more than 3 dB in
   the presence of an undesired signal as specified in Table 3-4 below for the relevant receiver
   type.
                      Table 3-4 Receiver Image Rejection Undesired Signal
                              Undesired     Undesired Signal
                Case                                              Undesired Frequencies
                              Modulation      Level (dBm)
                                                                All spurious response
                VHF                CW*            −22           frequencies including
                                                                receiver image frequencies
                UHF                CW*            −32           Any image frequency
              * Continuous Wave




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3.2.2.1.6         Receiver Distortion

3.2.2.1.6.1       Receiver Intermodulation
a) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall43 not be degraded by more than
   3 dB in the presence of two undesired signals as defined in Case A of Table 3-5 below, with
   frequencies chosen such that one of the 3rd order products is located on the receiver
   operating frequency.
b) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall44 not be degraded by more than
   3 dB in the presence of two undesired signals as defined in Case B of Table 3-5 below, with
   frequencies chosen such that one of the 3rd order products is located on the receiver
   operating frequency.
c) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall45 not be degraded by more than
   3 dB in the presence of two undesired signals as defined in Case C of Table 3-5 below, with
   the frequencies of the undesired signals offset from the receiver operating frequency by +2.0
   MHz and +4.0 MHz, or –2.0 MHz and –4.0 MHz, respectively.
d) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall46 not be degraded by more than
   3 dB in the presence of two undesired signals as defined in Case D of Table 3-5 below, with
   frequencies chosen such that the 2nd order products are located on the chosen UHF receiver
   operating frequency.
   Note: VHF and UHF receivers are required to meet Cases A through C. Only UHF receivers
   are required to meet Case D.
                   Table 3-5 Receiver Intermodulation Undesired Signals
                                                              Undesired           Undesired
              Undesired Signal #1    Undesired Signal #2
      Case                                                   Signal Levels     Frequency Band
                 Modulation             Modulation
                                                                (dBm)              (MHz)
              FM, 404 Hz tone with   FM - 404 Hz tone with
       A                                                          −5         87.5 to 107.9
              75 kHz Deviation       75 kHz Deviation
              FM, 404 Hz tone with
       B                             CW                           +5         87.5 to 107.9
              75 kHz Deviation
              DSB-AM, 404 Hz tone    DSB-AM – 404 Hz
       C                                                         −30         Operating Band
              at 90%                 tone at 90%
              DSB-AM, 404 Hz tone
       D                             CW                           +5         118.000 to 136.975
              at 30%

3.2.2.1.6.2       Receiver Cross Modulation
a) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall47 not be degraded by more than
   2 dB in the presence of a standard undesired signal separated by ±0.5 MHz and at a level
   70.0 dB above the rated desired signal.
b) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall48 not be degraded by more than
   2 dB in the presence of a standard undesired signal separated by ±1.0 MHz and at a level
   75.0 dB above the rated desired signal.
c) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall49 not be degraded by more than
   2 dB in the presence of a standard undesired signal separated by ±1.5 MHz and at a level
   80.0 dB above the rated desired signal.
   Note: A standard undesired signal is defined in section 4.1.1.4.

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3.2.2.1.7        Receiver Frequency Tolerance
a) The frequency tolerance of the receiver reference frequency shall50 be within 0.0001 percent
   (1 ppm) of its reference value for a period of one year following alignment over the full
   frequency range specified in section 3.2.1.2, and the temperature range specified in section
   3.4.3.2 (Operating Conditions).
b) The reference used to generate the receiver operating frequency shall51 have a tuning
   adjustment to compensate for aging during the operational life of the equipment.
c) The receiver operating frequency shall52 be adjustable to within 1 ppm of the tuned channel
   center frequency.
d) The external reference frequency monitor port shall53 have an impedance of 50 ohms.
e) The external reference frequency monitor port shall54 have a reference signal level greater
   than or equal to −20 dBm.
f) The receiver shall55 provide an output of the reference frequency signal for measurement,
   testing and alignment.
g) The reference signal monitor port shall56 be sufficiently isolated such that a short circuit
   applied from the monitor port to ground does not degrade the radio performance.
3.2.2.1.8        Receiver Audio Output Control
a) The remote audio output level of the receiver shall57 be adjustable in the range between
   −25 dBm and +20 dBm (−0/+2 dB) in the presence of a standard desired signal.
b) The remote audio output level of the receiver shall58 be adjustable in steps smaller than
   0.5 dB.
c) The remote audio output level of the receiver should11 be adjustable in steps smaller than
   0.25 dB.
d) The local audio output level of the receiver shall59 be adjustable in the range between
   −25 dBm and +20 dBm (−0/+2 dB).
e) The local audio output level of the receiver should12 be adjustable in steps smaller than
   0.5 dB.
3.2.2.1.9        Receiver Audio Level Regulation
a) The remote audio output level of the receiver (adjusted for rated audio output power) shall60
   not vary more than ±1.0 dB as a standard desired signal's modulation is increased from 30 to
   100 percent.
b) The remote audio output level of the receiver (adjusted for rated audio output power) shall61
   not drop more than 4.0 dB when the load resistance is reduced from 600 to 120 ohms.
   Note: The rated audio output power is defined in section 4.1.1.6.
3.2.2.1.10       Receiver Audio Automatic Level Stabilization
a) The remote audio output level of the receiver (adjusted for standard audio output power)
   shall62 not vary by more than ±3 dB from a reference audio level for any standard desired
   signal between −95 dBm and −7 dBm.
   Note: The reference audio level is measured with a −50 dBm standard desired signal. The
   standard audio output is defined in section 4.1.1.7.



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3.2.2.1.11       Receiver Audio Mute and Attenuation
a) The receiver shall63 have a control parameter for muting the receiver remote audio output.
b) The receiver shall64 have a discrete analog input for muting the receiver remote audio output.
c) The receiver mute feature shall65 have provisions to be enabled or disabled both locally and
   remotely.
d) The attenuation level for the muting function shall66 be selectable from −15 dB, −20 dB, or
   no audio (no audio is defined as at least 80 dB down from a reference level of +20 dBm).
e) The tolerances for the selectable attenuation shall67 be 2 dB.
f) The default for the selectable attenuation shall68 be no audio.
g) The muting signal should13 have an attack time no greater than 10 ms.
h) The receiver should14 allow a delayed release of the mute attenuation signal.
i) The receiver mute release delay should15 be configurable from 0 to 250 ms.
j) The receiver mute release delay should16 be adjustable in increments not to exceed 25 ms.
k) The receiver audio shall69 be muted when either the control parameter or the input from the
   receiver remote interface indicate audio muting, and unmute when both indicate no mute.
l) The receiver shall70 provide a confirmation signal via the receiver remote interface for the
   duration of the mute.
3.2.2.1.12       Receiver Average Audio Output
a) The remote audio output level of the receiver (adjusted for rated audio output power) shall71
   be −13 dBm (±2 dB) averaged over 3 seconds with a standard desired signal modulated using
   a Government furnished speech sample.
b) The peak remote audio output level of the receiver (adjusted for rated audio output power
   using a reference desired signal) shall72 not exceed 0 dBm when the reference signal is then
   modulated using a Government furnished speech sample.
   Note: The reference desired signal is defined as a −87 dBm carrier, amplitude modulated
   with a 404 Hz sine wave to a depth of 90 percent. The Government furnished speech sample
   will be made available prior to release of the final Screening Information Request (SIR).
3.2.2.1.13       Receiver Audio Distortion
a) The remote audio output shall73 not be distorted by more than 2.0 percent in the presence of a
   standard desired signal for 30 percent modulation with any RF input level between −67 dBm
   and −27 dBm, for any input tones within the rated audio band for the relevant channel
   spacing configuration.
b) The remote audio output shall74 not be distorted by more than 2.0 percent for 90 percent
   modulation with any RF input level between −67 dBm and −27 dBm, for any input tones
   within the rated audio band for the relevant channel spacing configuration.
   Note: The rated audio band is defined in section 4.1.1.8.

3.2.2.1.14       Receiver Audio Frequency Response
a) The remote audio output level shall75 not vary by more than ±2.0 dB from the level achieved
   with a reference desired signal when the audio input frequency is varied within the rated
   audio band and the reference desired signal level is varied between −102 dBm and −7 dBm.



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   Note: The reference desired signal is defined as a −87 dBm carrier, amplitude modulated
   with a 1004 Hz sine wave to a depth of 90 percent.
b) The remote audio output level shall76 decrease monotonically as the frequency increases
   between the ranges indicated by the high frequency rejection band in Table 3-6 below.
c) The remote audio output level shall77 be at least 20.0 dB down at frequencies indicated by
   the ultimate frequency rejection band of Table 3-6 below.
d) The remote audio output level shall78 decrease monotonically as the audio frequency
   decreases between the ranges indicated in the low frequency rejection band of Table 3-6
   below and be down at least 10.0 dB at 100 Hz.
                   Table 3-6 Receiver Audio Frequency Response Audio Bands
         Channel       Low Frequency    Audio Pass     High Frequency   Ultimate Frequency
         Spacing       Rejection Band      Band        Rejection Band     Rejection Band
          (kHz)             (Hz)           (Hz)             (Hz)               (Hz)
            25            0 to 300      300 to 3000     3000 to 10000         10000+
           8.33           0 to 350      350 to 2500     2500 to 10000         10000+

3.2.2.1.15          Receiver Squelch

3.2.2.1.15.1        Squelch
a) The receiver shall79 have a squelch system consisting of both an RF level threshold (herein
   defined as carrier squelch) and an audio signal-to-noise threshold (herein defined as noise
   squelch).
b) The receiver audio output level shall80 be at or below 10 dBrnC (or −80 dBm) when set for
   squelch-enabled condition and in the presence of an input RF signal level less than the
   squelch RF threshold level.
c) Receiver remote audio level transients due to squelch or RF automatic gain control (AGC)
   action, or a combination of the two, shall81 be 20.0 dB below the audio alignment level under
   any operating conditions with the alignment level ranging between −25 dBm to +20 dBm.
d) The carrier squelch feature shall82 have provisions to be enabled and disabled both locally
   and remotely.
e) The noise squelch feature should17 have provisions to be enabled and disabled both locally
   and remotely.
3.2.2.1.15.2        Receiver Squelch Adjustment, Sensitivity, and Hysteresis
a) The receiver remote and local audio shall83 be enabled when both an audio signal-to-noise
   ratio and RF power level exceed threshold values defined in c) and d) below.
b) The squelch sensitivity shall84 be adjustable both locally and remotely.
c) The audio signal-to-noise threshold value shall85 be adjustable in the range of +5 dB to
   +15 dB in the presence of a DSB-AM signal modulated 30 percent with a 1004 Hz tone.
d) The carrier squelch threshold level shall86 be adjustable in 1 dB steps or less in the range
   from –102 dBm to –65 dBm.
e) The carrier squelch closing hysteresis shall87 be not less than 2 dB and not greater than 7 dB
   with respect to the receiver’s carrier squelch threshold level.



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3.2.2.1.15.3      Receiver Squelch Attack and Release Times
a) The squelch attack time shall88 not exceed 20 ms with any standard desired signal with an RF
   level between −97 dBm and −7 dBm.
b) The squelch attack time should18 not exceed 10 ms with any standard desired signal with an
   RF level between −97 dBm and −7 dBm.
c) The squelch release time shall89 not exceed 35 ms.
3.2.2.1.16        Collocation
a) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 shall90 not be degraded by more than
   a specified value in the presence of a transmitter, configured to be an undesired signal set for
   rated output power (see section 4.1.2.4), when the transmit-receive frequency separation and
   path isolation are as defined in Table 3-7 below.
   Note: VHF radios are only required to meet Cases A and B,
         UHF radios are only required to meet Case C.
b) The sensitivity requirements defined in section 3.2.2.1.2 should19 not be degraded by more
   than a specified value in the presence of a transmitter, configured to be an undesired signal
   set for rated output power, when the transmit-receive frequency separation and path isolation
   are as defined in Case D of Table 3-7 below.
                             Table 3-7 Receiver Collocation Cases
                              Isolation/Separation      Allowable Degradation (dB)
                          Isolation        Separation   Low Power     High Power
                Case
                            (dB)             (MHz)         TX              TX
                 A           42               ≥0.5          10             16
                 B           28              ≥              10             16
                 C           31               ≥3.1          7              14
                 D           31               ≥2.0          14             21

3.2.2.1.17        Receiver Adjacent Channel Rejection
a) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 shall91 not be degraded by more than 3 dB in
   the presence of a −63 dBm adjacent channel (centered on ±25 kHz or ±8.33 kHz,
   respectively) undesired signal, AM modulated 90 percent with a 404 Hz tone.
3.2.2.1.18        Receiver Rejection of Signals Outside the Operating Bands
a) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 shall92 not be degraded by more than 2 dB in
   the presence of an undesired signal as defined in Table 3-8 below.
b) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 should20 not be degraded by more than 2 dB
   in the presence of an undesired signal as defined by the desired features for the VHF case in
   Table 3-8 below.




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     Table 3-8 Receiver Rejection of Signals Outside the Band Undesired Signal Cases
                         Level         Modulation                    Frequency Range
                                     Continuous          All frequencies below and above 109 to
              VHF        0 dBm
                                     Wave                140/153* MHz, respectively
                                     Continuous          All frequencies below and above 222 to 403
              UHF        0 dBm
                                     Wave                MHz, respectively
             * Indicates a desired feature

3.2.2.1.19         Receiver Desired Signal Dynamic Range
a) The receiver shall93 achieve a SINAD of 10 dB or greater in the presence of any standard
   desired signal modulated 90 percent at any RF level ranging from –102 dBm up to –7 dBm.
b) The receiver shall94 not be blocked in the presence of any standard desired signal modulated
   90 percent at any RF level up to +13 dBm.
c) The receiver shall95 not be damaged due to the presence of any standard desired signal,
   unmodulated, at RF levels up to +25 dBm for a duration of 5 minutes or less.
   Note: Blocking is defined as a 3 dB reduction in the audio level referenced to the audio level
   setting at the desired signal input of –7 dBm modulated 90 percent with a 1004 Hz tone.

3.2.2.1.20         Receiver Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Stabilization
a) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 shall96 not be degraded by more than a
   specified level not later than the required attack time after insertion of a specified undesired
   signal.
   Note: The undesired signal, allowable degradation in sensitivity, and attack time are defined
   in Table 3-9 below.
b) The sensitivity requirements of section 3.2.2.1.2 shall97 be met not later than 150 ms after
   removal of an undesired signal as defined in Table 3-9 below.
    Table 3-9 Receiver Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Stabilization Undesired Signal
                                                                           Allowable       Required
                                                                         Degradation        Attack
                                 Undesired Signal
                                                                         in Sensitivity     Time
                                                                              (dB)           (ms)
                     +14 dBm carrier, continuous wave, 2 MHz
             VHF                                                               10             30
                     from the desired frequency
                     +9 dBm carrier, continuous wave, 3.1 MHz
             UHF                                                               7              20
                     from the desired frequency

3.2.2.1.21         Receiver Internal Noise Level
a) The receiver audio output SINAD shall98 be 25 dB or greater in the presence of a −85 dBm
   standard desired signal.
3.2.2.1.22         Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
a) The receiver should21 provide a Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) to the radio control
   equipment/voice switch.


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3.2.2.2          Transmitter Requirements
All transmitter performance requirements will be validated using standard test signals as
described in sections 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 of this PD unless otherwise stated.
3.2.2.2.1        Transmitter Audio Interfaces
a) The transmitter shall99 provide a remote analog audio input at the transmitter remote
   interface connector (see section 3.3.1.9).
b) The remote audio input shall100 have a balanced 600 ohm (±10 percent) impedance.
c) The transmission of the remote audio input shall101 be controlled via a keying signal
   originating from the control site.
d) The transmitter shall102 provide a local analog input to be used with a microphone (see
   section 3.3.1.10).
e) The transmission of the local analog audio input shall103 be controlled via a push-to-talk
   microphone.
f) The transmitter shall104 accept VoIP audio input via the remote IP interface.
g) Only one transmitter audio input (local, remote or VoIP) shall105 be active at one time.
3.2.2.2.2        Transmitter Time-Out
a) The transmitter shall106 contain a time-out function for protection against, and the
   elimination of, extended periods of continuous keying.
b) The adjustable transmitter time-out shall107 range from 5 seconds up to 5 minutes in 5-second
   steps (limiting the maximum continuous keying of the transmitter to this time period).
c) The time-out feature shall108 have provisions for being disabled (see section 3.2.3), both
   locally and remotely, to allow the transmitter unlimited continuous transmit operation.
d) The transmitter shall109 cease radiating upon time-out until the input key signal is removed
   and re-asserted.
3.2.2.2.3        Transmitter Distortion
a) The transmitter modulation distortion shall110 not exceed 5 percent root mean square (RMS)
   with the transmitter modulated at 90 percent with any audio signal as specified for 25 kHz
   channel spacing in Table 3-10 below.
b) The VHF transmitter modulation distortion shall111 not exceed 5 percent RMS with the
   transmitter modulated at 90 percent with any audio signal as specified for 8.33 kHz channel
   spacing in Table 3-10 below.
               Table 3-10 Transmitter Distortion Audio Input Signal Ranges
                      Channel Spacing    Audio Frequency      Audio Input
                          (kHz)            Range (Hz)         Level (dBm)
                            25             300 to 3000        −25.0 to +20
                           8.33            350 to 2500        −25.0 to +20

3.2.2.2.4        Transmitter AM Modulation Level
a) The transmitter shall112 maintain the modulation level at ±10 percent of the transmitter
   modulation setting for a 1004 Hz tone with an audio level that varies over the full specified
   input range.


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b) The transmitter shall113 prevent modulation levels that exceed 100 percent for a 1004 Hz tone
   with an audio level that varies over the full specified input range.
3.2.2.2.5           Transmitter RF Output
a) The transmitter shall114 operate at any power level for a load Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
   (VSWR) up to and including 3.0:1.
b) The transmitter shall115 not suffer any damage nor suffer subsequent performance
   degradation, and meet all requirements after transmitting into a complex impedance of any
   magnitude and phase, including open and short circuit terminations.
c) The transmitter shall116 operate at a VSWR of 2.0:1 or less with no damage, with no part
   exceeding dissipation limits, and with no performance degradation.
d) The transmitter shall117 deliver not less than 50 percent of the set CW RF signal power into any
   impedance having a maximum VSWR of 3.0:1 at any phase angle.
e) The transmitter shall118 deliver the RF output level as defined in Table 3-11 below into
   nominal 50 ohm load impedance when transmitting a CW signal across the relevant operating
   frequency range of the radio.
f) The transmitter shall119 be adjustable in less than or equal to 0.25 dB steps over the full RF
   output range specified in Table 3-11 below.
g) The transmitter shall120 deliver RF power output levels as specified in Cases A and B of Table
   3-11 below.
h) The high power transmitter should22 deliver RF output levels as specified in Case C of Table
   3-11 below.
                         Table 3-11 Transmitter RF Output Power Ranges
                    Case          LRU Type                    RF Output Range
                     A      UHF/VHF Low Power         2 W to 10 W (−0/+2 W)
                     B      VHF High Power            10 W (−0/+2 W) to 35 W (−0/+5 W)
                     C      UHF/VHF High Power        10 W (−0/+2 W) to 50 W (−0/+5 W)

    Note: The ranges described in Table 3-11 above are measured at the ATR output port and
    account for losses incurred through the ATR and in-line cavity filter. That is, a 10 watt
    transmitter must produce a measurable 10 watt continuous wave carrier, within the defined
    tolerance, at the ATR output with all required intermediary paths in-line.
3.2.2.2.5.1         Transmitter Leakage

a) The Transmitter shall121 not produce more than −97 dBm in-band leakage measured at the
   radio RF OUT (see Table 3-20 Radio Functions and Labeling) connector when unkeyed.
3.2.2.2.6           Transmitter Back Intermodulation
a) The amplitude of each radio frequency back intermodulation product shall122 be no greater
   than a specified level when the transmitter (unmodulated and set for rated output power) is
   keyed and an undesired signal, with frequency separation and signal level as defined in Table
   3-12 below, is fed into the transmitter output connector.
  Note:       VHF radios are required to meet the conditions in Cases A and B.
              UHF radios are required to meet the conditions in Cases C and D.

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                    Table 3-12 Transmitter Back Intermodulation Cases
                               Undesired Signal Definition      Maximum
                                                             Intermodulation
                      Case    Signal Level     Separation     Product Level
                                 (dBc)           (MHz)            (dBc)
                       A          −28               2             −68
                       B          −42               0.5           −82
                       C          −31               2             −64
                       D          −31               3.1           −70

3.2.2.2.7        Transmitter Duty Cycle
a) The transmitter shall123 have the capability to operate at a 100 percent duty cycle at its
   maximum rated output.
3.2.2.2.8        Transmitter Spurious Emissions
a) Spurious emission levels within the transmitter’s operating frequency band shall124 meet the
   ultimate noise floor limits imposed by the transmitter mask of section 3.2.2.2.10 when the
   transmitter, set for rated power, is keyed without modulation into a normal load.
b) Spurious emissions that fall outside the transmitter’s operating frequency band shall125 be
   less than –90 dBc when the transmitter, set for rated power, is keyed without modulation into
   a normal load.
c) Spurious emissions levels of the UHF transmitter within the VHF band shall126 meet the
   ultimate noise floor limits imposed by the VHF transmitter mask of section 3.2.2.2.10 when
   the UHF transmitter, set for rated power, is keyed without modulation into a normal load.
   Note: Spurious emissions exclude the harmonics specified in section 3.2.2.2.9.
3.2.2.2.9        Transmitter Harmonic Output
a) The level of each carrier harmonic shall127 be less than −80.0 dBc (−65 dBm within the L5
   (1164 to 1215 MHz) and L1 (1559 to 1610 MHz) band) when the transmitter, set for rated
   power, is keyed without modulation into a normal load.
3.2.2.2.10       Transmitter Adjacent Channel Power
a) The transmitter’s first adjacent channel 25 kHz band-power, shall128 not exceed −40 dBc
   when it is modulated with a standard test signal and configured for 25 kHz channel spacing
   and rated output power.
b) The VHF transmitter’s first adjacent channel 8.33 kHz band-power shall129 not exceed
   −30 dBc when it is modulated with a standard test signal and configured for 8.33 kHz
   channel spacing and rated output power.
c) The transmitter’s adjacent channel 25 kHz band-power shall130 not exceed the limits as
   defined in Table 3-13 below when it is modulated with a standard test signal and configured
   for 25 kHz channel spacing and configured for rated output power.
d) The UHF transmitter’s adjacent channel 25 kHz band-power shall131 not exceed −130 dBc
   within the VHF band, as specified in this PD, when it is modulated with a standard test signal
   and configured for rated output power.



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   Note: See section 6.2.10 for a graphical representation of the transmitter spectral mask or
   Table 3-13 below for a list representation.
                  Table 3-13 Transmitter Adjacent Channel Power Mask
                                 Frequency Band (MHz)                   Limit
                                 Relative to the Carrier                (dBc)
                                                                         −40
                                          ±0.025
                                                                   −30 for 8.33 kHz
                                    ±0.050 through 0.075                 −65
                                    ±0.100 through 0.175                 −70
                   VHF              ±0.200 through 0.375                 −75
                                    ±0.400 through 0.475                 −92
                                    ±0.500 through 0.775                 −100
                                    ±0.800 through 2.000                 −113
                           All frequencies above or below ±2.000         −127
                                           ±0.025                        −40
                                    ±0.050 through 0.075                 −60
                                    ±0.100 through 0.175                 −65
                                    ±0.200 through 0.475                 −70
                   UHF
                                    ±0.500 through 1.975                 −85
                                    ±2.000 through 3.075                 −106
                           All frequencies above or below ±3.100
                                                                        −113
                                   excluding the VHF band

3.2.2.2.11       Transmitter Carrier-Induced Noise (Residual AM)
a) The carrier-induced audio noise level due to the radio transmitting a CW signal shall132 be at
   least 40.0 dB below the detected audio output (300 Hz to 3.0 kHz detected bandwidth) when
   the carrier is modulated with a standard test signal.
   Note: The detected audio bandwidth is defined in Table 4-1.

3.2.2.2.12       Transmitter Keying
a) The transmitter shall133 continue to transmit while a key signal is present except when the
   transmitter time-out setting has been exceeded.
b) The transmitter shall134 accept both local and remote key signals.
   Note: Remote key signals include key commands sent via VoIP over the remote IP interface.
c) The transmitter shall135 also be keyed using a Test PTT command through the MDT
   interface.
d) Remote key signals shall136 take priority over local key signals and MDT Test PTT
   command.
   Note: Push-to-talk is further defined in section 6.2.22.

3.2.2.2.12.1     Transmit Key Remote Interface Signals
a) The remote key signals for current or voltage control shall137 be on separate pins of the
   transmitter connector (see Table 3-19).



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   NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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b) Both voltage and current key signal interfaces shall138 incorporate debounce circuitry that
   minimizes the generation of false key events.
c) The transmitter shall139 key when a voltage between +8 VDC and +48 VDC is applied to the
   voltage key input.
d) The voltage key signal sink current shall140 not exceed 0.5 mA.
e) The transmitter shall141 key when a signal ground is re-routed back (looped) to the
   transmitter's ground (current) keying input through an impedance of less than 100 ohms.
f) The ground key signal source current shall142 not exceed 10 mA.
g) The ground key signal shall143 not generate a pull-up voltage exceeding 40 volts.
h) A Transmit Confirmation signal shall144 be provided at the transmitter remote connector for
   as long as the transmitter is keyed.
3.2.2.2.12.2      Transmit Key Local Microphone Signal
a) The local key signal shall145 be via a push-to-talk microphone connected directly to the
   transmitter front panel microphone input.
3.2.2.2.12.3      Transmit Key Time
a) The transmit key time, including key debounce time, shall146 not exceed 30 ms as measured
   from the application of a key signal to the time when the transmitter is at 90 percent of the
   full power level.
b) The debounce circuit delay should23 not be less than 10 ms.
3.2.2.2.13        Transmitter Frequency Tolerance
a) The transmitter frequency tolerance shall147 be within 1.0 ppm for any one year period
   following alignment over the full frequency range specified in section 3.2.1.2 and the
   temperature range specified in section 3.4.3.2.
b) The reference used to derive the transmitter operating frequency shall148 have a tuning
   adjustment adequate to compensate for aging during the operational life of the equipment.
c) The frequency shall149 be adjustable within ±0.0001 percent (1 ppm).
3.2.2.2.14        Antenna Transfer Relay (ATR) Operation
a) The transmitter shall150 include an ATR function that connects a single shared antenna to the
   host transmitter (i.e., the transmitter with both the ATR function and the direct connection to
   the antenna) and another radio.
   Note: Typical ATR configurations are illustrated in section 6.
b) The ATR shall151 support the following antenna configurations:
   1) Transmitter/Receiver on the same frequency for transceiver (T/R) operation.
   2) Transmitter/Transmitter on the same frequency for TX Main/Standby (TX M/S)
        operation.
c) The ATR shall152 be controlled by the host radio’s need to transmit.
d) The ATRC (common) connector shall153 be routed to the ATR2 connector when the antenna
   is in use by the host transmitter (actively transmitting).
e) The ATRC (common) connector shall154 be routed to the ATR1 connector when the antenna
   is not in use by the host transmitter.



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f) Failure of the host transmitter shall155 not prevent or degrade the ATRC to ATR1 path (e.g.,
   the failed or default path is ATRC to ATR1).
g) The ATR shall156 provide sufficient isolation between the ATR1 and ATR2 connector paths
   during radio transmissions (ATRC to ATR2) to prevent signals stronger than –7 dBm from
   reaching the receiver (ATR1) in the T/R configuration.
h) The ATR shall157 provide sufficient leakage from the transmitter (ATR2) to the receiver
   (ATR1) to allow the receiver(s) to monitor if the transmitter is operating, without damaging
   the receiver(s) in the T/R configuration.
i) The ATR shall158 provide sufficient isolation between the ATR1 and ATR2 connector paths
   to prevent damage to the non-radiating transmitter in the TX M/S configuration.
j) The ATR operation shall159 allow for the use of the internal filter and/or an external RF filter
   in any configuration.
k) The radio shall160 be equipped with external, removable jumpers capable of operational use
   to provide connectivity between the following connectors:
   1) The RF and ATR2 connectors,
   2) The RF to FILTER IN connectors,
   3) The FILTER OUT to ATR2 connectors, and
   4) The receiver’s FILTER OUT to RF IN connector.
l) The ATR shall161 have a maximum allowable loss of 0.5 dB through ATR1 to ATRC and
   ATR2 to ATRC.
m) The ATR Switch shall162 not degrade the:
   1) Performance of the transmitter connected directly to the antenna;
   2) Performance of the transmitter connected to the antenna through its ATR switch;
   3) Performance of a second transmitter connected to the antenna through the ATR switch;
   4) Performance of the receiver connected to the antenna through the ATR switch, except as
       specified in item l) above.
3.2.3             Radio Control, Monitoring, and Reporting
a) The radio equipment shall163 allow control and monitoring by interface and interoperation
   with a Maintenance Data Terminal (MDT).
b) The radio equipment should24 allow control and monitoring by interface and interoperation
   through a front panel interface.
   Note: A front panel interface is defined as a touch panel or a display screen in conjunction
   with buttons and/or knobs.
c) The radio equipment shall164 record parameter changes and alert and alarm conditions to an
   internal event log.
d) The radio equipment should25 record monitored parameters to an internal event log.
e) The radio equipment should26 provide unsolicited alert and alarm conditions via the MDT
   interface.
f) The radio equipment shall165 continue to operate without degradation in performance when
   the MDT is either connected or disconnected.
g) The radio equipment shall166 continue to operate without degradation in performance with an
   MDT connected and logged in.



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3.2.3.1          Radio Control

3.2.3.1.1        Maintenance Data Terminal (MDT) Interface
The following requirements, which support the MDT operation, apply to the radio receiver and
transmitter.
a) The radio equipment shall167 accept control input, reply to parameter queries, and provide
    alarm and alert indications via the MDT connector(s).
b) The radio equipment should27 provide monitoring output via the MDT connector(s).
c) The MDT interface shall168 be addressable such that communication with an individual radio
    within a group of radios is accomplished by addressing that individual radio for monitoring
    and control through the software via an MDT.
d) The MDT interface shall169 be defined in a contractor developed Interface Control Document
    (ICD) prepared in accordance with FAA-STD-025E that, at a minimum, includes the
    following: interface connection protocols, radio command/query/monitoring parameter
    syntax, addressing protocols, error checking protocols, and built-in error messages.
   Note: The ICD will be of sufficient detail such that second-party MDT software can be
   developed.
e) All radio generated error codes shall170 be documented in the ICD as well as in the technical
   instruction book supplied to the FAA.
3.2.3.1.1.1      Maintenance Data Terminal Interface Software
a) The MDT interface software shall171 implement, at a minimum, the required control, query,
   and monitoring features as described in this PD (see sections 3.2.3.3, 3.2.3.4, and 3.2.3.5).
b) The MDT interface software shall172 meet specified requirements while operating on industry
   standard laptop/notebook personal computers that are configured, at a minimum, as depicted
   in Table 3-14 below.
c) The MDT interface software should28 be capable of capturing and storing to a file the current
   configuration settings of any radio to which it is connected.
d) The MDT interface software should29 be capable of uploading configuration data from a file
   to the radio in order to return the radio to a previously saved state.
                        Table 3-14 Typical MDT Hardware/Software
                  Hardware/Software                   Specification/Details
                Operating System         Windows XP
                Browser                  Windows Internet Explorer 6.0 Service Pack 2
                CPU                      Intel Core 2 Duo T7500
                Memory                   1 GB RAM
                Hard Drive               250 MB available
                Network Adapter
                One PCMCIA Slot
                Modem
                DVD / CD Drive
                USB Ports
                Graphics                 600x800 resolution minimum




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     NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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3.2.3.1.2          Front Panel Interface
a) The radio equipment should30 have a front panel interface for control functions as follows.
3.2.3.1.2.1        Front Panel Interface Control Functions
a) The radio front panel interface should31 implement all control functions required to tune the
   radio without the need of an MDT.
b) The VHF radio front panel interface should32 include the capability to change the mode of
   operation (25 kHz or 8.33 kHz ).
3.2.3.2            Internet Protocol (IP) Interface

3.2.3.2.1          Remote IP Interface
a) The radio equipment shall173 have a remote IP interface.
b) The radio equipment shall174 be connected to remote network devices via the remote IP
   connector (see section 3.3.2.2 a)).
3.2.3.2.2          Local IP Interface
The following requirements only apply if the vendor implements an IP based MDT:
a) The radio shall175 have a local IP interface.
b) The radio shall176 connect to the MDT via the local IP connector (see section 3.3.2.2 b)).
c) The radio remote and local IP interfaces shall177 have independent MAC addresses.
d) The radio remote and local IP interfaces shall178 be independently configurable.
3.2.3.2.3          IP Interface Standards
a) The IP interface(s) shall179 support Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as described in Internet
   Engineering Task Force (IETF) publication RFC-791.
b) The IP interface(s) shall180 support IPv6 as described in IETF publication RFC-2460.
c) The IP interface(s) data link layer shall181 be Ethernet as described in Institute of Electrical
   and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 802.3-2008.
d) The IP interface(s) physical layer shall182 be 10BASE-T as described in IEEE standard 802.3-
   2008.
e) The IP interface(s) physical layer should33 be 100BASE-TX as described in IEEE standard
   802.3-2008.
f) The remote IP interface shall183 support Voice over IP (VoIP) as described in EUROCAE
   ED-137 specification, Part I.
g) The IP interface(s) shall184 be software upgradeable in order to support future FAA approved
   protocols and standards.
3.2.3.2.4          IP Interface Configuration
a)   The IP interface(s) shall185 be configurable via the MDT.
b)   The IP interface(s) should34 be configurable via the front panel interface.
c)   The IP interface(s) shall186 support static configuration.
d)   The IP interface(s) shall187 support dynamic configuration by means of the Dynamic Host
     Configuration Protocol (DHCP) as described in IETF RFC-2131 (IPv4), IETF RFC-2132
     (IPv4), and IETF RFC-3315 (IPv6).



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   NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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3.2.3.3             Radio Control Parameters
a) The radio shall188 allow manipulation of all control parameters such that the range and
   increment outlined in this PD is achieved.
b) The radio shall189 at a minimum allow for the setting of the relevant parameters defined in
   Table 3-15 below.
c) The radio should35 at a minimum allow for the setting of the relevant parameters defined in
   Table 3-16 below.
   Note: Parameter names need not conform to those listed below (e.g., Operating Frequency
   may also be called Current Frequency).
                      Table 3-15 Minimum Required Control Parameter Set
                        Applicable
     Parameter                             Applicable Ranges            Default Setting           Increment
                          Radio(s)
Mode of Operation      VHF           25 kHz or 8.33 kHz         25 kHz                       N/A
Operating Frequency    All           VHF 112.000 to 136.975 MHz VHF 118.000 MHz              VHF 25 kHz or
                                     UHF 225.000 to 399.975 MHz UHF 225.000 MHz              VHF 8.33 kHz
                                                                                             UHF 25 kHz
Time1                  All           N/A                             1/1/2000                N/A
                                                                     (month/day/year)
Upload Software        All           Momentary (Initiates a          Not asserted            N/A
                                     software upload to the radio)
Transmitter Power      Transmitter   Low or High Power               Low Power               N/A
Mode                   (single
                       enclosure)
RF Output Level        Transmitter           Low       High          Lowest power setting    ≤0.25 dB
                                      VHF                            of the transmitter or
                                             2 to 10   10 to 35      transmitter power
                                      (W)
                                      UHF                            mode
                                             2 to 10   10 to 50
                                      (W)
Transmitter            Transmitter   0 to 100%                       The setting that        ≤1%
Modulation                                                           corresponds to 95%
                                                                     voice modulation
                                                                     peaks
Transmission Timeout Transmitter     0 to 5 min                      0s                      5s
                                                                     (timeout disabled)
ATR Switch Operation Transmitter     Normal, ATR1 or ATR2            Normal                  N/A
Test Push-to-talk    Transmitter     Momentary (Initiates an         Not asserted            N/A
                                     internal key signal)
Receiver Mute Enable Receiver        Toggle (Enabled or Disabled)    Disabled                N/A
Receiver Mute Level  Receiver        −15 dB, −25 dB, No audio        No audio                N/A




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                     Table 3-15 Minimum Required Control Parameter Set (Cont.)
                           Applicable
         Parameter                           Applicable Ranges                Default Setting         Increment
                            Radio(s)
    RF Squelch Control    Receiver      Toggle (Enabled or Disabled)        Enabled                 N/A
    RF Squelch Threshold Receiver       −102 to −65 dBm                     −102 dBm                ≤1 dB
    Audio Signal-to-Noise Receiver      +5 to +15 dB                        10 dB                   ≤1 dB
    Squelch Threshold
    Audio Output Level    Receiver      −25 to +20 dBm                      −8 dBm                  ≤1 dB
    Mute Delay Release    Receiver      0 to 250 ms                         0 ms                    ≤25 ms
    Time2
1
        The Time parameter is only required if a time/date stamp is used.
2
        The Mute Delay Release Time parameter is only required if the receiver has a configurable
        delayed mute attenuation (as outlined in paragraph 3.2.2.1.11 h)).
                         Table 3-16 Minimum Desired Control Parameter Set
                           Applicable
        Parameter                             Applicable Ranges               Default Setting         Increment
                            Radio(s)
Lowest Tunable            VHF           112.000 to 118.000 MHz              118.000 MHz             25 kHz or
Frequency                                                                                           8.33 kHz
Highest Tunable           VHF           136.975 to 150.000 MHz              136.975 MHz             25 kHz or
Frequency                                                                                           8.33 kHz
Reset                     All           Warm (Restart while retaining       Warm                    N/A
                                        control parameter settings) or
                                        Factory (Restart after returning
                                        all control parameters to default
                                        values)
Reference Oscillator      All           A range that will be adequate to    Factory alignment       ≤1 ppm
                                        compensate for aging during the     setting that achieves
                                        operational life of the             the oscillator center
                                        equipment                           frequency
Modulation Limiter        Transmitter   0 to 100%                           Aligned to limit at     ≤1%
                                                                            99% peaks
Audio Output Level    Receiver          −25 to +20 dBm                      −8 dBm                  ≤0.25 dB
Audio Signal-to-Noise Receiver          Toggle (Enabled or Disabled)        Enabled                 N/A
Squelch Threshold
Enable

3.2.3.4                Radio Query Parameters
a) The radio shall190 allow for querying of all implemented control parameters.
b) The radio shall191, at a minimum, allow for querying parameters as defined in Table 3-17
   below in addition to the minimum set of control parameters as defined in section 3.2.3.3.




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   NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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                       Table 3-17 Minimum Required Query Parameter Set
                 Applicable
    Query                                                        Description
                    Radio
 Radio ID       All            The Radio ID Number query returns the unique identification number assigned
                               to the LRU(s) of the radio equipment/unit. (Identification may include Media
                               Access Control (MAC) address or some other equipment-unique identification
                               number.)
 Radio Status   All            Radio Status query returns the Normal/Alert/Alarm/Fail or other internal status
                               indications, i.e., Power Supply (PS) voltages and/or feedback loops.
 Radio State    All            Radio State query returns all the parameter settings associated with the radio.
 Firmware       All            The Firmware Version query returns all versions of the software active in the
 Version                       VHF and UHF component.
 Radio Type     All            The Radio Type query returns a complete description of the radio being queried
                               including, but not limited to: make, model, frequency band of operation,
                               transmitter or receiver, RF power (if transmitter) and (mode of operation if
                               VHF radio).
 In-Service     All            The In-Service Time query returns the number of hours the radio equipment has
 Time                          been powered.
 Event Log      All            The Event Log query returns all events currently within the log.
 PTT Status     Transmitter    The PTT Status query returns the current key line activity (Local, Remote, Test
                               PTT or Not Asserted).
 Squelch        Receiver       The squelch Break Status query returns the status of the squelch circuit (open or
 Break Status                  closed).

3.2.3.5               Radio Monitoring and Reporting
a) The radio monitoring function should36 perform real-time system performance monitoring
   and provide real-time system performance reporting when the radio is operating (see section
   3.2.3.5.2).
b) The radio should37 only support those Monitoring and Reporting functions to which it can
   report within specified tolerances.
c) The radio monitoring and reporting of parameters should38 consist of, as a minimum, the
   following:
   1) The execution of measurements on those parameters to obtain collected/calculated data.
   2) The comparison of the collected/calculated data to the stored system parameter thresholds
       and/or element status to determine whether each data element and/or element status is
       within the specified limits.
   3) The reporting of the results of those parameters and/or element status determinations.
d) All radio monitoring messages, upon request, should39 be sent to the MDT.
e) The alert and alarm status messages should40 be sent within 4 seconds of when the parameter
   being monitored crosses the threshold level.
3.2.3.5.1             Non-Congesting Monitoring
a) The radio should41 monitor automatically on a continuous basis without blocking or delaying
   operational communications and management and without the need for the insertion of an
   external command.
b) The radio monitoring should42 not cause the radio function to degrade below requirements
   during operation of the system.

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c) The radio monitoring should43 not prevent the reception and processing of commands
   regardless of the frequency of alarm and alert status messages.
3.2.3.5.2         Radio Monitoring Parameters
a) The radio should44 include all of the sensors, devices, and algorithms required to provide for
   parameter, state, and failure monitoring.
b) The radio should45 monitor the following respective unit parameters as a minimum:
   1) Elapsed Time,
   2) Tuned Frequency,
   3) Receiver Squelch,
   4) Receiver Audio Output Level,
   5) Receiver Mute,
   6) Receiver Mute Level,
   7) Transmitter Power Output,
   8) Transmitter Modulation,
   9) Transmitter ATR Control,
   10) Transmitter Timeout,
   11) Transmitter PTT.
3.2.3.5.3         Event Log
a) The radio event log shall192 contain a minimum of 100 events.
b) The radio event log should46 contain a minimum of 500 events.
c) The radio event log should47 be implemented as a First In/First Out (FIFO) data buffer.
3.2.3.5.3.1       Event Log Entries
a) Event log entries should48 contain a time stamp (either elapsed time or time and date)
   indicating when the event occurred.
b) Event log entries should49 be created for each change to a control parameter.
c) Event log entries capturing a control parameter change should50 include the previous setting
   and the current setting.
d) Event log entries shall193 be created for any Alert condition, indicating the cause of the Alert
   condition.
e) Event log entries shall194 be created for any Alarm condition, indicating the cause of the
   Alarm condition.
f) Event log entries shall195 be created for any Fail condition, indicating the cause of the Fail
   condition.
g) Event log entries shall196 be created when the radio returns to a Normal condition from an
   Alert, Alarm, or Fail condition.
3.2.3.5.3.2       Event Log Access
a) The event log shall197 be accessible via the MDT.
b) The event log should51 be accessible via a front panel interface.
3.2.3.5.4         Alarm and Alert Processing
a) The radio parameters to be monitored should52 be described by three monitored parameter
   states:


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   NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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   1) Normal
   2) Alert
   3) Alarm
b) The monitored parameter states should53 be defined by a range of values that are adjoined
   such that the value range of the alert state is bordering on the normal state at one end of its
   range and the alarm state on the other side of its range. Figure 3.1 illustrates the Normal,
   Alert, and Alarm range for a parameter that has both and upper and lower alert and alarm
   range.
   Note: Monitored parameters may have alarm and alert ranges on both sides of the normal
   range, on just one side, and may have both alert ranges and alarms ranges, or just an alarm or
   an alert range.
c) A monitored parameter should54 change state when the monitored parameter value
   transitions from a value within one range to a value within another range, if applicable for the
   parameter. The monitored parameter shall198 be defined by a range of values that are adjoined
   such that the value range of the alert state is bordering on the normal state at one end of its
   range and the alarm state on the other side of its range (see Figure 3.1).




        Figure 3.1 Illustration of Normal, Alert, and Alarm Range for a Parameter

d) The radio should55 determine the change between normal state, alert state, and alarm state of
   radio status parameters by comparing data to pre-established thresholds.
e) The radio should56 apply a discriminating function (hysteresis) at the boundaries of the
   ranges to minimize the declaration of alarms and alerts generated under monitored parameter
   transient conditions.
f) The radio should57 automatically declare an alert event when a monitored parameter and/or
   element status changes to a value that is outside the normal range but within the alert range.
g) The radio should58 not generate spurious alert events.
h) The radio should59 automatically declare a return to normal event when a monitored
   parameter and/or element status that was previously outside the normal range changes to a
   value that is inside the normal range.
i) The radio should60 automatically declare an alarm event when a monitored parameter and/or
   element status changes to a value crossing from the normal or alert range to the alarm range.
j) The radio should61 not generate erroneous alarm events.
k) The radio should62 automatically declare a state change event when the value changes for a
   monitored parameter and/or element status that indicates a configuration change to the radio.
l) The radio state change event should63 be reported once per occurrence.


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3.2.3.6             Vendor Built-in Test (BIT)
a) The vendor shall199 make their built-in test results for the radio accessible to the FAA.
3.3                 Interfaces

3.3.1               Radio Interfaces

3.3.1.1             Radio Frequency (RF) Connectors
a) External radio frequency (RF) connectors for the transmitter output and receiver input
   shall200 be 50 ohm coaxial type N female located on back of the radio.
3.3.1.2             FILTER IN Connector
a) The FILTER IN connector shall201 be used for the input to the internal filter.

3.3.1.3             FILTER OUT Connector
a) The FILTER OUT connector shall202 be used for the output from the internal filter.

3.3.1.4             Transmitter ATRC Connector
a) The transmitter ATRC connector shall203 be used for the antenna connection in the
   configurations based on section 3.2.2.2.14.

3.3.1.5             Transmitter ATR1 Connector
a) The transmitter ATR1 connector shall204 be used for the client radio connection in the
   configurations based on section 3.2.2.2.14.

3.3.1.6             Transmitter ATR2 Connector
a) The transmitter ATR2 connector shall205 be used for the host radio connection in the
   configurations based on section 3.2.2.2.14.

3.3.1.7             Electrical Input Power Connectors
a) The AC power connector shall206 be an International Electrotechnical Commission
   IEC 60320-1 SS C14 connector equipped with a locking mechanism mounted on the rear of
   the radio chassis.
b) The DC power connector shall207 be a two-conductor polarized male connector equipped
   with a locking mechanism mounted on the rear of the radio chassis.
3.3.1.8             Receiver Remote Interface Connector
a) This electrical connector shall208 be located on the rear of the receiver.
b) Signals and their levels shall209 be as in Table 3-18 below.




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                         Table 3-18 Receiver Remote Interface Connector
                                                               Impedance    Input /
        Signal                      Level                                                     Notes
                                                                 (ohm)      Output
 Voice Audio         As per the setting of the receiver       600 60      Output
                                                                                       10 mA maximum
                     ( < 100 Ω to ground) – Muted
 Receiver Mute                                                             Input       <40 VDC
                     (Open [> 1 MΩ] ) – Unmuted
                                                                                       Grounded to Mute
 Receiver Mute       < 10 Ω = Confirm, Open [> 1 MΩ]                                   1 A maximum,
                                                                           Output
 Confirmation        = Not active                                                      <80 VDC
                     < 10 Ω = Active, Open [> 1 MΩ] =                                  1 A maximum,
 Squelch Break                                                             Output
                     Not active                                                        <80 VDC
 *Receive Signal
 Strength Indicator As specified by the vendor                > 1,000      Output
 (RSSI)
 * RSSI is a desired feature.

3.3.1.9             Transmitter Remote Interface Connector
a) This electrical connector shall210 be located on the rear of the transmitter.
b) Signals and levels shall211 be as in Table 3-19 below.

                      Table 3-19 Transmitter Remote Interface Connector
                                                               Impedance     Input /
        Signal                      Level                                                     Notes
                                                                 (ohm)       Output
 Voice Audio         As per setting of the transmitter        600 60      Input
 Transmitter
                     ( < 100 Ω to ground) – Keyed                                      10 mA maximum
 Ground (Current)                                                          Input
                     (Open [> 1 MΩ] ) – Unkeyed                                        <40 VDC
 Key
 Transmitter         Threshold = Keyed, Open or <                                      0.5 mA maximum Sink
                                                                           Input
 Voltage Key         Threshold = Unkeyed                                               Includes Hysteresis
 Transmit            < 10 Ω = Transmitting, Open [> 1                                  1 A maximum
                                                                           Output
 Confirmation        MΩ] = Not active                                                  <80 VDC

3.3.1.10            Transmitter Local Microphone Connector
a) The transmitter local microphone connector shall212 be located on the front panel of the
   transmitter.
3.3.1.11            Receiver Local Headset Connector
a) The radio receiver local headset connector shall213 be located on the front panel of the radio
   receiver and be a stereo type connector for headphone connectivity.
3.3.2               Additional Connectors

3.3.2.1             MDT Connector
a) The connector for the MDT shall214 be located on the front panel of the receiver and
   transmitter.
b) The MDT connector and associated protocol shall215 be compatible with commercially
   available laptops.

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c) An MDT connector should64 be provided on the rear of the receiver and transmitter.
d) If an MDT connector is provided on the rear of the transmitter and receiver, then it shall216
   have its operation pre-empted by the MDT connector on the front panel when the front panel
   connector is in use.
      Note: The above requirements are for non-proprietary physical and electrical interfaces and
      protocols ( i.e., USB 2.x or greater) and Ethernet.
3.3.2.2             Internet Protocol (IP) Interface Connector
a) A remote Internet Protocol (IP) interface connector shall217 be provided on the rear of the
   radio.
b) A local IP interface connector shall218 be provided on the front of the radio.
      Note: The local IP interface connector is only required if the vendor provides an IP based
      MDT.
3.3.2.3             Reference Frequency Monitor Connector
a) The reference frequency monitor connector shall219 be located on the front panel of the
   receiver.
b) The connector shall220 be a female BNC with shielded termination.
3.4                 Construction Requirements

3.4.1               Physical Requirements

3.4.1.1             Workmanship
a) Workmanship shall221 be in accordance with the requirements of MIL-HDBK-454B, Guideline
   9.
3.4.1.2             Equipment Size
a) All the following radio sizing requirements shall222 be inclusive of any added filtering for
   transmitters and receivers, power amplifiers and antenna transfer relays for the transmitters,
   as well as power supplies.
      1) The receiver and transmitter shall223 be constructed to allow for installation into a
         standard EIA 19-inch equipment rack.
      2) Mounting hole dimensions, spacing, and panel size shall224 be as specified in EIA/ECA-
         310-E.
      3) The radio shall225 not protrude greater than 2 inches from the front mounting plane.
      4) The radio shall226 be no deeper than 18.5 inches from the radio face.
      5) The receiver height shall227 be such that the unit height (in rack units of 1.75 inches) of
         the radio frame/chassis divided by the number of individual radios in that chassis is less
         than or equal to 2.
      6) The low power or single enclosure transmitter height shall228 be such that the unit height
         (in rack units of 1.75 inches) of the radio frame/chassis divided by the number of
         individual radios in that chassis is less than or equal to 3.




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   7) The high power transmitter height shall229 be such that the unit height (in rack units of
      1.75 inches) of the radio frame/chassis divided by the number of individual radios in that
      chassis is less than or equal to 4.
   8) The combined height of a low power or single enclosure transmitter and a receiver
      (TX/RX) shall230 be such that the unit height (in rack units of 1.75 inches) of the radio
      frame/chassis divided by the number of transmitter/receiver pairs in that chassis, is less
      than or equal to 5.
   9) The combined height of a high power transmitter and a receiver (TX/RX) shall231 be such
      that the unit height (in rack units of 1.75 inches) of the radio frame/chassis divided by the
      number of transmitter/receiver pairs in that chassis, is less than or equal to 6.
   Note: See section 6 for further information.
3.4.1.3           Equipment Weight
a) The weight of an individual receiver shall232 not exceed 35 pounds.
b) The weight of an individual low power transmitter or single enclosure transmitter shall233 not
   exceed 35 pounds.
c) The weight of an individual high power transmitter shall234 not exceed 73 pounds.
3.4.1.4           Nameplates
a) Each radio provided shall235 have a nameplate mounted on the front of the unit and include the
   name of the manufacturer, the model number, the electrical input power requirements, the serial
   number, the national stock number and the manufacturer’s code.
3.4.1.5           Radio Installation/Removal
a) The radio equipment shall236 be constructed to be installed, removed, and reinstalled with a
   minimum of common tools and without extensive disassembly.
3.4.1.6           Radio Set-Up
a) The radio equipment shall237 be initially set up and adjusted under normal operating
   conditions (see section 3.4.3.2), and following the procedures in the technical instruction
   book.
3.4.1.7           Radio Warm-up
Reserved
3.4.1.8           Thermal Protection
a) The radio equipment shall238 not be damaged by over-temperature/over-heat conditions. See
   section 3.4.3.2.
b) The thermal circuit shall239 not cause a reduction in operation (power output) when operating
   within the duty cycle and environmental conditions specified.
3.4.1.9           Shock and Vibration Protection
a) The radio equipment shall240 meet the shock requirements listed in MIL-STD-810G; Method
   516.6; Procedures II, IV, and VI (Material to be Packed, Transit Drop, and Bench Handling).
b) The radio equipment shall241 meet the vibration requirements listed in MIL-STD-810G,
   Method 514.6, Procedure I (General Vibration).


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3.4.1.10           Grounding, Bonding, and Shielding
a) The radio grounding requirements shall242 be as specified in FAA-STD-019E, sections 4.1.2,
   4.3.4, 4.3.5, and their associated subsections.
b) The radio bonding requirements shall243 be as specified in FAA-STD-019E, section 4.1.1,
   and its associated Subsections.
c) The radio shielding protection requirements shall244 be as specified in FAA-STD-019E,
   section 4.1.2, 4.3.6, and their associated subsections.
d) The grounding lug shall245 be located on the back left side of the radio equipment as viewed
   from the rear.
3.4.1.11           Acoustical Noise Criteria Requirement
a) Sound pressure and acoustic noise levels generated by the radio equipment in normal
   operation shall246 not exceed 65 dB(A).
3.4.1.12           Materials, Processes, and Parts
a) All parts and materials used in the radio equipment shall247 be new.
b) The radio components shall248 be equal to or better than those components meeting the
   applicable EIA standards and suitable for the purpose intended.
c) All parts used in radio equipment shall249 be operated within their electrical ratings and the
   environmental requirements of this specification.
3.4.1.12.1         Ferrous Materials
a) Ferrous materials, if used in construction of the radio equipment, shall250 be corrosion-resisting
   types.
3.4.1.12.2         Arc-Resistant Materials
a) Arc-resistant materials shall251 be used for insulation of electrical power circuits where arcing is
   likely to occur.
3.4.1.12.3         Dissimilar Metals
a) Selection and use of dissimilar metal combinations shall252 be in accordance with
   FAA-G-2100H, section 3.3.1.2.
3.4.1.12.4         Fibrous Material
a) Fibrous material shall253 not be used.
3.4.1.12.5         Flammable Materials
a) Flammable materials shall254 not be used as per FAA-G-2100H, section 3.3.1.2.2.
3.4.1.13           Safety
a) An equipment malfunction shall255 in no way contribute to the destruction of the equipment
   or any part of its environment.
b) Safety shall256 conform to the requirements of FAA-G-2100H, section 3.3.5, and associated
   subsections.




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c) Any exposed or accessible area of the radio equipment that could pose a thermal contact
   hazard, as defined in HF-STD-001, section 12.10.1, shall257 be clearly labeled on the top of
   the LRU as a Thermal Contact Hazard.
d) The exact weight of the LRU shall258 be clearly labeled on the top of the LRU.
3.4.1.14         Human Performance/Human Engineering
a) The radio equipment shall259 conform to the applicable criteria contained in FAA-G-2100H,
   section 3.3.6, and HF-STD-001.
3.4.1.15         Removable Parts, Mating Connectors, and Interface Cables
a) Each radio shall260 be complete with an installed set of fuses, lamps, plug-in type
   components, and other similar parts that are used in the equipment and are constructed for
   quick removal and replacement.
b) When two or more pieces of equipment require interconnection, the necessary mating
   connectors and signal interface cable(s) except for the RF cables required by section
   3.2.2.2.14 k) shall261 be supplied for both the radio and associated equipment that interfaces
   with the radio.
c) All unmated connectors shall262 be protected with metal or plastic caps or otherwise suitably
   protected during maintenance, storage, and shipment.
d) Unmated connectors with exposed contacts that may contain electrically hot circuits shall263
   be covered with moisture-proof and vapor-proof caps.
e) All protective caps shall264 remain linked to the equipment when not in active use.
3.4.1.16         Test Points
a) External test points should65 be female BNC type connectors.
3.4.1.17         Controls
a) The radio equipment shall265 have provisions for both local and remote control operation.
3.4.1.17.1       Frequency Change Time
a) The time required to completely re-tune the receiver or transmitter to a new frequency,
   including any required realignment shall266 not exceed 30 minutes including re-tuning of the
   internal filters.
b) The radio equipment shall267 include protective features to guard against inadvertent
   frequency changes.
3.4.1.17.2       Detents
a) The controls with an "OFF" position shall268 have a detent or equivalent in the ON position to
   prevent inadvertent shut off of operation.
3.4.1.17.3       Adjustment Range
a) The adjustment range of the radio operation and maintenance controls shall269 be constructed
   to preclude damage to the equipment or its subassemblies when adjusted to the limits of the
   control travel.
b) The range of control shall270 be constructed to reduce the sensitivity and criticality of the
   adjustment task to the maximum extent possible.


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3.4.1.17.4        Power Switch and Power on Indicator
a) The radio equipment shall271 have a front panel mounted power switch.
b) A green indicator shall272 be lit when the power switch is on.
c) The power switch shall273 be protected from inadvertent action (operation).
3.4.1.17.5        Front Panel Display

3.4.1.17.5.1      Front Panel Display Type
a) The radio equipment should66 have an alphanumeric front panel display.
3.4.1.17.5.2      Front Panel Interface Display Functions
a) The radio front panel interface shall274 display the current operating frequency, viewable
   from a minimum of 10 feet (±2 ft) away and at an angle of ±45 degrees (±5 degrees), for as
   long as the radio is operating.
b) The VHF radio front panel interface shall275 display the current mode of operation (25 kHz or
   8.33 kHz) for as long as the radio is operating.
3.4.1.17.6        Front Panel Operational Indications
a) Power input indications:
   1) Shall276 have an AC input power indication.
   2) Shall277 have a DC input power indication.
b) Radio condition indications:
   1) Shall278 have an indication for Normal condition.
   2) Shall279 have an indication for Alert and Alarm condition.
   3) Shall280 have an indication for Fail condition.
   4) The visual indications for Failure events, Alarm events, and Alert events shall281 remain
       until the failure, Alarm or Alert is cleared by the respective return to Normal.
c) A squelch indication shall282 be provided.
d) A PTT indication shall283 be provided.
e) Except for physical obstructions, the visual indications shall284 be viewable for at least +/−60
   degrees off horizontal or vertical axis and be clearly visible from 10 feet away in a brightly lit
   room.
f) Incandescent lamp bulbs shall285 not be used for visual indications.
g) The front panel indicators should67 be light-emitting diode (LED) type.
3.4.1.17.6.1      Indication Light Attributes
a) Radio condition indication light attributes:
   1) The Normal indication should68 be green in color.
   2) The Alert and Alarm indication should69 be yellow with an Alert condition indicated by a
      solid condition an Alarm condition indicated by a flashing condition.
   3) The Fail indication should70 be red in color.
b) The transmitter PTT indication should71 be green in color.
c) The receiver squelch indication should72 be green in color.




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3.4.1.17.7          Functions and Labeling
a) Labeling shall286 be permanent, legible, and mounted so that the data are visible to personnel
   without the need to disassemble the part or adjacent functional or structural parts.
b) Connectors shall287 be identified on the plug-in side by labels that describe their specific
   functions.
c) All fuse positions shall288 be marked with the rated current capacity, minimum voltage
   rating, and type of fuse to be used.
d) All fuse markings shall289 be on the insertion side, so as to be visible when replacing fuses.
e) The following functions and corresponding labels shall290 be available on the receiver and
   transmitter as specified in Table 3-20 below.

                            Table 3-20 Radio Functions and Labeling
                            Functions                                  Labeling
        Power ON/OFF Switch (RX & TX)                         PWR ON/OFF
        AC Power ON Indication Light (RX & TX)                AC PWR
        DC Power ON Indication Light (RX & TX)                DC PWR
        Radio Condition Indication Light                      NORMAL
        Failure Indication Light (RX & TX) *                  FAIL
        Alarm/Alert Indication Light (RX & TX) *              ALERT (solid)/ ALARM (flashing)
        PTT                                                   PTT
        Transmitter Local Microphone Connector (TX only)      MIC
        Receiver Squelch Indication Light (RX only)           Squelch Break
        Local Volume Control (RX)                             Volume Control
        AC Input Power Connector (RX & TX)                    120 VAC/60 Hz
        DC Input Power Connector (RX & TX)                    24 VDC
        Antenna RF Out Connector (RX & TX) *                  RF OUT
        Antenna RF In Connector (RX only) *                   RF IN
        Internal Filter Input Connector (RX & TX) *           FILTER IN
        Internal Filter Output Connector (RX & TX) *          FILTER OUT
        Antenna Transfer Relay (Common) Connector (TX only)   ATRC
        Antenna Transfer Relay Connector #1 (TX only) *       ATR1
        Antenna Transfer Relay Connector #2 (TX only) *       ATR2
        MDT Connector (RX & TX)                               MDT
        Remote Connector (RX & TX)                            REM INT
        Internet Protocol                                     IP INT
        Reference frequency monitor port                      REF MON
        * If applicable




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3.4.1.17.8          Filter Tuning
a) If the internal filter is manually tunable, it shall291 be tunable via the front panel for both the
   transmitter and receiver.
b) The transmitter shall292 be tunable within the spectral mask requirements specified in section
   3.2.2.2.10 without the use of an external signal generator.
c) If AGC voltage is used when aligning filter or for selectivity checks, the AGC voltage
   shall293 be accessible from the front panel or from the MDT.
    Note: The transmitter may employ a special very-low power mode to allow filter tuning
    without tripping self-protection functions.
3.4.1.18            Radio Identification (ID) Numbering
a) Each radio shall294 have a permanent, non-changeable and unique identification (ID) number
   that is both marked on the front and back panel and accessible via the monitoring and control
   functions.
    Note: This ID number is not a MAC or IP address.
3.4.2               Electrical Requirements

3.4.2.1             Input Power Requirements
a) The radio equipment shall295 meet the requirements of this PD with an input voltage of 120
   VAC (10 percent), 60 Hz (3 Hz) single-phase, and with an input voltage of 24 VDC,
   negative ground, (−10/+20 percent).
b) Both AC and DC voltage inputs shall296 be located on the rear of the radio equipment.
c) Both AC and DC voltage inputs should73 be located on the lower right side of the radio
   equipment as viewed from the rear.
d) The radio shall297 be capable of normal operation when both AC and DC input voltages are
   applied simultaneously.
e) If either input voltage source is out of tolerance, then the radio shall298 continue to operate
   normally without interruption from the other voltage source.
f) The radio equipment, when operating on AC voltage only, shall299 automatically resume
   normal operation after being subjected to power interruptions, degradations and/or outages in
   accordance with FAA-G-2100H, section 3.1.1.7 f(1) and Appendix A (ITI (CBEMA)Curve).
g) The radio equipment, when operating on DC voltage only, shall300 automatically resume
   normal operation after being subjected to power interruptions, degradations, and/or outages.
h) The maximum current limits for the radio equipment shall301 be as listed in Table 3-21
   below.
                                Table 3-21 Maximum Current Limits
                                                                         AC Current DC Current
                                  Component
                                                                              (A)            (A)
             Receiver                                                         1.0             3.0
             Transmitter (10 W RF Output Maximum)*                            4.0            10.0
             Transmitter (50 W RF Output Maximum)*                            8.0            20.0
             * Includes single enclosure transmitter configured for the relevant output power mode.



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   Note: The actual average current values will be supplied by the vendor.
3.4.2.1.1        Power Cords
a) The radio equipment shall302 be provided with:
   1) A removable 8-foot, 3-conductor AC power cord.
   2) A removable 10-foot, 2-conductor DC power cord, one end matching with the respective
       connector on the receiver and transmitter, and the other end un-terminated.
b) The AC cord(s) shall303 have the AC protection ground lead configured to ground the chassis
   as specified in FAA-G-2100H, section 3.1.1.9.
c) The AC and DC power cord connections shall304 be equipped with a retaining clip.
3.4.2.2          Reverse Polarity Protection
a) The radio equipment shall305 incorporate reverse polarity protection to prevent damage to the
   radio equipment if the polarity of the 24 VDC input voltage is reversed.
3.4.2.3          Circuit Protection
a) All radio input/output circuits shall306 include circuit protection which prevents opens or
   shorts at the input/output terminals from damaging the equipment.
b) When the short or open is removed, circuit performance shall307 show no sign of
   performance degradation in accordance with FAA-G-2100H, section 3.1.1.8.
3.4.2.3.1        Current Overload Protection
a) Current overload protection for the radio equipment shall308 be provided by fuses, circuit
   breakers, or other protective devices for primary input AC and DC circuits.
b) Overcurrent devices shall309 have a minimum of 10,000 AIC (ampere interrupting capacity)
   rating.
c) Overcurrent devices shall310 be protected from damage due to a loss of power (AC or DC).
d) Overcurrent protective devices shall311 detect fault currents and provide fault isolation.
e) Series combination system overcurrent protection shall312 not be permitted.
3.4.2.3.2        Electrostatic Discharge Control
a) All radio components, circuits, and assemblies that are susceptible to damage by electrostatic
   discharge (ESD) shall313 be protected specified in FAA-STD-019E.
b) All radio designs shall314 withstand static discharges as specified in FAA-G-2100H,
   paragraph 3.2.6, without resultant unit, assembly, or component failures.
3.4.2.3.3        Transient Protection
a) The radio equipment shall315 contain protective devices in the audio circuits that conform to
   IEEE/ANSI Standards C62.36-2000, Surge Protectors Used in Low-Voltage Data,
   Communications, and Signaling Circuits.
b) The radio equipment shall316 contain protective devices in the AC power circuits that
   conform to IEEE/ANSI Standards C62.41.1-2008, Reference Table 2, and verified by testing
   in accordance with IEEE C62.45-2002.




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3.4.2.4            Loss of Input Voltage
a) The loss or variance of input voltage, including loss of voltage caused by activation of circuit
   protector devices, shall317 not cause or induce any damage to any component in the radio or
   other interfacing equipment.
b) The loss or variance of input voltage, including loss of voltage caused by activation of circuit
   protector devices, shall318 not result in loss of settings or data.
3.4.3              Environmental Conditions
a) The radio equipment shall319 be constructed of materials to withstand any combination of
   environmental and service conditions cited in this PD without causing damage or degradation
   of performance below the requirements specified in this PD.
3.4.3.1            Thermal Design Requirements
a) The radio equipment shall320 be constructed of materials that are in compliance with the
   thermal design requirements of FAA-G-2100H, paragraph 3.1.2.5.
3.4.3.2            Operating Conditions
a) The radio equipment shall321 be able to operate in a facility under the operating conditions
   specified in Table 3-22 below.
                                Table 3-22 Operating Conditions
        Temperature Range    −10 °C to +50 °C (+14 °F to +122 °F)
                             5 to 90% above 40 C (104 °F), the relative humidity is based on the dew
        Relative Humidity
                             point of 40 C (104 °F)
        Altitude             0 to 12,000 ft

3.4.3.3            Non-Operating Conditions
Non-operating conditions for the receiver and transmitter are those conditions affecting equipment
in storage, in shipment, in the process of being installed at a site, and installed at a site but non-
operating.
a) The radio equipment shall322 meet the requirements for non-operating conditions as set forth in
    Table 3-23 below.
                             Table 3-23 Non-Operating Conditions
        Temperature Range     −40 C to +70 °C (−40 °F to +158 °F)
        Relative Humidity     up to 100% including condensation due to temperature changes
        Altitude              0 to 50,000 ft

3.4.3.4            Equipment Ventilation and Cooling
a) The radio equipment shall323 not present a thermal contact hazard to personnel in accordance
   with FAA Human Factors Standard, section 12.10.1 and FAA-G-2100H, section 3.1.2.5
   (except item G).
3.4.4              Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements
a) The radio equipment shall324 meet the appropriate Federal Communications Commission
   (FCC) authorizations as defined in 47 CFR Part 2 and 47 CFR Part 15 of the Code of Federal
   Regulations.


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b) Electromagnetic emission and susceptibility of the radio equipment shall325 not exceed the
   GROUND, NAVY limits of MIL-STD-461F requirements: CE-102, CS-101, CS-114,
   CS-115, CS-116, RE-102, and RS-103.
3.4.5               FCC Equipment Certification
a) Equipment Certification shall326 be obtained from the FCC in accordance with FCC rules and
   regulations in 47 CFR Part 2 and 47 CFR Part 87.
3.5                 Quality Factors

3.5.1               Reliability

3.5.1.1             Mean Time Between Failures
a) The predicted Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) for the radio equipment shall327 be not
   less than 26,280 hours.
b) The predicted Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) for the radio equipment should74 be not
   less than 100,000 hours.
3.5.2               Maintainability
a) The radio equipment shall328 provide parameter adjustments for routine maintenance.
b) The radio equipment each alone shall329 be classified as an LRU.
c) Site repair shall330 be limited to the exchange of a radio (LRU) in order to restore air-ground
   communication services.
d) The radio maintenance procedures shall331 not require any additional test equipment that is
   not already in the FAA inventory.
      Note: The maintainability concept is that site repair will be limited to the exchange of an
      LRU(s) in restoring service.
3.5.2.1             Mean Time To Repair
a) The Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) radio equipment shall332 not be greater than 30 minutes
   at the site (LRU).
3.5.2.2             Periodic Maintenance
a) The radio equipment shall333 be configured so that periodic maintenance can be performed
   without disrupting other radios that are operating.
b) Periodic maintenance intervals shall334 meet or exceed one year.
3.5.3               Service Life
a) The radio equipment shall335 have a minimum useful service life of 20 years.




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4                   QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS

4.1                 Testing Conditions
a) Unless otherwise specified in the Contractor developed and Government approved test plan
   and procedures, all testing will be performed under the following conditions:
   1) Temperature:                    Room Ambient, +25 oC ±10 oC (+77 oF ±18 oF)
   2) Atmospheric Pressure:           Site pressure
   3) Relative Humidity:              20% to 80%
4.1.1               Receiver Test Signals and Conditions

4.1.1.1             Test Signal Sources
Test signal sources will be connected to the receiver input in such a way that the impedance
presented to the receiver input is 50 ohms, irrespective of whether one or more test signals are
applied to the receiver simultaneously.
4.1.1.2             Rated Desired Signal
The tuned frequency of the receiver is the carrier frequency of the selected channel. The desired
signal will be a double sideband signal with a −102 dBm carrier, amplitude modulated with
1004 Hz sine wave to a depth of 30 percent, unless otherwise defined.
4.1.1.3             Standard Desired Signal
The tuned frequency of the receiver is the carrier frequency of the selected channel. The desired
signal will be a double sideband signal with a -87 dBm carrier, amplitude modulated with
1004 Hz sine wave to a depth of 30 percent, unless otherwise defined.
4.1.1.4             Standard Undesired Signal
The tuned frequency of the receiver is not the carrier frequency of the selected channel. The
undesired signal will be a double sideband signal with a carrier, amplitude modulated with
404 Hz sine wave to a depth of 30 percent, unless otherwise defined.
4.1.1.5             Squelch Condition For Test
Unless otherwise stated, the receiver squelch feature will be made inoperative for the duration of
the tests (see section 3.2.2.1.15.1 d) and e)).
4.1.1.6             Rated Audio Output Power
The rated audio output power is the value specified in this PD to be the maximum audio level
available at the output.
4.1.1.7             Standard Audio Output Power
The audio output power level will be maintained at −8 dBm in the presence of a standard desired
signal unless otherwise defined.




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   NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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4.1.1.8          Rated Audio Band
The rated audio band describes the audio frequency bands in which the radios are capable of
receiving or transmitting when in a particular channel spacing configuration (see Table 4-1
below).
                                Table 4-1 Rated Audio Bands
                                    VHF                           UHF
                     25 kHz Channel      8.33 kHz Channel    25 kHz Channel
                    Spacing Mode (Hz)   Spacing Mode (Hz)   Spacing Mode (Hz)
                       300 to 3000          350 to 2500        300 to 3000

4.1.1.9          Audio AGC Condition For Test
When an audio AGC function is provided, this will be disabled (where possible) unless otherwise
stated.
4.1.2            Transmitter Test Signals and Conditions

4.1.2.1          Coaxial Termination
When tests are carried out with a coaxial termination, this will be a non-reactive, non radiating
50 ohm load.
4.1.2.2          Signal Sources
The modulating signals will be applied to the transmitter through the modulating audio input.
4.1.2.3          Standard Test Signal
The standard test signal will be a 1004 Hz sine wave at a level which produces a 90 percent
amplitude modulation depth of the transmitter RF output unless otherwise defined.
4.1.2.4          Rated Output Power
The rated output power is the highest RF output level of which the transmitter is capable when
measured at the ATR output port and accounting for losses incurred through the ATR and in-line
cavity filter.
4.1.3            Test Frequencies
Tests will be carried out on three frequencies relating to the radio under test unless otherwise
stated as defined in Table 4-2 below.
                                   Table 4-2 Test Channels
                                                   VHF             UHF
                                          25 kHz      8.33 kHz    25 kHz
                       Low (MHz)        112.500      112.510     225.050
                       Medium (MHz)     121.175      121.110     315.075
                       High (MHz)       136.400      136.410     393.495




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      NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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4.2                 Tests

4.2.1               Electromagnetic Compatibility Tests
a) Radio equipment electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests will be conducted in accordance
   with the conditions specified in section 3.4.4. Proof of a successful one-time EMC test on
   the equipment is requested to be provided with the proposal, if available.
4.3                 Verification Methods and Verification Requirements Traceability Matrix
        (VRTM)
a) A VRTM will be used to record radio equipment performance and compliance relative to the
   requirements contained in this PD. The four verification methods listed in decreasing order
   of complexity are described as follows:
      1) TEST. Test is a method of verification wherein performance is measured during or after
         the controlled application of functional and/or environmental stimuli. Quantitative
         measurements are analyzed to determine the degree of compliance. The process uses
         laboratory equipment, procedures, items, and services.
      2) DEMONSTRATION. Demonstration is a method of verification where qualitative
         determination of properties is made for an end item, including the use of technical data
         and documentation. The items being verified are observed, but not quantitatively
         measured, in a dynamic state.
      3) ANALYSIS. Analysis is a method of verification that consists of comparing hardware
         design with known scientific and technical principles, procedures and practices to
         estimate the capability of the proposed design to meet the mission and system
         requirements.
      4) INSPECTION. Inspection is a method of verification to determine compliance without
         the use of special laboratory appliances, procedures, or services, and consists of a non-
         destructive static-state examination of the hardware, the technical data, and
         documentation.
4.4                 Reliability Modeling and Prediction Data
The Government will accept reliability modeling and prediction data developed in accordance
with MIL-HDBK-217F for verification of MTBF requirements.




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    NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters Product Description
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5                 PREPARATION FOR DELIVERY
The radios will be delivered in accordance with section D of the contract.




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      Product Description NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters
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6                   NOTES

6.1                 Notes on Information Items
This section is for information only and is not a part of the requirements of the PD. This section
does not contain contract requirements and is not binding on either the Government or the
Contractor. In order for these terms to become a part of the resulting contract, they must be
specifically incorporated in the schedule of the contract. Any reliance placed by the Contractor
on the information in these subsections is wholly at the Contractor's own risk.
6.2                 Applicable Definitions

6.2.1               Very High Frequency (VHF)
In this document, the term VHF applies specifically to the frequency range 118.000 MHz to
136.975 MHz, the frequency range reserved for Aeronautical Mobile (Route) Service (AM(R)S).
VHF also applies to the frequency range 112.000 MHz to 117.975 MHz as well as 137.000 MHz
to 150.000 Mhz. These extended VHF frequency bands are under consideration for Aeronautical
Mobile Communications.
6.2.2               Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
In this PD, the term UHF applies specifically to the frequency range 225.000 MHz -
399.975 MHz, the frequency range reserved for military navigation and communications.
6.2.3               Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
A basic measure of reliability for Line Replaceable Units (LRUs) is the sum of the operating time
for the failed LRUs divided by the number of failures.
6.2.4               Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
A basic measure of maintainability: the sum of corrective maintenance times at any specific level
of repair, divided by the total number of failures within an item repaired at that level, during a
particular interval under stated conditions.
6.2.5               Reserved

6.2.6               Duty Cycle
Duty cycle is defined as the percentage of time that the transmitter is keyed in proportion to total
service time.
6.2.7               Modular Construction
Equipment constructed so all subassemblies are modules that plug into the main chassis.
6.2.8               Line Replaceable Unit (LRU)
An item which may consist of a unit, an assembly (circuit card assembly, electronic component
assembly, etc.), a subassembly, or a part, that is removed and replaced at the site maintenance
level in order to restore the system/equipment to operational status. For this procurement, a
receiver or a transmitter is considered to be a Line Replaceable Unit (LRU).



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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014

6.2.9             Adjacent Channel Emissions
Adjacent channel emissions are interference signals resulting from modulated RF signal power
transmitted that are outside of the assigned channel. Adjacent channel emissions include discrete
frequency spurious signals, and noise-like signals (including phase noise) at the transmitter
output.
6.2.10            Transmitter Spectral Mask
The transmitter spectral mask defines the ultimate noise floor limits imposed on the UHF and
VHF transmitter unmodulated carrier. See Figure 6.1 below and Table 3-13 Transmitter
Adjacent Channel Power Mask in section 3.2.2.2.10.




                            Figure 6.1 Transmitter Spectral Mask

6.2.11            Antenna Transfer Relay (ATR) Function
The transmitter will contain an antenna transfer relay that allows multiple radios to be connected
to a single antenna. This is illustrated in Figure 6.2.




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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014


                                                                                     Radio Functional
                                                                                        Diagram




                         ATR1        ATRC       ATR2       Filter Out        Filter In         RF


                                                                                            Radio Top

                                                                    Filter




                                                                                              Radio RF




                                                                                           Radio Rear



                           ATR1       ATRC          ATR2    Filter Out         Filter In       RF




         Figure 6.2 Conceptual Illustration of Internal Filter/Antenna Transfer Relay
                                        Configuration

6.2.12            Initialization
Initialization is the term used to describe the set of initial, or default, programmed parameters
(values and/or states) that a receiver or transmitter is configured with upon leaving the factory. It
is anticipated that a radio automatically exhibits this initial set of programmed parameters upon a
first-time installation and power-up in an FAA radio communications facility. For example, a
VHF receiver or transmitter would be set at a tuned frequency of 118.000 MHz. Likewise, a
UHF receiver or transmitter would be set at 225.000 MHz.
Note: It is also desirable to design the radio with the ability to re-initialize through a
user-invoked command (see Factory Reset).




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   Product Description NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters
                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014

6.2.13             Factory Reset
Factory Reset is a user invoked command that resets and restarts the radio. The result of a
Factory Reset is to re-establish all control parameters to their initial programmed set (values
and/or states) that were defined for basic operation.
6.2.14             Warm Reset
Warm Reset is a user-invoked command that restarts the radio. A Warm Reset allows reuse of
the most recently retained radio control parameter set. In other words, all radio configuration
parameters are automatically restored using the control settings that were in effect prior to the
instance when the Warm Reset command was invoked.
6.2.15             Service Restoral
Service restoral occurs when a facility’s electrical power is returned to the receiver or transmitter.
A radio is automatically restored to operational service using the control parameter set that was
in effect for the radio’s operational state before the electrical power service disruption. Electrical
power may be provided by a commercial (AC) power source, a standby engine generator, or a
standby battery system.
6.2.16             Non-Volatile Memory
The radio memory storage will retain data when the radio is not powered on or is powered off.
6.2.17             Equipment Failure
Equipment failure is classified into non-critical failure and critical failure categories.
6.2.17.1.1         Non-critical Equipment Failure
Non-critical equipment failures are failures of the radio that will not affect the operations of the
radio, e.g., front panel display and power indicator failures.
6.2.17.1.2         Critical Equipment Failure
Critical equipment failures are failures of the radio that will either disrupt the operational traffic
flow or that will result in loss of capabilities and functions required for continued safe operation
of the radio. Examples of the former include failure to the power amplifier in the transmitter,
failure to the RF front end in the receiver, and failure to the power supply subsystem of the radio
system.
6.2.18             Configuration of Chaining Multiple Radios to a Common Antenna Using
         the ATR
The radio needs a capability to connect multiple radio units to a single antenna. Figure 6.3 and
Figure 6.4 illustrate the various cases of connections prevalent in the FAA installations that the
radio is expected to handle internally.
The abbreviations used in the figures (see also Figure 6.2) mean the following:
ATR1          Connection to ATR connector 1
ATR2          Connection to ATR connector 2
ATRC          Connection to the ATR common connector
Filter In     Input connection to the internal filter
Filter Out    Output connection from the internal filter

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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014

RF In          RF input port on the receiver
RF Out         RF output port on the transmitter

Figure 6.3 shows the transceiver configuration, i.e., transmitter and receiver sharing an antenna.
The figure illustrates three cases: without filters, with the use of internal filters, and the use of
external filters.




              Radio ATR1                 Radio ATR1                Radio ATR1
                     ATRC                        ATRC                     ATRC
                      ATR2                        ATR2                     ATR2
                 Filter Out                  Filter Out               Filter Out
                   Filter In                   Filter In                Filter In
                   RF Out                      RF Out                   RF Out
              TX                         TX                        TX

              Radio                      Radio                     Radio


                     Filter In                   Filter In                Filter In
                   Filter Out                  Filter Out               Filter Out
                     RF Out                      RF Out                   RF Out
              RX                          RX                       RX


                TX / RX                  TX / RX Conf              TX / RX Conf
                 Conf                     w/internal                w/external
                                             Filter                Cavity Filter



              Figure 6.3 Conceptual Illustration of Transceiver Configuration
Figure 6.4 shows the configuration of a main and standby transmitter sharing an antenna. The
three cases indicated in the previous paragraph are also shown for this configuration.




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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014




               Radio ATR1                Radio ATR1               Radio ATR1
                      ATRC                      ATRC                     ATRC
                       ATR2                      ATR2                     ATR2
                  Filter Out                Filter Out               Filter Out
                    Filter In                 Filter In                Filter In
                    RF Out                    RF Out                   RF Out
               TX                        TX                       TX

               Radio ATR1                Radio ATR1               Radio ATR1
                     ATRC                       ATRC                     ATRC
                      ATR2                       ATR2                     ATR2
                  Filter Out                Filter Out               Filter Out
                    Filter In                 Filter In                Filter In
                    RF Out                    RF Out                   RF Out
               TX                        TX                       TX

               TX M/S Conf               TX M/S Conf              TX M/S Conf
                                          w/internal               w/external
                                            Filter                Cavity Filter


         Figure 6.4 Conceptual Illustration of Transmitter Main/Standby Configuration

6.2.19               Equipment Size
Receiver. The radio height is such that the unit height (in rack units) of the radio frame/chassis
divided by the number of individual radios in that chassis, is less than or equal to 2 (see Figure
6.5).

Low Power TX. The radio height is such that the unit height (in rack units) of the radio
frame/chassis divided by the number of individual radios in that chassis, is less than or equal to 3.

High Power TX. The radio height is such that the unit height (in rack units) of the radio
frame/chassis divided by the number of individual radios in that chassis, is less than or equal to 4.

Example 1: (currently fielded Multimode Digital Radio receiver)
Radio unit height = 2 units
One receiver in the box/chassis
Ratio = 2 (which is less than or equal to 2)

Example 2: (potential 2 receivers in one chassis)
Radio chassis height = 3 units
Two receivers in the chassis
Ratio = 3/2 = 1.5 (which is less than or equal to 2)

Example 3: (potential 2 receivers and 2 transmitters in one chassis)
Radio chassis height = 8 units
Two transmitters and two receivers in the chassis


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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014

Ratio = 8/2 = 4 (which is less than or equal to 5)

The ratio of radios to power supplies is 1:1, i.e., a single power supply will not supply power for
more than one radio.
                                                     2 radios


                     1 radio
             2




                                                                    4 units
   5 units




                      Pa n e l
             1




                     2 radio
             2




                                                     14 inches                4 units/2 radio = 2
                    19 inches                         19 inches

                                 Figure 6.5 Rack Unit Definitions

Radio equipment fitted with filters or ATRs must fit within the dimensions of the rack equipment
specified within this PD.

A rack unit is considered to be 1.75 inches.
6.2.20            Local(ly)
The term “Local” is used to describe any user action or radio capability that can be performed at
the installed facility by means of the front panel discrete interfaces, front panel display, and/or
front panel MDT interface.
6.2.21            Remote(ly)
The term “Remote” is used to describe any user action or radio capability that can be performed
from a separate facility by means of the rear discrete remote interface and/or rear MDT interface.
6.2.22            Push-to-talk (PTT)
PTT is a control function command needed to open a radio’s PTT circuit. “Keying” is the process
that activates different ATC hardware interfaces after detecting the PTT control signal request.
Only after a PTT request signal is detected by the appropriate Air Traffic Control (ATC)
interface circuit can the associated voice communications channel be established to transmit
audio. The two types of transmitter key interface circuits presently in use in the NAS are listed
below.
     1. Transmitter current key interface
         The transmitter current key interface is a PTT circuit acting as a current switch by
           providing a current loop on the PTT line that causes the transmitter to key when
           current is flowing through the loop and unkey when the current loop is opened.
     2. Transmitter voltage key interface
         The transmitter voltage key interface is a PTT circuit acting as a voltage switch by
           applying a positive DC voltage to the PTT line that causes the transmitter to key and
           by removing the positive DC voltage that causes the transmitter to unkey.


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                                      DRAFT FAA-E-3014

6.2.23           Maintenance Data Terminal (MDT)
The MDT is a Government furnished laptop computer that provides the radio equipment operator
interface. The MDT is used by a technician to change parameter settings, observe readouts, and
control various maintenance functions within the radio equipment.
6.2.24           MDT Interface Software
MDT interface software is software provided by the vendor that will facilitate the MDT to radio
equipment operator interface. The vendor will provide all files including executables and drivers
required for successful software installation on an MDT.
6.2.25           Interface
An interface is the connection between a user and a machine. An interface can also be the point
of interconnection between two systems or subsystems.




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 Product Description NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters
                                    DRAFT FAA-E-3014

                         APPENDIX A – List of Abbreviations
                        (Includes acronyms, initialisms, and contractions)

AC                         alternating current
A/G                        air-ground
AGC                        automatic gain control
AIC                        ampere interrupting capacity
AM                         amplitude modulation
A                          ampere
ANSI                       American National Standards Institute
ATC                        Air Traffic Control
ATO                        Air Traffic Organization
ATR                        Antenna Transfer Relay
ATRC                       Antenna Transfer Relay (Common) Connector
BIT                        built-in test
CBEMA                      Computer and Business Equipment manufacturer's Association
CD                         Compact Disc
CEDEX                      Courrier d'Entreprise à Distribution EXceptionnelle
CFR                        Code of Federal Regulations
CPU                        central processing unit
CW                         continuous wave
dB                         decibel
dB(A)                      A-weighted decibel
dBc                        decibels referenced to carrier
dBrnC                      dB relative to noise (C-Notch or C-Message)
dBm                        decibels referenced to 1 milliwatt
DC                         District of Columbia
°C                         degree Celsius
°F                         degree Farenheit
DHCP                       Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DSB-AM                     double sideband amplitude modulation
DVD                        Digital Video Disc
EEPROM                     electronically erasable programmable read-only memory
EMC                        electromagnetic compatibility
EIA                        Electronic Industries Alliance
ESD                        electrostatic discharge
EST                        Eastern Standard Time
ETSI                       European Telecommunications Standards Institute
f                          frequency
FAA                        Federal Aviation Administration
FCC                        Federal Communications Commission
FIFO                       First In, First Out
FM                         frequency modulation
FSS                        Flight Service Station
ft                         foot


                                             A-1
 Product Description NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters
                                    DRAFT FAA-E-3014

GB                         gigabyte
HF                         Human Factors
HFDS                       Human Factors Design Standard
Hz                         hertz
ICD                        Interface Control Document
ICAO                       International Civil Aviation Organization
ID                         identification
IEC                        International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE                       Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF                       Internet Engineering Task Force
IP                         Internet Protocol
IPv4                       Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6                       Internet Protocol version 6
ISO                        International Organization for Standardization
kHz                        kilohertz
LED                        light-emitting diode
LRU                        Line Replaceable Unit
MAC                        Media Access Control
mA                         milliampere
MB                         megabyte
MDT                        Maintenance Data Terminal
MHz                        megahertz
min                        minute
ms                         millisecond
MTBF                       Mean Time Between Failures
MTTR                       Mean Time To Repair
M/S                        Main/Standby
N/A                        Not Applicable
NAS                        National Airspace System
NEXCOM                     Next Generation Air/Ground Communications System
NFPA                       National Fire Protection Association
NJ                         New Jersey
NTIA                       National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NW                         Northwest
NY                         New York
OSHA                       Occupational Health and Safety Administration
PA                         Pennsylvania
PCMCIA                     Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PD                         Product Description
ppm                        parts per million
PS                         Power Supply
PTT                        push-to-talk
RAM                        random-access memory
RF                         radio frequency
RFC                        Request for Comments
RMS                        root mean square

                                           A-2
  Product Description NEXCOM II VHF Receivers and Transmitters UHF Receivers and Transmitters
                                     DRAFT FAA-E-3014

RSSI                        receive signal strength indicator
RX                          Receiver
s                           second
SIR                         Screening Information Request
SINAD                       signal-plus-noise-plus-distortion to noise-plus-distortion ratio
STD                         Standard
SW                          Southwest
T/R                         Transceiver
TX                          Transmitter
TX/RX                       Transmitter/Receiver
UHF                         ultra high frequency
U.S.                        United States
USB                         Universal Serial Bus
VAC                         volts alternating current
VDC                         volts direct current
VHF                         very high frequency
V                           volt
VA                          Virginia
VoIP                        Voice over Internet Protocol
VRTM                        Verification Requirements Traceability Matrix
VSWR                        voltage standing wave ratio
W                           watt




                                            A-3

				
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