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Editorial Style Guide

VIEWS: 39 PAGES: 28

									Editorial Style Guide
                       Version 3




               University Communications

                 University of Saskatchewan
                     501-121 Research Drive
                    Saskatoon SK S7N 1K2

                          (306) 966-6607
                 communications@usask.ca
No passion on Earth,
neither love nor hate, is
equal to the passion to
alter someone else’s draft.
                    – H.G. Wells
Introduction
The University of Saskatchewan Editorial Style Guide is designed to be a quick reference for U of S employees—both professional
communicators and others—who have style questions, or an interest in learning more about writing. It is intended to encourage a common
approach to style, recognizing that there will always be circumstances where exceptions must be made.

It is not intended to apply to academic, scholarly or research writing, which rely on particular standards and guidelines. When questions of
style arise in the preparation of certain types of publications and those in specialized subject areas, it is best to consult appropriate reference
authorities.

Sources Consulted
This style guide should be used in conjunction with the most recent editions of the Oxford English Dictionary and Oxford Canadian Dictionary,
considered the spelling authorities for the purpose of this guide. Other sources consulted include the Canadian Press Stylebook and the
Canadian Press Caps and Spelling, style guides from other Canadian institutions and those followed by a variety of journals and publications.
Also taken into consideration are particular style practices in common use at the University of Saskatchewan.

Audience
In an organization as complex as a university, communications are produced for a wide array of audiences – everyone from campus visitors to
fellow academics, students, the media and government officials. Obviously, written materials must be tailored to suit the audience in a way that
effectively conveys information. This guide, therefore, is not intended to dictate a particular use of language that will hinder or constrain writers but
rather to answer questions that may arise in the preparation of their particular material. It is also not intended as a grammar book or a manual on
good writing. Sound editorial judgment should always be used in preparing communications for a particular audience.

Tone and messaging
The University of Saskatchewan’s institutional positioning statement describes how the U of S is distinct among its competitor institutions in a way
that is relevant to its key stakeholders. Supporting that position, which describes us as resourceful, collaborative and dynamic, requires a consistent
style in our messaging – what we say – and tone of voice – how we say it.
Keep in mind that both our brand messaging and our tone of voice should convey:
    • that we provide freedom and support to push the boundaries of knowledge;
    • that we reach across disciplines to make connections and to think differently about the issues of our time; and
    • that we work together to experiment, to learn and to discover.

A work in progress
Any guide to editorial style is always a work in progress. Language and its use are constantly changing, creating interesting, and sometimes
frustrating, conundrums for writers and editors. Monitoring and evaluating those changes will be part of the work needed to ensure this
guide is always useful and relevant.
Please feel free to contribute to this document by sending queries, comments or suggestions to University of Saskatchewan Communications
at 966-6607 or communications@usask.ca
You can download this style guide as a PDF file at www.usask.ca/communications

Icons
        Heads-up
        A “heads-up” icon alerts you to common style issues.

        Check this out
        Watch for “Check this out” icons to point you to more information.

        Rule of thumb
        We’ve put together a few handy and easy-to-remember tips.

        Different keystrokes for different key folks
        Some punctuation characters mentioned in the style guide (such as the en-dash) are in the extended character set. This means
        these characters cannot be found on your keyboard, but you can type in key codes to retrieve them. We have included the common
        keystrokes for both Mac and PC.


                                                                                                                              Editorial Style Guide      1
Contents
              Introduction                                   1
              Sources Consulted                              1
              Audience                                       1
              Tone and messaging                             1
              A work in progress                             1
              Icons                                          1
              Heads-up                                       1
              Check this out                                 1
              Rule of thumb                                  1
              Different keystrokes for different key folks   1

1             Abbreviations, acronyms and other shortcuts    5
1.1           Universities—ours and others                   5
1.2           U of S entities                                5
1.3           Other acronyms and initializations             5
1.4           Titles                                         5
1.5           Provinces and territories                      6
1.6           Academic degrees                               6
1.7           Dates and times                                6
1.7.1         Centuries                                      6
1.7.2         Decades                                        6
1.7.3         Months                                         7
1.7.4         Weekdays                                       7
1.7.5         Dates                                          7
1.7.6         Times                                          7
1.7.7         Ordinals                                       7
1.7.8         Range of dates                                 7
1.7.9         Range of times                                 7
1.8           Measurements                                   7
1.8.1         Metric abbreviations                           7
1.8.2         Imperial abbreviations                         7
1.8.3         Temperature                                    8
1.8.4         Square measures                                8
1.9           E.g. vs. i.e.                                  8

2             Addresses                                      8
2.1           U of S format                                  8
2.2           Capitalization, spelling and numbers           8
2.3           Abbreviating provincial names                  9

3             Capitalization                                 9
3.1           To capitalize or not to capitalize             9
3.2           A general rule for capitalization              9
3.3           Capitalization of job and position titles      9
3.4           Capitalization in quotations                   10
3.5           Capitalization at the U of S                   10
3.5.1         Academic programs                              10
3.5.2         Academic subjects                              10
3.5.3         Building names                                 10
3.5.4         Committee names                                10
3.5.5         Degrees and other awards                       10
3.5.6         Unit and department names                      10
3.5.7         Job and position titles                        11

4             Type styles                                    11
4.1           Italics                                        11
4.1.1         Use for emphasis                               11




2        University of Saskatchewan
4.1.2   Foreign words and phrases                    11
4.1.3   Publications and other works                 11
4.2     Bold face                                    12
4.2.1   For emphasis                                 12
4.2.2   For headings                                 12

5       Lists                                        12
5.1     Items in series                              12
5.2     Vertical lists                               12

6       Numbers                                      13
6.1     The general rule                             13
6.2     With four or more digits                     13
6.3     Money                                        13
6.4     Fractions                                    13
6.5     Percentages                                  14
6.6     Number ranges                                14
6.7     Telephone numbers                            14
6.8     School grades                                14

7       Punctuation                                  14
7.1     Accents                                      14
7.2     Ampersand                                    14
7.3     Commas                                       14
7.4     Dashes and hyphens                           15
7.5     Ellipses                                     15
7.6     Parentheses and brackets                     15
7.7     Quotation marks                              16
7.8     Spacing                                      16

8       Spelling                                     16
8.1     “Our” rule                                   16
8.2     The double “L”                               16
8.3     Truly Canadian words                         16
8.4     Common mistakes                              17

9       University terms                             18
9.1     Alumna or alumnus or alumni …                18
9.2     Emeritus/emerita                             18
9.3     Go Dogs!                                     18
9.4     Convocation                                  18

10      Technology terms                             18
10.1    Email and web addresses                      18

11      Some things are just plain wrong             19
11.1    The sentence fragment                        19
11.2    The comma splice                             19

A       Appendix: U of S degrees and abbreviations   21
        Undergraduate                                21
        Graduate                                     21

B       Appendix: Tricky word list                   23



                                                          Editorial Style Guide      3
4      University of Saskatchewan
1 Abbreviations, acronyms
  and other shortcuts
1.1   Universities—ours and others
      Spell out “University of Saskatchewan” in first reference.

      Use “U of S” (no periods) or “the university” (lower case) in subsequent references.
                  Refer to other institutions using full names.
                  University of Western Ontario
                  Simon Fraser University

      To list a number of institutions, use “the Universities of British Columbia, Alberta and Toronto” but “McGill
      University, Simon Fraser University and Dalhousie University.”

      Some Canadian universities are incorporated with “The” as part of their official title; one example is The
      University of British Columbia. Please refer to the website of the Association of Universities and Colleges of
      Canada (AUCC) for the authoritative list of official university names.


1.2   U of S entities
                  Use full names in first reference with acronyms or initializations in brackets, then
                  only the acronym or initialization with no periods in subsequent references.
                  Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM), then WCVM
                  Centre for Continuing and Distance Education (CCDE), then CCDE
                  Systematic Program Review (SPR), then SPR
                  Exception: Do not abbreviate Edwards School of Business except in second reference.
                             Then use Edwards or Edwards School.

1.3   Other acronyms and initializations
      Use upper case with no periods for acronyms and initializations.
                  NASA                CBC                  TNT
                  NATO                RCMP


1.4   Titles
      In title abbreviations that appear in upper case only, use no periods.
                  VP                  CEO

      Use periods in title abbreviations that appear in mixed upper and lower case.
                  Dr.                 Prof.
                  Mr.                 Mrs.                 Ms.

      When abbreviating personal names, use periods and a space between initials.
                  P. D. James
                  J. R. Ewing

                  See more about job and position titles at the U of S in Sections 3.3 and 3.5.7




                                                                                             Editorial Style Guide       5
1.5         Provinces and territories
            The Canadian Press standard for abbreviating Canadian provinces and territories is mixed upper and lower
            case with periods after the name of the community.
                        Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.L., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.
                        Neither Yukon nor Nunavut is abbreviated.

            Use Canada Post abbreviations in mailing addresses.
                        AB, BC, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

                        See also Addresses, section 2.3


1.6         Academic degrees
            Universities across Canada vary greatly in their approaches to abbreviating academic degrees. Some follow
            The Canadian Press style of using periods only for degrees that end in a lower case letter (B.Sc., B.Ed., M.Agr.)
            but not for those that end in an upper case letter (PhD, MA, BSN). Other institutions have done away with
            periods entirely (BMus, MVetSc, BA).

            For official academic purposes (transcripts, parchments), the University of Saskatchewan uses the abbrevia-
            tion standard set out in the bylaws of University Council, which is to use periods in all degree abbreviations
            (Ph.D., B.A., LL.B.).

                        A complete list of degree abbreviations can be found on the University Council website
                        (www.usask.ca/university_secretary/council) or in Appendix A of this guide.
            The general trend, particularly with information that is posted on the Internet, is to avoid unnecessary
            punctuation. Therefore, in circumstances other than official academic documents (transcripts, degree
            parchments), avoid using periods where possible. The key, however is to choose an abbreviation style, then
            be consistent.

                        See capitalization of degrees, Section 3.5.5


1.7         Dates and times
1.7.1       Centuries
            Spell out the first nine as words, then use digits for 10 and above.
                        the sixth century
                        the 18th century (do not use superscript)


1.7.2       Decades
            Decades can be spelled out as long as the century is clear, or written in numerals.
                        the eighties
                        the ’80s

            When writing decade names in numerals, do not use an apostrophe before the “s.” An apostrophe precedes
            the shortened numerical form of the decade.
                        the 1930s
                        the ’30s
                        the mid-1930s




6      University of Saskatchewan
1.7.3   Months
        Abbreviate only Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec.
                    Spell out all months standing alone or with a year alone
                    August, August 2005, but Aug. 17, 2005


1.7.4   Weekdays
        Weekdays are abbreviated to Sun., Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri., and Sat.

1.7.5   Dates
        Show dates using the month first, date second and year third.
                    Oct. 27, 2008

1.7.6   Times
        Use periods for lower case abbreviations a.m. and p.m.
                    10 a.m. (not 10:00 a.m.) but 5:30 p.m.
                    1:30-5 p.m. (one ‘p.m.’) rather than 1:30 p.m.-5 p.m.
                    noon or midnight, not 12 a.m. or 12 p.m., to avoid confusion


1.7.7   Ordinals
        When expressing dates without a year, do not use the ordinal form.
                    Nov. 8, not Nov. 8th


1.7.8   Range of dates
        When expressing periods of time in years, write the numbers out using an en dash (slightly longer than a
        hyphen), not a slash.
                    2005–2006 or 1987–89 (not ’87-’89)

                    The one exception is in the expression of academic years.
                    the 2008/09 academic year


1.7.9   Range of times
        Use “from” and “to” when writing a range of times but use an en dash in tables.
                    The meeting went from 9 to 10:30 a.m.
                    Reception, 7–10 p.m.


1.8     Measurements
1.8.1   Metric abbreviations
        Use lower case with no periods for metric measurement abbreviations except for “litres” which is abbrevi-
        ated with a capital letter (L) to avoid confusion with the numeral 1. Use one space between the numeral and
        the abbreviation.
                    10 km               230 ml               7L

1.8.2   Imperial abbreviations
        Abbreviate imperial measurements in lower case with a period at the end of each unit.
                    in., ft., sq. ft.



                                                                                           Editorial Style Guide      7
1.8.3       Temperature
            Celsius is abbreviated with a capital letter C, no period and one space between the temperature and abbreviation.
                         35 C, -6 C

            Do not insert any spaces if using the degree symbol.
                         35°C, -6°C


1.8.4       Square measures
            Square measures can be written as sq m or with the superscript (m2) for scientific or technical text.
                         8 sq m, or 8 m2


1.9         E.g. vs. i.e.
            The abbreviation for exempli gratia is e.g., but it should be avoided. Use “for example” instead.

            Use “that is” instead of i.e.

            Use the vs. abbreviation for versus only in sports schedules and the names of court cases.




2 Addresses
2.1         U of S format
            U of S mailing addresses follow Canada Post abbreviation style and include department name, campus
            street address and postal code. Building name is optional.
                         Department of Animal and Poultry Science
                         College of Agriculture and Bioresources
                         University of Saskatchewan
                         51 Campus Drive
                         Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8

                         Include two spaces between province and postal code, or use an em-space
                         Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8

            Mailing addresses for individual colleges and units should follow a similar style.


2.2         Capitalization, spelling and numbers
            Always write street addresses with numerals, not spelled out.
                         10 Downing St.

            Capitalize letters that appear in street addresses.
                         36B Central Ave.

            Spell out and capitalize street names and directional abbreviations in running text.
                         The house is located on Spadina Crescent East.

            Spell out First through Ninth as street names. Avoid superscript for streets above Ninth.
                         279 Fifth Ave., 100 14th St.




8      University of Saskatchewan
2.3   Abbreviating provincial names
      Use Canada Post abbreviations in mailing addresses.
                  AB, BC, MB, NB, NL, NS, NT, NU, ON, PE, QC, SK, YT

      Also U.S. and U.K.




3 Capitalization
3.1   To capitalize or not to capitalize
      Leaders in writing style standards are advocating a shift toward less capitalization and punctuation. The
      Canadian Press refers to it as “a modified down style” that follows this basic rule:

      Capitalize all proper names, trade names, government departments and agencies of government, names
      of associations, companies, clubs, religions, languages, nations, races, places and addresses. Otherwise,
      lowercase is favoured where a reasonable option exists.

      The Canadian Press continues to use “lowercase” and “uppercase” as single words, contrary to the two-word
      format adopted by the Oxford Canadian Dictionary and this style guide.

      This guide recommends a lower case style for several reasons supported by various sources consulted in its
      preparation:
      •   when too many words are capitalized in text, they lose their importance and no longer attract the
          attention of the reader.
      •   copy is easier to read when capitalized words are limited.
      •   lower case style does not diminish the stature or credibility of a person’s or department’s position or
          reputation.
      •   judicious use of capitalization combined with white space and typeface can improve the effectiveness of
          print materials.


3.2   A general rule for capitalization
                  Capitalize common nouns when they represent a complete formal name, and use lower
                  case in the partial or informal versions of the name.

                  the University of Saskatchewan                       the Government of Manitoba
                  the university                                       the Manitoba government
                                                                       the government


3.3   Capitalization of job and position titles
                  In running text, capitalize formal job titles when they appear directly in front of a
                  name and are not set off by a comma.
                  President Peter MacKinnon               Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher
                  Peter MacKinnon, president              Margaret Thatcher, prime minister
                  the president                           the prime minister

      Formal titles are those than could be used with the surname alone.
                  Bishop Williams

                  Also see job and position titles, Section 3.5.7




                                                                                            Editorial Style Guide      9
3.4         Capitalization in quotations
            Capitalize the first word of a quotation that is a complete sentence.


3.5         Capitalization at the U of S
3.5.1       Academic programs
            Use the general rule of capitalization for formal academic programs within colleges and departments.
                        the Ukrainian Studies Program            the Vocal Studies Program
                        Ukrainian studies                        vocal studies


3.5.2       Academic subjects
            Do not capitalize academic subjects except when the subject is also a proper noun.
                        English, engineering, French, chemistry, law, Latin


3.5.3       Building names
            Only the full and formal name of a building should be capitalized. Use lower case for informal titles.
                        Agriculture Building, but ag building


3.5.4       Committee names
            The names of committees, task forces and other working groups do not require capitalization.
                        the nominating committee
                        the land use task force


3.5.5       Degrees and other awards
            Use the general rules of capitalization to refer to degrees and awards.
                        Doctor of Philosophy; doctorate
                        Master of Business Administration; master’s degree in business administration, MBA
                        Bachelor of Arts; baccalaureate or bachelor’s degree
                        Professional Certificate in Land Management; land management certificate

                        See abbreviations of degrees, Section 1.6

3.5.6       Unit and department names
                        Follow the general rules of capitalization.
                        Department of Political Studies     School of Public Policy
                        political studies department        public policy school
                        the department                      the school

                        Facilities Management Division
                        FMD
                        the division




10      University of Saskatchewan
3.5.7   Job and position titles
        In running text, capitalize formal job titles when they appear directly in front of a name and are not set off
        by a comma. Use lower case in other instances.

                    Manager of Payroll Helen Crane
                    Helen Crane, payroll manager
                    the manager

                    English Professor Scott Mead
                    Scott Mead, professor of English (capitalize English because it is a proper noun)
                    the professor

                    Toxicology Professor Sylvia Danes
                    Sylvia Danes, professor of toxicology
                    the professor

                    Always hyphenate the titles “vice-president” and “vice-provost”.


        When making reference to U of S vice-presidents in running copy, do not set off their area of responsibility
        with commas or parentheses.

                    Richard Florizone, vice-president of finance and resources
        Commas setting off areas of responsibility are acceptable in lists.

                    Richard Florizone, vice-president, finance and resources




4 Type styles
4.1     Italics
4.1.1   Use for emphasis
        Italics should be used sparingly in running text, for emphasis.

4.1.2   Foreign words and phrases
        Italics can be helpful when used for foreign words and phrases that may be unfamiliar to readers. Follow
        discipline standards for scientific or research publications.
                    ad hoc
                    ex officio


4.1.3   Publications and other works
        The titles of books, journals, newspapers, movies, magazines, plays, poems, television programs, radio
        programs, musical compositions and works of visual art are italicized; article and chapter titles from within
        those publications and poems are not.
                    Use italics for the proper titles of University of Saskatchewan publications.
                    Renewing the Dream: University of Saskatchewan Strategic Directions
                    On Campus News




                                                                                              Editorial Style Guide      11
4.2          Bold face
4.2.1        For emphasis
             Like italics, bold face should be used sparingly in running text, and only to emphasize differences.

4.2.2        For headings
             Bold face can be used in headings to divide running text.




5 Lists
5.1          Items in series
             Lists that appear in running copy and are introduced with the word “including” do not require a colon.

                         Use of a terminal comma (a comma that precedes the final “and”) is not necessary
                         except to avoid confusion.
                         Without a terminal comma:
                         Huskie Athletics supports a number of university sports including football, basketball
                         and volleyball.
                         With a terminal comma to avoid confusion caused by two “ands”:
                         Huskie Athletics supports a number of university sports including football, basketball,
                         track and field, and volleyball.

                         Lists that appear in running text and follow a colon should
                         have semicolons.
                         Huskie Athletics supports a number of university sports: football;
                         basketball; volleyball; and track and field.


5.2          Vertical lists
             Try to avoid bulleted vertical lists in running copy but if the context requires the information be highlighted,
             they should be introduced with a complete sentence followed by a colon. No internal or terminal punctua-
             tion is required. Do not capitalize the first word of bulleted items in a vertical list unless it is a proper noun.

                         The lecture series will cover a number of subject areas:
                         •	 political history of the province
                         •	 economic development
                         •   demographics

             Use internal and terminal punctuation if the list is not preceded by a complete sentence.

                         Students in the class can expect to learn about
                         •	 political history of the province,
                         •	 economic development, and
                         •   demographics.




12       University of Saskatchewan
6 Numbers
6.1   The general rule
                  Spell out the numbers one through nine. For 10 and above, use numerals.

      There are a number of exceptions that always require numerals:
      •   measurements that use abbreviations or symbols
      •   percentages
      •   combined whole numbers and fractions
      •   currency
                  Although it should be avoided, a number used to start a sentence is always
                  spelled out.


6.2   With four or more digits
      In numbers with four or more digits, commas are used to separate three-digit groups except for house
      numbers, phone numbers, years and other serial numbers.
                  1,000 not 1000; 5907 Bates Avenue

      Avoid using too many zeros. Very large numbers can be written using a mix of numerals and spelled-out numbers.
                  554.6 billion


6.3   Money
      Use numerals to represent currency with the appropriate symbols. There is no space between the symbol
      and the numeral.
                  $8.99

      Very large currency amounts can be written using a combination of numerals and words with the currency symbol.
                  $9.34 million, not $9.34 million dollars


6.4   Fractions
      Avoid using full-sized numerals separated by a slash to express fractions. Use fraction characters (or
      superscript/subscript) instead.
                  4¾ not 4-3/4

                  <Alt> + <0><1><8><8> for ¼; <Alt> + <0><1><8><9> for ½; <Alt> + <0><1><9><0> for ¾
                  Using MS Word with autocorrect enabled:
                  type <numerator></><denominator>, then <space> or <enter>

                  Find the fraction characters in the character palette under digits.

      Spell out simple fractions that are not mixed numbers. Hyphenate only when the fraction is considered a
      single quantity.
                  His kick carried the ball more than one-third the length of the field.




                                                                                           Editorial Style Guide      13
6.5          Percentages
             Percentages should always be expressed in numerals followed by “per cent.”
                         In text that includes numerous references to percentages, the symbol % is acceptable
                         with no space between the number and the symbol.


6.6          Number ranges
             Use an en dash (slightly longer than a hyphen) between two numbers to indicate “up to and including”
             or “through.”
                         The information is found on pages 113-126.

             For number ranges preceded by “from” or “between,” use “to” or “through” and “and” respectively.
                         from 1947 to 1949
                         between 100 and 150


6.7          Telephone numbers
             The following is university style for telephone numbers with the long-distance prefix.
                         (306) 966-6607

             Use dashes for toll-free numbers.
                         1-800-966-6610

             Use ext. to express extensions.


6.8          School grades
                         Grade 7, but seventh grade




7 Punctuation
7.1          Accents
                         Refer to the Oxford English Dictionary for the accent requirements of foreign words that
                         have been imported into the English language.

7.2          Ampersand
                         The ampersand (“&”) should not be used in titles or names of University of Saskatch-
                         ewan academic departments or administrative units. It can be used in the full,
                         proper name of non-university entities such as A&W.

7.3          Commas
             Use commas between elements of a series in running text.
                         Only use a comma before the final “and,” “or” or “nor” to avoid confusion:
                         Huskie Athletics supports a number of university sports including football, basketball,
                         track and field, and volleyball.




14       University of Saskatchewan
7.4   Dashes and hyphens
      An em dash (—) is longer than a hyphen or an en dash. Use an em dash without spaces before or after to set
      off a phrase in running copy but use them sparingly; unnecessary dashes create choppy copy.
                  <Alt> + <0><1><5><1>
                  <Ctrl> + <Alt> + <–> on number pad
                  Using MS Word with autocorrect enabled:
                  type <space><–><–><space> between the words you wish to hyphenate

                  Option + <shift> + <–>

      An en dash (-) is used in number ranges.
                  Pages 39-50

                  <Alt> + <0><1><5><0>
                  <Ctrl> + <–> on number pad
                  Using MS Word with autocorrect enabled:
                  type <space><–><space> between the words you wish to hyphenate

                  Option + <–>

      Use a hyphen in compound adjectives that form a separate concept and are followed immediately by the
      noun they modify.
                  used-car dealer
                  second-year student

      Do not hyphenate compund adjectives where the first word ends in “ly” as in highly toxic substance.

      Use a hyphen when the word following the prefix begins with the same vowel as the word with which the
      prefix ends, or when the appearance of the compound word would be confusing without the hyphen.
                  co-editor                      co-ordination
                  co-operation                   pre-empt

      Use hyphens in compound adjectives.
                  12-year-old                    world-class athlete
      Non-hyphenated ‘by’ words:
                  byelection                     byline                          byproduct
                  bylaw                          bypass

7.5   Ellipses
      An ellipsis [ … ] is used to indicate an omission from text or a quotation. Insert one space before and after
      the ellipsis. No further punctuation is required when an ellipsis ends a sentence.


7.6   Parentheses and brackets
      Like capitalization, parentheses should be used sparingly and only when punctuation is not appropriate.

      Parentheses are used to enclose non-essential information, equivalents or translations.

      If parentheses fall at the end of a sentence, the terminal punctuation goes outside the closing parentheses.
      Punctuation that applies only to the parenthetical information goes inside the closing parentheses.

      Use square brackets [ ] to indicate material that does not belong to the original quotation. They are also
      used to insert [sic] into a quotation to indicate that errors in the quotation are the fault of the author of the
      quoted material.




                                                                                              Editorial Style Guide      15
7.7          Quotation marks
             Use double quotation marks for direct quotes or to highlight a particular word or phrase. Quotes within
             quotes get single quotation marks.

             When punctuating a sentence that ends with a quotation, a period or comma goes inside the quotation
             mark and a colon or semicolon goes outside the quotation mark.
                         He described the process as “environmentally neutral.”

             Put an exclamation mark or question mark inside the quotation marks when it is part of the quoted material
             and outside the quotation mark when it applies to the entire sentence.
                         “That’s a lie!” the member of parliament shouted.


7.8          Spacing
             Use one space, not two, between the end punctuation of one sentence and the beginning of the next.




8 Spelling
8.1          “Our” rule
             For words of more than one syllable in which the “u” is not pronounced, Canadian authorities have adopted
             the “our” spelling as the standard. The following is a quick reference list for “our” words.
                         armour                                                       labour but laborious
                         behaviour                                                    neighbour
                         colour                                                       odour but odorous
                         demeanour                                                    rigour but rigorous
                         endeavour                                                    rumour
                         favour, favourite, favourable                                saviour
                         flavour                                                      valour but valorous
                         harbour                                                      vapour but vaporous
                         honour, honourable, honoured but honorary                    vigour but vigorous
                         humour but humorous                                          tremor (no ‘u’)


8.2          The double “L”
             The following is a list of common words that can challenge even the best spellers with the double “L”
             conundrum.
                         compel, compelled, compelling                     marvel, marvelled, marvelous
                         counsel, counsellor, counselling                  signal, signalled
                         enrol, enrolled, enrolment                        total, totalled
                         fulfil, fulfilled, fulfilment                     travel, traveller
                         install, instalment, installation                 tranquil, tranquillize


8.3          Truly Canadian words
             The following is a list of words and their accepted Canadian spelling.
                         centre, centred, centring                         practise (as a verb)
                         cheque (as a method of payment)                   pretence
                         defence                                           program
                         grey (colour)                                     sulfur (scientific standard spelling)
                         organize                                          theatre
                         practice (as a noun or adjective)



16       University of Saskatchewan
8.4   Common mistakes
      There are a number of words that are misspelled or misused, or both, on a regular basis.
                 affect/effect
                 use affect to mean act upon, influence or imitate; use effect to mean cause, make possible,
                 accomplish or complete.
                 analyze/analyse
                 interchangeable but analyze is preferable.
                 compliment/complement
                 an expression of praise; the quantity or number needed to make up a whole.
                 composing/comprising
                 composing is to make or create by putting together (composed of A, B and C); comprising
                 is consisting of (comprising A, B and C).
                 councillor/counsellor
                 a councillor is elected to city council; a counsellor offers advice
                 defence/defense
                 interchangeable but defence is preferable; use defensive.
                 discreet/discrete
                 discreet means circumspect action or speech; discrete refers to something being distinct
                 or separate.
                 ensure/insure
                 ensure is to make certain; insure is to protect against loss.
                 fewer/less
                 if you can count it, use fewer; if you can’t count it, use less (fewer papers but less paper;
                 fewer dollars but less money).
                 historic/historical
                 something important is historic; something that happened in the past is historical.
                 i.e./e.g.
                 use i.e. in place of “that is”; use e.g. to cite examples
                 its/it’s
                 its is possessive (the dog licked its paws); it’s is a contraction of “it is”.
                 license/licence
                 use license as a verb, licence as a noun.
                 moral/morale
                 moral is a lesson; morale is an attitude or mental condition.
                 practise/practice
                 use practise as a verb, practice as a noun.
                 principal/principle
                 principal means head or leading figure; principle means rule, law, moral guideline or
                 general truth.
                 rational/rationale
                 rational is sensible; rationale is a statement of reason
                 re-sign/resign
                 re-sign is to sign again; resign is to quit
                 stationary/stationery
                 if you remain in one place, you are stationary; stationery is paper.
                 that/which
                 use “that” when the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence; use which, set off
                 with commas, for clauses less essential to meaning.


                                                                                           Editorial Style Guide      17
9 University terms
9.1          Alumna or alumnus or alumni …
                         alumni
                         is a group of people who have graduated from university
                         alumnus
                         is an individual male graduate
                         alumna
                         is an individual female graduate
                         alumnae
                         is a group of female graduates


9.2          Emeritus/emerita
             The honorifics emeritus (male) and emerita (female) denote faculty and university officials who have retired
             but retain their rank or title.


9.3          Go Dogs!
                         University of Saskatchewan Huskies
                         Huskie Athletics
                         the Huskies but Huskie football

9.4          Convocation
             Convocate is not a verb. Students graduate from the university at a ceremony called convocation.
                         A graduand is one about to receive a university degree.
                         A graduate is one who has received a university degree




10 Technology terms
             The terminology related to technology changes almost as quickly as the technology itself. Current practice
             in spelling and capitalization includes
                         Adobe Acrobat, JavaScript               Internet, the Net
                         cyberspace                              online
                         desktop                                 web browser
                         email (no hyphen)                       web page
                         high-tech                               webcam
                         home page                               website
                         inbox                                   World Wide Web, but the web


10.1         Email and web addresses
             Email addresses should include the ‘at’ symbol, but no capital letters.
                         ocn@usask.ca




18       University of Saskatchewan
       Web addresses that appear in print should not include the prefix “http://” unless it is required to avoid
       confusion. Ensure the URL is properly punctuated.
                   www.usask.ca

                   Do not underline either email or web addresses in written copy. In web documents,
                   underlining indicates a hot link.

       Try to avoid the situation where a URL breaks at the end of one sentence and continues on another. If it is
       unavoidable, create the break at a slash within the address.




11 Some things are just plain wrong
11.1   The sentence fragment
                   A sentence fragment is a sentence that lacks a subject or a verb, or cannot stand on its
                   own. Like this one or the next one. Because it doesn’t. Sentence fragments should be
                   avoided.

11.2   The comma splice
                   When a sentence contains two principal or co-ordinate clauses (phrases that could
                   stand alone as separate sentences), it is always wrong to connect them with a comma.
                   Here is an example of a comma splice:
                   Sheep are great, they live on grass.

       To correct a comma splice, choose one of three options:

                 1. Insert a period after the first phrase and start a new sentence
                   Sheep are great. They live on grass.

                 2. Introduce the second clause with “and”, “or”, “but”, “because” or a similar word
                   Sheep are great because they live on grass.

                 3. Use a colon, semicolon or dash to separate the phrases. Never use a comma.
                   Sheep are great: they live on grass.


11.3   Articulate
                   Used as a verb, articulate means to pronounce distinctly, to utter a speech sound
                   by making the necessary movements of the speech organs, or to express in coherent
                   verbal form. It is therefore impossible to articulate (verb) in writing although one can
                   create an articulate (adj.) essay.




                                                                                            Editorial Style Guide      19
20      University of Saskatchewan
APPENDIX



 A U of S degrees and abbreviations
 Undergraduate                                                      Graduate
           Bachelor of Arts and Science (B.A.Sc.)                          Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

           Bachelor of Arts Three-year (B.A.)                              Master of Agriculture (M.Agr.)

           Bachelor of Arts Four-year (B.A.)                               Master of Arts (M.A.)
              and Advanced Certificate                                     Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
           Bachelor of Arts Honours (B.A.)                                 Master of Continuing Education (M.C.Ed.)
              and Honours Certificate
                                                                           Master of Education (M.Ed.)
           Bachelor of Commerce (B.Comm.)
                                                                           Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
           Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
                                                                           Master of Environment and Sustainability (M.E.S.)
           Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.)
                                                                           Master of Fine Arts (M.F.A.)
           Bachelor of Music (B.Mus.)
                                                                           Master of International Trade (M.I.T.)
           Bachelor of Music in Music Education [B.Mus.(Mus.Ed.)]
                                                                           Master of Laws (LL.M.)
           Bachelor of Science Three-year (B.Sc.)
                                                                           Master of Mathematics (M.Math)
           Bachelor of Science Four-year (B.Sc.)
                                                                           Master of Music (M.Mus.)
              and Advanced Certificate
                                                                           Master of Nursing (M.N.)
           Bachelor of Science Honours (B.Sc.)
              and Honours Certificate                                      Master of Physical Therapy (M.P.T)

           Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness [B.Sc.(Agbus.)]             Master of Professional Accounting (M.P.Acc.)

           Bachelor of Science in Renewable                                Master of Public Administration (M.P.A.)
              Resource Management [B.Sc.(R.R.M.)]                          Master of Public Health (M.P.H.)
           Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (B.S.A.)                     Master of Science (M.Sc.)
           Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.E.)                       Master of Sustainable Environmental
           Bachelor of Science in Kinesiology [B.Sc.(Kin)]                    Management (M.S.E.M.)

           Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N)                          Master of Veterinary Science (M.Vet.Sc.)

           Bachelor of Science in Nutrition [B.Sc.(Nutr.)]                 Post-Graduate Diploma (P.G.D.)

           Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy (B.S.P.)

           Juris Doctor (J.D.)

           Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.)

           Doctor of Medicine (M.D.)

           Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.)

           Post-Degree Specialization Certificate (P.D.S.C.)




           Please note: This list of abbreviations is used for official academic purposes by the U of S. As stated in
           Section 1.6, the trend in general writing is to avoid periods in degree abbreviations.




                                                                                                      Editorial Style Guide      21
22      University of Saskatchewan
APPENDIX



 B Tricky word list
           Aboriginal Peoples (all of Canada’s Indians, Inuit   medium, media (pl.)
           and Métis)
                                                                Métis
           accommodation (double ‘m’)
                                                                metre, metric but diameter
           adviser (not –or)
                                                                midterm
           adverse (unfavourable)
                                                                misinterpret
           averse (reluctant)
                                                                month-long
           aging (not ageing)
                                                                mould (not mold)
           barefoot
                                                                multicultural, multilateral, multimedia but
           bona fide (adj. – genuine; adv. – genuinely)         multi-year
           bona fides (n. – proof of status)                    naive, naiveté
           benefit, benefited, benefiting                       noncommittal
           changeover (n.); change over (v.)                    non-profit
           decision-making                                      no one
           dependant (n.); dependent (adj.)
                                                                nucleus, nuclei
           diameter
                                                                occur, occurred, occurrence, occurring
           dissociate (not disassociate)
                                                                online
           e.g. (exempli gratia, but avoid using)
                                                                organize
           follow-up (adj.); follow up (v.)
                                                                paralyze, paralysis
           fundraise, fundraiser, fundraising
                                                                part time, a part-time job
           half, one-half, half a dozen, a half-dozen
                                                                paycheque (one word)
           heads-up
                                                                payday (one word)
           health care (n.); health-care (adj.)
                                                                pay off (v.), payoff (n.)
           i.e. (use ‘that is’)
                                                                per cent, percentage
           implement (n. and v.), implementation
                                                                plus, pluses
           in-depth (adj.)
                                                                playwright, but playwriting
           keynote
                                                                policy-maker
           kilo (avoid as an abbreviation for kilogram or
           kilometer)                                           post-secondary

           likable (not –eable)                                 prerogative (not perog-)

           loath (unwilling)                                    prevalence, prevalent

           loathe (despise)                                     provincewide

           long-range, long-standing, long-term                 questionnaire

           masterful (domineering), masterly (skilful)          question period

           meager                                               reassess




                                                                                            Editorial Style Guide      23
            re-examine                             time-slot

            reopen                                 top-notch (adj.)

            resumé                                 town hall

            rollcall (one word)                    tremor

            roof, roofs                            tying (not tieing)

            semi-annual                            unco-operative

            semifinal but quarter-final            unco-ordinated

            set up (v.), setup (n.)                unforgivable

            side-effect                            usable

            spin off (v.), spinoff (n. and adj.)   usage

            stand by (v.), standby (n.)            verbatim

            stand in (v.), stand-in (n.)           vie but vying

            startup                                willful

            subtle                                 withdraw, withdrawal

            supersede                              workforce, workload, workplace

            task force                             write off (v.), writeoff (n.)

            teepee                                 X-ray

            telltale                               YouTube

            tenterhooks (not tender-)              zero, zeros

            thesis, theses                         zigzag (no hyphen)

            think-tank




24      University of Saskatchewan
My most important
piece of advice to all you
would-be writers: when
you write, try to leave out
all the parts readers skip.
                 – Elmore Leonard
053-11 / JUN 11

								
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