Fichtner Desalination

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					                        Consultative Workshop on
                    Desalination and Renewable Energy

                           Bridging the Water Demand Gap:
                                     Desalination


                             Dr. Fulya Verdier, Dr. Rudolf Baten
                                  Fichtner GmbH & Co.KG



                                       Muscat, Oman
                                    22-23 February 2011



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1
Mena Water Outlook, Part II

Study objectives
     Identification of water gap
     Potential of solar powered desalination to bridge the gap


Study approach
     Key criteria for technology selection
     Basic features of selected desalination technologies
     Definition of typical plants
     Current water situation in the countries of the MENA region
     Expected water gap in until 2050
     Costs of desalinated water
     Potential of CSP to supply the required energy (separate presentation)




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                       2
Desalination & CSP

Main drivers for new desalination projects
    Extent of water gap
    Financial strength of country (e.g. % of GDP spent for desalination)
    Experience with existing desalination facilities
    Attractiveness to investors (political stability)
    Development aid


Main drivers for new CSP projects
    Peaking energy prices and undesired dependency on fossil fuel
    Limited availability of fossil fuel sources
    Reduction of carbon footprint
    Attractiveness to investors (political stability)
    Government incentives and regulations



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                    3
Desalination & CSP

Key considerations for desalination plants
    MED, MSF and SWRO desalination technologies are well-proven
    Significant improvements achieved (i.e. energy efficiency)
    Capital and energy intensive
    Footprint of secondary importance


Key considerations CSP plants
    CSP still in development status, including storage capacities
    Operational constraints due to limited solar radiation, back-up required
    Capital and energy intensive
    Footprint significant
    Is CSP the bottleneck?




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                        4
Desalination & CSP

Design constraints for desalination plants
    Desalination plants are best operated at base load mode


Design constraints for CSP plants
    Variable steam supply from CSP depending on solar irradiance (day/night)
    Fossil-fired back-up power plant
    Expensive heat storage
    Maximum live steam temperature is 370°C (compared to 480-560°C)
    Relative large footprint, especially for higher Solar Multiple (SM) Plants
    Largest CSP capacity to date ~ 100 MWe




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                          5
MED: Working principle of an MED unit




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                6
MED: Process flow diagram of a 14 effect MED unit




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                            7
MED: Key design considerations (I)

Capacity
     Unit production capacity (current maxium: 38,000 m³/d)
     Number of duty / standby units


Energy demand
     Electrical energy demand (1.5 to 2.5 kWh/m³)
     Heat demand (order of magnitude: 70 kWh/m³)
     Steam demand calls for cogeneration of water and power


Temperature profile
     Temperature of heating steam (upper process temperature)
     Seawater temperature (lower process temperature)
     Number of effects (performance ratio)



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                         8
MED: Key design considerations (II)

Durability
     Plant availability and service time
     Material selection (e.g. Titanium tubes in top rows and alu brass tubes in
      below rows)


Operational features
     Robust in regard to seawater salinity and bio-fouling potential
     High distillate quality


Supplier market
     Major MED Suppliers: SIDEM (Veolia); others are following




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                           9
MED: One of 12 Fujairah F2 IWPP 38,640 m³/d MED Units




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                10
SWRO: Working principle of a spiral wound module




                                                                               Feed at high
                                                                               pressure (100%)
     Concentrate at
     high pressure
     ( ≈ 60%)




     Permeate at
     low pressure (≈ 40%)




                               Source: Dr.ir. S.G.J. Heijman, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis,
                                        http://ocw.tudelft.nl/fileadmin/ocw/courses/DrinkingWaterTreatment1/res00053/embedded/
6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                                                         11
                            !4e616e6f66696c74726174696f6e20616e642072657665727365206f736d6f736973.pdf, accessed on 20110218
SWRO: RO section of the Singapore 136,000 m³/d Plant




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                               12
SWRO: Key design considerations (I)

Operational features
     Large membrane area and narrow flow cross section cause
      susceptibility to bio-fouling
     Pre-treatment process to be adopted to the seawater conditions
     Seawater salinity and temperature affect the power demand
     No perfect salt rejection – usually a second pass required


Energy
     Electrical energy demand (order of magnitude: 4 kWh/m³)
     Absence of heat demand allows for stand alone configuration
     Method of energy recovery (Pelton turbine, turbocharger or isobaric system)




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                            13
SWRO: Key design considerations (II)

Capacity and plant design
     Plant capacity (current maximum: 500,000 m³/d)
     Modularity allows a high number of process configurations (e.g. train or
      centre design)


Durability
     Plant availability and service time
     Material selection (e.g. super duplex for high pressure section)


Supplier market
     Major Suppliers: Befesa, Cobra/Tedagua, Degremont (Suez), GE, Hyflux,
      IDE, OTV (Veolia)




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                         14
SWRO: Flow diagram of a typical SWRO process




                                       Source: Victorian Desalination Project




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                        15
SWRO: Artists view of the Hamma (Algeria) 200,000 m³/d plant




                                             Source: IDA Yearbook 2008 - 2009



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                   16
Desalination Market
Cumulative capacity put online in and outside the GCC countries




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                          17
Desalination Market
Online Desalination Capacity sorted by technology and daily capacity




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                               18
Desalination Market
Forecast Contracted Capacity by Technology (2006-2016)




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                 19
Desalination Market
Additional Desalination Capacity (2008-2016), 12 MENA countries in TOP 20 !




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                      20
Study Approach
Desalination & CSP Potential Assessment

        DATA                Water Demand &
                              Availability                            TECHNOLOGY

                              Solar & Land
                              Assessment

                           Installed Capacities
                                                               Desalination   +    CSP


                                             Water

                                             Power                  TYPICAL PLANTS
                                                            => Number & Location in MENA Region
                               Potential


                                             Desalination


                                                  CSP




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                          21
Desalinated Water-Share in MENA
Water Resources and Water Withdrawals (1960-2010)




                               Water scarcity
                              1000 m³/cap/yr




                                                    Source: FAO: Aquastat
6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                    22
Technology Screening




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1   23
Plant Configurations
    Dual-purpose plant (MED-CSP) located at coast with seawater cooling
    Stand-alone plant with RO located at coast and CSP located in inland with
     air cooling




                                                           Source: DLR, 2007



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                         24
    Key Study Features


            Seawater Quality               Desalination Process        Product Water Quality

             3 macro-regions                   MED / SWRO                 TDS < 200 mg/l


                                          MED             SWRO
                                                                              Potable


                                                          LARGE
                               Gulf                     200,000 m³/d         Industrial
                  Red Sea

Mediterranean                            MEDIUM           MEDIUM             Irrigation
                                       100,000 m³/d     100,000 m³/d

                                                          SMALL
                                                        20,000 m³/d
     Increasing seawater TDS & temp.




    6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                   25
MED Typical Plant Design

                           “Plain” MED Plant Basic Design

      Plant design parameters              Dimension         Data
      Net output capacity                     m3/d          100,000
      Average annual availability               %             94
      Number of units                          No.             3
      Unit capacity net                       m3/d          33,333
      Recovery                                  %             18
      Performance Ratio                    kg/2326 kJ       11.7 (1)
      Effects / unit                           No.            14
      Seawater design temperature              °C             28


      Steam conditions
      Steam pressure                           bar           0.35
      Steam temperature                        °C            ~ 73
     (1)   Considering potential future developments
6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                               26
MED Typical Plant Requirements
Energy requirement

                  MED Plant          Electrical Energy         Electrical Equivalent for
                Capacity [m³/d]           Demand                    Heat Demand
                                         [kWh/m³]                 [kWh/m³ distillate]

                     100,000               1.55 (1)                 [ 4.25 - 4.75 ] (2)

          (1)   Including seawater pumping, evaporation, post-treatment without potable water pumping
          (2)   Based on seawater at 28°C and final condensation at 38°C


 Area requirement
                  MED Plant          Area Requirement
                Capacity [m³/d]            [ha]


                     100,000                 1.5




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                                27
MED Typical Plants




     Fujairah F2 MED SWRO Hybrid Plant, UAE 464,600 m³/d   Source: SIDEM



6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                   28
SWRO Typical Plant Design

                                            SWRO Plant Basic Design

              Net output capacity                    m³/d                    100,000

              Average annual availability             %                         94

              Number of passes                        No.                       2

              Second pass capacity control           Type     Split partial configuration in 1st pass

              Energy recovery system                 Type       Isobaric (Pressure Exchanger)

                                                                1st pass RO           2nd pass RO
              Recovery                                %              40                    90

                                                               SW standard           BW high boron
              Type of membranes                      Type       membrane            rejection, caustic
                                                                 R = 98%               soda dosing

              Average membrane flux                  l/m2,h        13 - 14               33 - 37
              Average annual membrane
                                                     %/y             15                    12
              replacement rate

6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                                 29
SWRO Typical Plant: Energy Requirement

                      Region                          Specific Energy
                @ selected seawater   Pre-treatment   Consumption1
                design parameters                        [kWh/m³]

                                          FF1               3.5
                Mediterranean Sea &
                  Atlantic Ocean
                                        MF / UF             4.0
                @ TDS 39,000 mg/l &
                      15-30 °C
                                      Beach wells /
                                                         3.8 – 3.9
                                       sand filters

                     Red Sea &            FF1            3.7 – 3.8
                   Indian Ocean
                @ TDS 43,000 mg/l &   Beach wells /
                      20-35 °C                              4.2
                                       sand filters


                                       DAF + FF2         4.2 – 4.3
                   Arabian Gulf
                @ TDS 46,000 mg/l &
                     20-35 °C         Beach wells /
                                                            4.3
                                       sand filters

6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                30
SWRO Design: Area Requirement


             SWRO Plant Capacity                                       Area Requirement 1)
                                                   Pre-treatment
                   [m³/d]                                                     [ha]


                                                           FF1                 10
                           200,000                       MF / UF               9
                                                        DAF + FF2              12
                                                           FF1                 6
                           100,000                       MF / UF               5
                                                        DAF + FF2              7

                                                       Beach wells /
                           20,000                                              1
                                                        sand filters

             1)   FF1 including open gravity filters


6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                     31
Evaluation Cases
4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions:
    MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling
    SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling
    SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling
    SWRO at cost, CSP inland with “solar only” operation and air cooling




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                    32
CAPEX & OPEX
Key Cost Data - Typical Plants




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1         33
CAPEX & OPEX
 Cost Distribution – MED Typical Plant

                             15%                             16%
                                       OPEX
              32%                               35%

                                       ENERGY


                                       CAPEX
                             53%                               49%



                    Mediterranean                  Arabian Gulf
                  DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr             DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr
                       Fuel NG                        Fuel NG




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                              34
CAPEX & OPEX
Cost Distribution – SWRO Typical Plant


                                                                  21%
                                   22%    OPEX
                 30%                               28%
                                          ENERGY

                                          CAPEX


                             48%                            51%


                       Mediterranean                  Arabian Gulf
                     DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr             DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr
                          Fuel NG                        Fuel NG




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                 35
Evaluation Cases
4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions:
    MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling
    SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling
    SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling
    SWRO at cost, CSP inland with “solar only” operation and air cooling

   For the electricity generation by CSP plant
    DNI classes: 2000 / 2400 / 2800 kWh/m²/y
    Fossil fuel options: Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) / Natural Gas (NG)
    Electricity mix for “solar only” option




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                    36
Levelized Water Costs by MED




           Mediterranean


                           Red Sea




                                     Gulf




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                    37
Levelized Water Costs by SWRO




                                                Gulf




                      Mediterranean


                                      Red Sea


                                                   Source: NETL




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                          38
Bridging the Water Gap in MENA
    Water supply (MCM/y) based on within the average climate
    change scenario for MENA

    Year                           2000    2010    2020    2030    2040    2050
    Efficiency Gains                  0       0 17,655 35,959 57,108 80,036
    Unsustainable Extractions    32,432 47,015 44,636     9,104   7,093 16,589
    CSP Desalination                  0       0 23,405 55,855 79,461 97,658
    Conventional Desalination     4,598   9,210 12,679    9,732   1,054       0
    Wastewater Reuse              4,445   4,929 16,965 29,618 44,125 60,357
    Surface Water Extractions   185,256 172,975 146,749 162,131 165,735 150,024
    Groundwater Extractions      39,136 43,051 48,116 41,491 36,032 37,700
    Total Demand BaU            265,868 277,180 310,205 343,891 390,609 442,364




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                          39
Bridging the Water Gap in MENA
Excerpt: OMAN

 Water Production in MCM/y              2000    2010    2020     2030     2040     2050
 Efficiency Gains                          0       0        30    75      150      245
 Unsustainable Extractions                 0       0        0         0        0        0
 CSP Desalination                          0       0        0    536      1418     2032
 Conventional Desalination                90     297    523      389       44           0
 Wastewater Reuse                         37      40        82   139      231      335
 Surface Water Extractions               624     657    693      568      567      480
 Groundwater Extractions                  98       0        0     74       65       53
 Total Demand BaU                        849     994    1328     1780     2475     3145

 No of Desalination Plants*               0      0      0        15       39       56
 installed
 *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                    40
Bridging the Water Gap in MENA
Excerpt: SAUDI ARABIA

 Water Production in MCM/y              2000    2010    2020    2030      2040   2050
 Efficiency Gains                          0       0     826    1606      2485   3271
 Unsustainable Extractions              9126    9299    7289          0     63         0
 CSP Desalination                          0       0    3400    14144 20172 23656
 Conventional Desalination              2000    3434    3946    2950       286         0
 Wastewater Reuse                        160     158     1132   2144      3380   4611
 Surface Water Extractions              6159    6154    6035    5528      5287   4393
 Groundwater Extractions                4082    3297    2438     1911     1508   1227
 Total Demand BaU                     21527 22341       25066   28283 33182 37158

 No of Desalination Plants*               0      0       93     388       553    648
 installed
 *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                   41
Bridging the Water Gap in MENA
Excerpt: LIBYA

 Water Production in MCM/y              2000    2010     2020     2030     2040     2050
 Efficiency Gains                           0       0        41    90      151      220
 Unsustainable Extractions               560      183        0         0        0        0
 CSP Desalination                           0       0        0    1321     2487     2818
 Conventional Desalination               223      223    757      689           0        0
 Wastewater Reuse                          40      43    265      510      817      1153
 Surface Water Extractions               821      871    915      963      1007     943
 Groundwater Extractions                2529    3124     2862     1598     1290     1112
 Total Demand BaU                       4174    4444     4840     5171     5751     6247

 No of Desalination Plants*               0       0      0        36       68       77
 installed
  *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                     42
Bridging the Water Gap in MENA
Excerpt: MOROCCO

 Water Production in MCM/y              2000    2010    2020    2030      2040      2050
 Efficiency Gains                          0       0    1035     2118     3328      4487
 Unsustainable Extractions               498       0    1223          0    573        24
 CSP Desalination                          0       0    3400    6344      7904      8540
 Conventional Desalination                10      25     250     228            0         0
 Wastewater Reuse                          0       0     854    1804      2951      4192
 Surface Water Extractions            13247 15043       8704    8097      6692      6870
 Groundwater Extractions                2632    1213    3148    2130      2160      1971
 Total Demand BaU                     16387 16281       18613   20721 23608 26084

 No of Desalination Plants*               0      0       93     174       217       234
 installed
 *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                                      43
Conclusions
    Desalination has the potential to close the water gap (basically)

    Limitations may arise from environmental and financial aspects

    In most evaluation cases, SWRO appears more favorable, however certain
     circumstances may call for MED

    Energy is the major cost item for desalinated water

    Future developments of electricity cost will highly influence water production
     costs




6543P07/FICHT-6981353-v1                                                              44

				
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