A project charter can initiate individual projects. Remembering to select the appropriate project methodologies to enact individual project charters is an important success factor relating to the project’s goals. Appropriate project methodologies will make best use of available time, money and resources to efficiently deliver the project.

Though project management does not require a formal methodology to be effective, over the last 50 years formalized methodologies have been created that allow for better project controls, efficient project delivery and consistent approaches to training project managers. The four project management methodologies most commonly considered are Ad Hoc, Project Management Institute (PMI), Scrum and Six Sigma.

Ad Hoc

When considering an Ad Hoc approach, look at the quantity of work necessary to complete the other project methodologies. If the effort to manage the project is greater than the project itself, focus on the necessary items: scope statement, tasks and schedule.


PMI can be used for projects of up to a billion dollars. PMI was developed as a formalized approach to project management. It is associated with professionalism, where members maintain ongoing educational credits to continue their various certifications. PMI methodologies are commonly based on the PMI handbook: PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge). The core areas covered are integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communications, risk and procurement. For the specifics, refer to the PMBOK. PMP certified professionals also are available for consultation.


Scrum, also known as Agile Software Development, is an iterative project management methodology adapted for quick, continuous releases. Scrum is most commonly associated with software development, and it can be applied to projects with short, quick deliverables. Each release involves new deliverables, or an improvement on past deliverables. Certified professionals, known as “Scrum Masters” are available to implement Scrum.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a methodology developed by the manufacturing sector. It is a specific project methodology for identifying and resolving errors within a process. Over the last decade, the methodology has been applied to manufacturing, development, service delivery, accounting or procurement processes. The basis of Six Sigma is the DMAIC, an acronym for define, measure, analyze, improve and control. There are many online resources that can coach a user through the highly statistical process.