UNIT 1 REVISION CHECK LIST
COASTAL PROCESSES CREATE CHARACTERISTIC LANDFORMS
1. What is a wavelength, wave crest, wave trough, wave frequency,
the swash and back wash?
2. How does a wave form and break?
3. What is wave refraction? What is the point of maximum erosion?
4. What is an orthogonal?
5. The 4 ways a wave erodes are? (i.e. marine action)
6. Factors affecting rates of erosion (BBBSSSS)
7. Sub aerial (human and physical) processes? – remember these will
increase the susceptibility of the cliff to erosion as they attack
weaknesses in the rock.
8. Characteristics of:
a. Constructive Waves
b. Destructive Waves
Physical Features – you need to revise a quick, accurate, labelled
diagram, and you should be able to describe and explain its formation.
You also need to know an example.
EROSION FEATURES e.g. S Dorset Coast
i. Discordant Coast – Swanage
ii. Concordant Coast – Lulworth
b. Bays – Lulworth Cove
c. Wave Cut Notch – e.g. Ballard Cliffs, Dorset
d. Wave Cut Platform – e.g. Ballard Cliffs, Dorset or Hunstanton,
e. Caves – e.g. Lulworth Cove
f. Arches e.g. Durdle Door
g. Stacks e.g. Old Harry and his wife and The Needles
h. Geo and Blowholes S Pembrokeshire Coast, South Wales.
9. Process of Longshore Drift – draw and describe all stages
10. Factors affecting Longshore Drift
11. How is material transported – suspension, solution, traction etc.
DEPOSITION FEATURES e.g. many on N.Norfolk Coast
12. When does deposition occur?
13. Three types of deposition i.e. wave/beach (marine), wind (Aeolian)
14. What are sediment cells?
15. Label a beach profile i.e. break point, berm/storm ridge etc.
16. Sources of beach material
17. Factors affecting beach profile – sediment size and type of wave.
18. Draw and explain a profile of:
i. Shingle beach
ii. Sandy beach
iii. Seasonally changing beach profile
19. Spits e.g. Blakeney
a. Why / how develop?
b. Why a hooked end? (recurved)
c. What do a series of recurved laterals show?
20. Off shore bar – e.g. Scolt Head Island
21. Tombolo – e.g. Chesil Beach
22. On Shore Bar – e.g. Slapton Ley, Devon
23. Cuspate Foreland e.g. Romney Marsh, Essex
COASTAL AREAS HAVE DISTINCTIVE ECOSYSTEMS THAT
CHANGE OVER TIME.
24. What are seres / seral stages – what changes over time?
25. What is meant by the Pioneer Community?
26. What is climax vegetation?
27. SAND DUNE ECOSYSTEM (Psammosere)
where do they develop and under what
draw a cross section, change in ph values, %
cover and other environmental conditions.
Name the plants – esp. Marram grass, lyme
grass, sea couch, sea holly etc.
How does Marram grass adapt?
What are conditions like for plant growth?
28. Human Modifications – National Trust, board walks, fencing,
restricting access, i.e. boat trips, litter, noise, diesel, educate the
29. SALT MARSH ECOSYSTEM (Halosere)
where do they develop and under what
draw cross section
mudflats/ salt marshes – plant sequence?
Salicornia, spartina, sea lavender, sea aster,
rushes, shrubs, mixed forest.
Pioneer and sward zones – what are they?
Salt pans and creeks?
Why is it a productive ecosystem?
What is meant by halophytic?
30. Human Modifications – unique ecosystem – waders / wild fowl e.g.
oyster catchers, lapwings, Brent geese etc.
land reclamation e.g. Wells
global warming – 2mm p.a. at N Norfolk
coastal protection scheme (e.g. Brancaster) –
use of marsh as a soft sea defence.
Tourism boats, birdwatchers.
Changes in Sea Level over time influence coastal landforms
31. Causes of Sea-Level change
a. Eustatic Sea Level Change
b. Isostatic Sea Level Change
c. Tectonic Movements.
32. Submerged Coastline (drowned) – under what circumstances?
33. Features of Submerged Coastlines:
a. Estuaries (e.g. The Thames Estuary)
b. Ria’s (e.g. Kingsbridge Ria, South Devon)
c. Fjords (e.g. Sognefjordan, Norway)
34. Emerged Coastlines (net fall in sea-level) – explain.
35. Features of Emerged Coastlines:
a. Raised Beaches e.g. Newton Point nr Loch Ranza, Isle of
b. Relict Cliffs (Abandoned Cliffs) e.g. Kings Cave (Isle of
36. Past and predicted sea-level change (learn some figures to quote)
37. Impacts of sea-level rise on human use of the coastline:
i. Residential / Agricultural
ii. Coastal Industries / Economies
38. Developing countries that are particularly at risk (implications
regarding development issues) – e.g. Egypt and Bangladesh.
YOUR EXAM = 1 Hour and 15 minutes
ANSWER THREE Questions (one from each of the three sections)
There are six questions in total, two questions in each section.
Always look at the last question (usually worth between 6/7 marks)
before you make your final selection.