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					Notes - Chapter 1
 The Enlightenment and the
       American Revolution
Chapter 1 Sections 1 & 2
     “Philosophy in the Age of Reason”
    and “Enlightenment Ideas Spread”
 WHII.5 Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
      C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
Industrial Revolution
 period in late 18th and early 19th centuries
 major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and
  transportation had a profound effect on
  socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain
 changes spread throughout Europe, North America,
  and the world




                                                       3
WHII.5 Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
     C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
                                    Adam Smith’s ideas
                                     Natural forces of supply &
                                      demand should be allowed
                                      to regulate business
                                     Manufacturing, trade,
                                      wages, profits, and economic
                                      growth are all linked to
                                      supply and demand
                                     Where there is demand for
                                      goods or services, suppliers
                                      will seek to meet it
Portrait of Adam Smith, author of    Gov’t should protect but not
     The Wealth of Nations
                                      regulate the marketplace
                                                                4
WHII.5 Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
     C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
                                       The Wealth of
                                         Nations
                                        Written by Adam
                                         Smith
                                        Natural forces of
                                         supply and demand
                                         should be allowed to
                                         regulate business
                                        Supported laissez-
                                         faire
                                          the marketplace is
  Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations      better off without
                                          gov’t intervention

                                                            5
WHII.5 Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
     C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith
                                         Adam Smith’s influence
                                         Adam Smith's ideas
                                           gained increasing
                                           influence as the
                                           Industrial Revolution
                                           spread across Europe
                                           and beyond
                                         His emphasis on the
                                           free market and the
                                           law of supply and
                                           demand helped to
     Adam Smith’s Statue on the            shape immensely
    Campus of the South Western
University of Finance and Economics in
                                           productive economies
 Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China          in the 1800s and
                                           1900s                 6
Chapter 1 Sections 3 & 4
         “Britain at Mid-Century” and
     “Birth of the American Republic”
                   WHII.2 Explain why England was the main exception to the
                          growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe.
A. the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution of 1688
 B. the effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of constitutional government and
liberty in England, including the importance of the English Bill of Rights and how it limited the
                  power of the monarch to act without the consent of Parliament

                                                 The English Civil War and
                                                 Glorious Revolution resulted
                                                 in several big changes in
                                                 English government:
                                                   constitutional government
                                                      political parties
                                                        - Whigs and Tories
                                                      cabinet
    Inside modern-day British Parliament                - government
                                                          advisers
                                                      prime minister
                                                        - leader of the
                                                          majority party in
                                                          Parliament
                                                                                            8
        WHII.2 Explain why England was the main exception to the
              growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe.
A. the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the Glorious
                             Revolution of 1688
                 B. the effect of the Glorious Revolution …
                          Tories
                           political party in England, late
                            1600s; conservative party
                           landed aristocrats who wanted to
                            preserve older traditions
                           supported royal power and a
                            dominant Anglican Church
                          Whigs
                           political party in England, late
                            1600s; backed liberal policies
                           supported urban business
                            interests;
                           supported religious toleration for
British Parliament
                            Protestants; favored Parliament
                            over the monarch
                                                                               9
         Chapter 1
Primary Source Documents
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
 1. Type of Document: Book or pamphlet
 2. Unique Physical Qualities: Printed or type-set
 3. Date(s) of Document: 1690
 4. Author (or creator) of Document: John Locke
 5. Position: English Philosopher
6. Document Information
    A. Three important things said by the author
        1. Tries to justify resistance against Charles II
        2. Defends the Glorious Revolution and King
           William’s ascension to the throne
        3. Argues against absolutism and absolute
           monarchy
   B.   Why was the document written?
        1. Written to defend the Glorious Revolution
           (and as a counter-argument to Thomas
           Hobbes’ Leviathan)                           11
John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
6. Document Information
    C. What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was
       written? Quote:
        1. “The civil state is beholden to the people, and
           has power over the people only insofar as it
           exists to protect and preserve their welfare.”
   D.   List two things the document tells you about life at the time it
        was written
        1. English people were concerned about their
           civil rights
        2. English people were concerned about their
           government and form of government
   E.   Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the
        document:
        1. John Locke wrote that people should
           overthrow an unjust government. Is there
           any guarantee that the new government
           would be any better?                                       12
Charles (Baron) de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
 1. Type of Document: Book
 2. Unique Physical Qualities: Printed or type-set
 3. Date(s) of Document: 1748
 4. Author (or creator) of Document: Baron de Montesquieu
 5. Position: French social commentator/political thinker
 6. Document Information
     A. Three important things said by the author
         1. Montesquieu favored constitutional government
            and the separation of powers
         2. He wanted personal liberties and rule of law
            protected
         3. Montesquieu wrote that legal institutions should
            reflect the character of each particular community
    B.   Why was the document written?
         1. To present numerous theories - among the most
            important was respect for the role of history and
            climate in shaping a nation's political structure
                                                           13
Charles (Baron) de Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
6. Document Information
    C. What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was
        written? Quote:
        1. “When the legislative and executive powers are
           united in the same person, or in the same body
           of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because
           apprehensions may arise, lest the same
           monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws,
           to execute them in a tyrannical manner.”
   D.   List two things the document tells you about life at the time it was
        written
        1. Monarchy was a popular form of government
        2. Corruption and tyranny in government existed
           then as they do now
   E.   Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the
        document:
        1. If the executive is in charge of the army, what
           would prevent him/her from overpowering the
           other three branches of government?         14
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin and
             Foundations of Inequality (1755)
1. Type of Document:  Pamphlet, book (approx. 176 pages)
2. Unique Physical Qualities: Printed, type-set
3. Date(s) of Document: 1755
4. Author of Document: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
5. Position: Swiss Philosopher
6. Document Information
   A.   Three important things said by the author
        1. Civil society is an attempt by the powerful to
           trick the weak (to keep their power and wealth)
        2. Some inequality is a product of nature – a
           person is stronger or more intelligent because of
           naturally occurring factors
        3. Before civil society was developed, man was
           happier because he was closer to his “natural
           state”
                                                         15
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin and
             Foundations of Inequality (1755)
6. Document Information
    B. Why was the document written?
        1. Written as part of a philosophical competition
   C.   What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was
        written? Quote:
        1. No direct evidence, or quote, from the document to
           prove that it was written for a competition
   D.   List two things the document tells you about life at the time it was
        written
        1. Republican governments existed throughout Europe,
            such as in Rousseau’s own Geneva
        2. Geneva existed in Europe much as it does today - a
            neutral republic
   E.   Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the
        document:
        1. What evidence do we have that early man was truly
           happier than civilized man?                    16
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
1. Type of Document:  book-length essay
2. Unique Physical Qualities: printed, type-set
3. Date(s) of Document: 1792
4. Author of Document: Mary Wollstonecraft
5. Position: British writer, philosopher, feminist
6. Document Information
   A.   Three important things said by the author
        1. Women should have the same rights and
           privileges as men
        2. Women should have the right to attend school,
           like men
        3. People are primarily good, although they are
           capable of being vicious
   B.   Why was the document written?
        1. Written in response to Edmund Burke’s
           conservative critique of the French Revolution in
           (Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790)   17
Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
6. Document Information
    C. What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was
        written? Quote:
        1. "false-refinement, immorality, and vanity [of the
            rich, who are] weak, artificial beings, raised above
            the common wants and affections of their race, in
            a premature unnatural manner [who] undermine
            the very foundation of virtue, and spread
            corruption through the whole mass of society"
   D.   List two things the document tells you about life at the time it was
        written
        1. Women were not considered equal to men
        2. Women did not share the same rights and
           freedoms as men, such as access to school and an
           education
   E.   Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the
        document:
        1. Were Wollstonecraft’s ideas borrowed from the
           political ideas of the American Revolution and the
           American Founding Fathers?                      18
        Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (1791)
1. Type of Document:  Pamphlet, book
2. Unique Physical Qualities: Printed, type-set
3. Date(s) of Document: 1791
4. Author of Document: Thomas Paine
5. Position: English writer, revolutionary, inventor,
     intellectual
6. Document Information
   A.   Three important things said by the author
        1. People should overthrow an unjust government
        2. Heredity does not guarantee a just government
           or a wise ruler
        3. The French people had a right to overthrow their
           government
   B.   Why was the document written?
        1. Also written in response to Edmund Burke’s
           conservative critique of the French Revolution in
           (Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790)   19
    Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (1791)
6. Document Information
    C. What evidence in the document helps you to know why it was
        written? Quote:
        1. “Rights are inherently in all the inhabitants;
           but charters, by annulling those rights, in the
           majority, leave the right, by exclusion, in the
           hands of a few . . . They . . . consequently are
           instruments of injustice.”
   D.   List two things the document tells you about life at the time it was
        written
        1. Enlightenment ideas had spread
        2. Enlightenment ideas caused people to
           question their government and form of
           government
   E.   Write a question to the author that is left unanswered by the
        document:
        1. Who or what determines whether a
           government is unjust and deserves to be
           overthrown?                                                    20
  Chapter 1
Helpful Information
People to Know:
        Thomas Hobbes
         Wrote Leviathan
         Believed people are
          selfish and greedy
         Gov’t must be strong
          to suppress rebellion
         Believed in absolute
          power/monarchy




                             22
People to Know:
       John Locke
       Wrote Two Treatises
         of Government
       People have natural
         right to life, liberty,
         and property
       Gov’t should protect
         rights
       People have the
         right to overthrow a
         gov’t that fails to
         protect
                              23
People to Know:
       Baron de
        Montesquieu
       Wrote The Spirit of
        the Laws
       Powers of gov’t
        should be
        separated into
        executive,
        legislative, and
        judicial
       U.S. gov’t is
        separated into
        three branches
                          24
People to Know:
       Jean-Jacques
         Rousseau
       People are basically
         good, corrupted by
         society
       In ideal society,
         people make laws
         and obey them
       Champion of
         democracy
       Political authority
         lies with the people
                           25
People to Know:
       Mary Wollstonecraft
        Championed rights for
         women
        Believed a woman’s
         first duty was to family
        Women should not be
         dependent on men
        Same education for
         boys and girls
        Educated women can
         participate equally with
         men in public life

                               26
                Vocabulary:
 natural laws - laws that govern human nature
 social contract - an agreement by which people
  give up the state of nature for an organized
  society
 natural rights - rights that belong to all humans
  from birth
 philisophe - “lover of wisdom”
 physiocrat - thinkers that looked for laws to
  define a rational economic system
 laissez faire - allowing business to operate with
  little or no gov’t interference
 free market - the natural forces of supply and
  demand
                                                      27
Questions:
    How was the
     Enlightenment linked
     to the Scientific
     Revolution?
    Philosophers saw
     scientists use
     reasoning to discover
     physical laws. They
     were confident that
     they could use
     reasoning to discover
     natural laws and
     influence society.
                        28
             Questions:
What economic ideas did
 Enlightenment thinkers support?
Physiocrats favored laissez faire and
 less gov’t control in the marketplace,
 wanted to get rid of tariffs
Mercantilists favored more gov’t
 control in the marketplace, wanted
 tariffs to protect the local
 marketplace
                                      29

				
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posted:10/19/2011
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